|Blessed Notker of Saint Gall|
|Venerated in||Roman Catholic Church; cult centered at Saint Gall (Sankt Gallen)|
|Attributes||A rod; Benedictine habit; book in one hand and a broken rod in the other with which he strikes the Devil|
|Patronage||Musicians; invoked against stammering|
Notker the Stammerer (Latin: Notker Balbulus), also called Notker the Poet or Notker of Saint Gall (c. 840 – 6 April 912), was a musician, author, poet, and Benedictine monk at the Abbey of Saint Gall in modern Switzerland. He is commonly accepted to be the Monk of Saint Gall (Monachus Sangallensis), the author of De Carolo Magno, a book of anecdotes about the Emperor Charlemagne.
Notker was born circa 840, to a distinguished family. He would seem to have been born at Jonschwyl on the River Thur, south of Wil, in the modern canton of Saint Gall in Switzerland; some sources claim Elgg to be his place of birth. He studied with Tuotilo at Saint Gall's monastic school, taught by Iso, and Moengall. He became a monk there and is mentioned as librarian in 890 and as master of guests in 892–4. He was chiefly active as a teacher, and displayed refinement of taste as poet and author. Ekkehard IV, the biographer of the monks of Saint Gall, lauds him as "delicate of body but not of mind, stuttering of tongue but not of intellect, pushing boldly forward in things Divine, a vessel of the Holy Spirit without equal in his time". He died in 912. He was beatified in 1512.
His Liber hymnorum, created between 881 and 887, is an early collection of Sequences, which he called "hymns", mnemonic poems for remembering the series of pitches sung during a melisma in plainchant, especially in the Alleluia. It is unknown how many or which of the works contained in the collection are his. The hymn Media Vita, was erroneously attributed to him late in the Middle Ages.
Ekkehard IV wrote of fifty sequences composed by Notker. He was formerly considered to have been the inventor of the sequence, a new species of religious lyric, but this is now considered doubtful, though he did introduce the genre into Germany. It had been the custom to prolong the Alleluia in the Mass before the Gospel, modulating through a skillfully harmonized series of tones. Notker learned how to fit the separate syllables of a Latin text to the tones of this jubilation; this poem was called the sequence (q.v.), formerly called the "jubilation". (The reason for this name is uncertain.) From 881–7 Notker dedicated a collection of such verses to Bishop Liutward of Vercelli, but it is not known which or how many are his.
The Monk of Saint Gall
The "Monk of Saint Gall" (Latin: Monachus Sangallensis; the name is not contemporary, being given by modern scholars), the ninth-century writer of a volume of anecdotes regarding the Emperor Charlemagne, is now commonly believed to be Notker the Stammerer. This Monk is known from his work to have been a native German-speaker, deriving from the Thurgau, only a few miles from the Abbey of Saint Gall; the region is also close to where Notker is believed to have derived from. The Monk himself relates that he was raised by Adalbert, a former soldier who had fought against the Saxons, the Avars and the Slavs under the command of Kerold, brother of Hildegard, Charlemagne's second wife; he was also a friend of Adalbert's son, Werinbert, another monk at Saint Gall. His teacher was Grimald of Reichenau, the Abbot of Saint Gall from 841 to 872, who was, the Monk claims, himself a pupil of Alcuin.
The Monk's work, referred to by modern scholars as De Carolo Magno ("Charles the Great") or Gesta Caroli Magni ("The Deeds of Charles the Great"), consists of two books of anecdotes relating chiefly to the Emperor Charlemagne and his family. It was written for Charles the Fat, great-grandson of Charlemagne, who visited Saint Gall in 883. It has been scorned by traditional historians, who refer to the Monk as one who "took pleasure in amusing anecdotes and witty tales, but who was ill-informed about the true march of historical events", and describe the work itself as a "mass of legend, saga, invention and reckless blundering": historical figures are claimed as living when in fact dead; claims are attributed to false sources (in one instance, the Monk claims that "to this King Pepin [the Short] the learned Bede has devoted almost an entire book of his Ecclesiastical History"; no such book exists - unsurprisingly, given that Bede died in 735 during the reign of Charles Martel); and Saint Gall is frequently referenced as a location in anecdotes, regardless of historical veracity (Pepin the Hunchback, for example, is supposedly sent to Saint Gall as punishment for his rebellion, and – in a reference to Livy's tale of Tarquin and the poppies – earns a promotion to Prüm Abbey after advising Charlemagne to execute another group of rebels). The Monk also mocks and criticises Bishops, whilst lauding the wise and skilful government of the Emperor. Several of the Monk's tales, such as that of the nine rings of the Avar stronghold, have been used in modern biographies of Charlemagne.
The Monk is commonly believed to be Notker the Stammerer: the Monk claims to be old, toothless and stammerering; and both share similar interests in church music, write with similar idioms, and are fond of quoting Virgil.
- Hoppin, Richard. Medieval Music. New York: Norton, 1978. Pages 155-156.
- Thorpe, Lewis, Two Lives of Charlemagne
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Notker the Stammerer|
- Opera Omnia by Migne Patrologia Latina with analytical indexes
- Catholic Encyclopedia, accessed on April 25, 2006
- Saints of April 6: Notker Balbulus