The National Radical Camp (Polish: Obóz Narodowo Radykalny, ONR) was a Polish extreme right anti-semitic, anti-communist, anti-capitalist and nationalist political party, formed on April 14, 1934 mostly by the youth radicals who left the Stronnictwo Narodowe party of the Narodowa Demokracja movement.
The party was created on the insistence of former members of the Great Poland Camp (Obóz Wielkiej Polski), most notably Jan Mosdorf, Tadeusz Gluziński and Henryk Rossman. The organisation proclaimed changes in the government based on the fascist ideology. It supported class solidarity, nationalisation of foreign and Jewish-owned companies and introduction of anti-semitic laws. At the same time it supported defence of private property and a centralised state. Other notable ONR members included Bolesław Piasecki, Paweł Musioł, Stanisław Piasecki, Wojciech Wasiutyński, Tadeusz Todtleben, Jerzy Kurcjusz, and Jan Korolec.
The ONR was popular mostly among the students and other groups of urban youth. ONR openly encouraged anti-Jewish pogroms, and became main force in the organization of anti-Jewish violence Because of its involvement in boycott of Jewish-owned stores, as well as numerous attacks on left-wing worker demonstrations, the ONR was delegalised after three months of existence, in July 1934. Several leaders were interned in Detention Camp Bereza Kartuska, where the organisation split into two separate factions: the ONR-Falanga (Ruch Narodowo-Radykalny) led by Bolesław Piasecki and the ONR-ABC (Obóz Narodowo-Radykalny) formed around the A.B.C.[disambiguation needed] journal and led by Henryk Rossman. Both organizations were officially illegal.
During World War II both organisations created underground resistance organizations: ONR-ABC was transformed into Grupa Szańca (Rampart Group) whose military arm became the Związek Jaszczurczy (Lizard Union), while the ONR-Falanga created the Konfederacja Narodu (Confederation of the Nation). They were not supportive of the mainstream Polish Secret State related to the Polish government in exile. During Nazi occupation of Poland, many of the former ONR activists belonged to National Armed Forces resistance groups. After World War II, the forced exile of many ONRs was made permanent by the communist regime, which branded them enemies of the state.
- ↑ (Polish), Obóz Narodowo-Radykalny, PWN Encyklopedia
- ↑ 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 (Polish) Obóz Narodowo-Radykalny WIEM Encyklopedia
- ↑ Joshua A. Fishman (1974) Studies on Polish Jewry, 1919-193 Yivo Institute for Jewish Research
- ↑ Wapiński 1980, 308.
- ↑ Ajnenkiel 1974, 226.
- Ajnenkiel, Andrzej (1974). Historia ustroju Polski (1764-1939). Warszawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe.
- Holzer, Jerzy (July 1977). "The Political Right in Poland, 1918-39". Journal of Contemporary History 12 (3): 395–412. doi:10.1177/002200947701200301.
- Wapiński, Roman (1980). Narodowa Demokracja 1893-1939. Wrocław: Zakład Narodowy Imienia Ossolińskich. ISBN 83-04-00008-3.