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Non-canonical books referenced in the Bible

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Several texts are mentioned in the Tanakh (Old Testament) and New Testament, yet do not appear in the canon of the respective works. Scholars consider some of these to be lost works, while others are viewed as pseudepigraphal.

Tanakh references Edit

  • The Book of Jasher (whose title fully translated means the Book of the Upright or the Book of the Just) is mentioned in Joshua 10:13 and 2 Samuel 1:18. From the context in the Book of Samuel it is implied that it was a collection of poetry. Several books have claimed to be this lost text, but are widely discounted as pseudepigrapha.
  • The Book of the Wars of the Lord[1]
Referenced at Numbers 21:14.
  • Several works of Solomon: 3,000 proverbs; 1,005 songs; and a manual on botany.
Referenced at 1Kings 4:32.
  • The Chronicles of the Kings of Israel and Chronicles of the Kings of Judah are mentioned in the Books of Kings (1 Kings 14:19, 14:29). They are said to tell of events during the reigns of Kings Jeroboam of Israel and Rehoboam of Judah, respectively. The Chronicles of the Kings of Israel is again mentioned in 1 Kings 16:20 regarding King Zimri, and many other times throughout 1 and 2 Kings. Copies of this book still exist[citation needed], they are not part of the bible but are history books written at the time.
  • Books of Chronicles are mentioned on several occasions in the Book of Esther and also in Nehemiah 12:23. Some scholars[who?] believe that the book was ahistorical[citation needed]; it is however also noticed[citation needed][who?] that the author was familiar with the customs at the Persian court, where the book is set.[citation needed] While the chronicles mentioned in Esther are thought by some scholars[who?] to be fictional there is no doubt that the Kings of Persia did keep annals.[citation needed]
  • "The Book of Shemaiah the prophet, and of Iddo the Seer" is mentioned in the book of 2nd Chronicles. (II Chr 12:14-15). Iddo was a seer who lived during the reigns of Solomon, Rehoboam, and Abijah. His deeds were recorded in this book, which has been completely lost to history, excepting its title.
  • The Covenant Code
Referenced at Exodus 24:7
  • The Manner of the Kingdom[2]
Referenced at 1Samuel 10:25.
Referenced at 1Kings 11:41.
Referenced at 1Chronicles 27:24.
Referenced at 1Chronicles 29:29.
Referenced at 1Chronicles 29:29.
Referenced at 1Chronicles 29:29.
Referenced at 2Chronicles 9:29.
Referenced at 2Chronicles 9:29.
Referenced at 2Chronicles 9:29.
Referenced at 2Chronicles 12:15.
Referenced at 2Chronicles 12:15.
Referenced at 2Chronicles 13:22.
Referenced in 2Chronicles 16:11, 2Chronicles 27:7 and 2Chronicles 32:32.
Referenced at 2Chronicles 20:34.
Referenced at 2Chronicles 24:27.
Referenced at 2Chronicles 26:22.
Referenced at 2Chronicles 32:32.
Referenced at 2Chronicles 33:18.
Referenced at 2Chronicles 33:19.
Referenced at 2Chronicles 35:25.
  • The Chronicles of King Ahasuerus[21]
Referenced at Esther 2:23 and Esther 6:1.
  • The Chronicles of the Kings of Media and Persia[22]
Referenced at Esther 10:2.

New Testament references Edit

See also Edit

Notes Edit

  1. Sometimes called The Book of the Wars of Yahweh. One source says "The quotation is in lyrical form, so it is possibly a book of poetry or a hymnal...Moses quoted it, so the date of its composition must have been prior to the completion of the Pentateuch, perhaps during the wanderings in the wilderness. Nothing else is known about it, and it survives only in Moses’ quotation."[1]
  2. Also called The Book of Statutes or 3 Samuel.
  3. Also called The Book of the Acts of Solomon.[2]
  4. Also called The Book of the Annals of King David or The Chronicles of King David.[3]
  5. Also called Samuel the Seer or The Acts of Samuel the Seer.[4]
  6. Also called Nathan the Prophet or The Acts of Nathan the Prophet.[5]
  7. Also called Gad the Seer or The Acts of Gad the Seer.[6]
  8. Distinguished here[7] from what may be the identical book, Nathan the Prophet, above
  9. Also called The Prophesy of Ahijah the Shilonite[8].
  10. Also called Shemaiah the Prophet or The Acts of Shemaiah the Prophet[9]. See Sh'maya.
  11. Also called The Genealogies of Iddo the Seer or The Acts of Iddo the Seer[10].
  12. Also called The Midrash of the Prophet Iddo.[11]
  13. Also called The Book of the Kings of Israel and Judah.
  14. Also called The Book of Jehu ben Hanani
  15. Also called Midrash on the Book of Kings.[12]
  16. Also called Second Isaiah or The Book by the prophet Isaiah.[13]
  17. Also called The Vision of the Prophet Isaiah. May be identical to the pseudepigraphal Ascension of Isaiah.
  18. Also called The Acts and Prayers of Manasseh.[14] May be identical to The Book of the Kings of Israel, above.
  19. Also called The Acts of the Seers.[15]
  20. Also called 2 Lamentations. This event is not recorded in the existing Book of Lamentations.
  21. Also called The Book of Records of the Chronicles
  22. Also called The Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Media and Persia
  23. Tartarus
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 24.3 24.4 Nestle-Aland Novum Testamentum Graece, revision 26, 1979
  25. 1 Peter, Daniel J.Harrington
  26. Also called A Prior Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians[16] or Paul’s previous Corinthian letter.[17], possibly Third Epistle to the Corinthians
  27. Apologetics Press - Are There Lost Books of the Bible?
  28. Also called The Epistle of John to the Church Ruled by Diotrephes[18]
  29. Also called 2 Jude.
  30. http://www.covenantseminary.edu/worldwide/en/CC310/CC310_T_20.html
  31. Henry Chadwick, "The Church in Ancient Society", p.28
  32. The Canon Debate, McDonald & Sanders editors, 2002, page 220
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