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Names of God in Islam

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The names of God in Islam (or the 99 names of Allah; Arabic: Template:Largeʾasmāʾ allāh al-ḥusnā) are the names by which Muslims regard God. Among other places, they are described in the Quran and Sunnah.[1][2] There is, according to hadith, a special group of 99 names, but no enumeration of them. Thus the exact list is not agreed upon, and the names of God (as adjectives, word constructs, or otherwise) exceed a total of 99 in the Quran and Sunnah. According to a hadith narrated by Abdullah ibn Mas'ud, some of the names of God have also been hidden from mankind.[3]


99names kuwait

The 99 Names of God on the ceiling of the Grand Mosque in Kuwait.

According to Islamic tradition,[4] Muhammad is said to have invoked God by a number of names. The most common hadith used to cite the 99 names is considered weak, though there are less commonly cited hadith which are considered authentic and also support the same point.[5] A widely accepted hadith in Sahih Muslim states:

Abu Hurairah reported Allah's Messenger [Muhammad] (may peace be upon him) as saying: "There are ninety-nine names of Allah; he who commits them to memory would get into Paradise. Verily, Allah is Odd (He is one and it is an odd number) and He loves odd numbers. And in the narration of Ibn 'Umar [the words are]: "He who enumerated them"."

Over time, it became custom to recite a list of 99 names, compiled by al-Walid ibn Muslim, as an addendum to the hadith. In 2005, Mahmoud Abdel-Razek compiled an alternative list, endorsing only 69 from the al-Walid list.[7]

The Quran refers to the names of God as God's "most beautiful Names" (al-ʾasmāʾ al-ḥusnā).[8] According to Gerhard Böwering:

They are traditionally enumerated as 99 in number to which is added as the highest Name (al-ism al-ʾaʿẓam), the Supreme Name of God: Allāh. The locus classicus for listing the Divine Names in the literature of Qurʾānic commentary is 17:110, “Call upon God, or call upon The Merciful; whichsoever you call upon, to Him belong the most beautiful Names,” and also 59:22-24, which includes a cluster of more than a dozen Divine epithets.
Mystic philosopher Ibn Arabi surmised that the 99 names are outward signs of the universe's inner mysteries.[5][9]

Most, though not all, of the 99 names appear in the Quran with a smaller number appearing exclusively in the hadith.[5][9][10][11] The total number of all names in both the Quran and the hadith actually add up to more than 99,[9][12][13] though only 99 are supposedly those which are referred to in the hadith as the exclusion of others.

Lists of names

There isn't universal agreement among Muslims as to what exactly counts as a name and what does not. Additionally, while some names are only in the Quran, and others are only in the hadith, there are some names which appear in both. Different sources give different lists of the 99 names.[5][9]

This section includes inline links to audio files. If you have trouble playing the files, see Wikipedia Media help.
Arabic Transliteration Translationa Usage Type of referenceb
Loudspeaker 1 Template:Large Ar-Raḥmān The Exceedingly Compassionate, The Exceedingly Beneficent, The Exceedingly Gracious (to all of humanity and all creatures) Ar-Raḥmān Beginning of every Surah (chapter) except one, and numerous other places. The first verse ('ayat) of Surah ar-Rahman (Surah 55) consists only of this Name. D
Loudspeaker 2 Template:Large Ar-Raḥīm The Exceedingly Merciful Ar-Raḥīm Beginning of every Surah (chapter) except one, and numerous other places (there are a total of 114 Surahs in the Quran.) D
Loudspeaker 3 Template:Large Al-Malik The King, The Sovereign Al-Malik, 59:23, 20:114, 23:116 D
Loudspeaker 4 Template:Large Al-Quddūs The Holy, The Divine, The Pure, The Purifier Al-Quddūs, 59:23, 62:1 D
Loudspeaker 5 Template:Large As-Salām The Peace, The Source of Peace and Safety As-Salām, 59:23 D
Loudspeaker 6 Template:Large Al-Muʾmin The granter of security Al-Muʾmin, 59:23 D
Loudspeaker 7 Template:Large Al-Muhaymin The Controller Al-Muhaymin, 59:23 D
Loudspeaker 8 Template:Large Al-ʿAzīz The Almighty, The Invulnerable, The Honorable Al-ʿAzīz, 3:6, 4:158, 9:40, 48:7, 59:23 D
Loudspeaker 9 Template:Large Al-Jabbār The Irresistible, The Compeller Al-Jabbār, 59:23 D
Loudspeaker 10 Template:Large Al-Mutakabbir The Majestic, The Supreme Al-Mutakabbir, 59:23 D
Loudspeaker 11 Template:Large Al-Khāliq The Creator Al-Khāliq, 6:102, 13:16,[14] 36:81, 39:62, 40:62, 59:24 D
Loudspeaker 12 Template:Large Al-Bāriʾ The Evolver, The Maker Al-Bāriʾ, 59:24 D
Loudspeaker 13 Template:Large Al-Muṣawwir The Fashioner, The Shaper, The Designer Al-Muṣawwir, 59:24 D
Loudspeaker 14 Template:Large Al-Ghaffār The Repeatedly Forgiving Al-Ghaffār, 20:82, 38:66, 39:5, 40:42, 71:10 D
Loudspeaker 15 Template:Large Al-Qahhār The Subduer Al-Qahhār, 12:39, 13:16, 14:48, 38:65, 39:4, 40:16 D
Loudspeaker 16 Template:Large Al-Wahhāb The Bestower Al-Wahhāb, 3:18, 38:9, 38:35 D
Loudspeaker 17 Template:Large Ar-Razzāq The Provider Ar-Razzāq, 51:58 D
Loudspeaker 18 Template:Large Al-Fattāḥ The Opener, The Victory Giver Al-Fattāḥ, 34:26 D
Loudspeaker 19 Template:Large Al-ʿAlīm The All-Knowing, Omniscient Al-ʿAlīm, 2:158, 3:92, 4:35, 24:41, 33:40 D
Loudspeaker 20 Template:Large Al-Qābiḍ The Restrainer, The Straightener Al-Qābiḍ, 2:245 V
Loudspeaker 21 Template:Large Al-Bāsiṭ The Extender / Expander Al-Bāsiṭ, 2:245 V
Loudspeaker 22 Template:Large Al-Khāfiḍ The Abaser, The Humiliator, The Downgrader Al-Khāfiḍ, 56:3, see al-Kafʿamī[15] O
Loudspeaker 23 Template:Large Ar-Rāfiʿ The Exalter, The Upgrader Ar-Rāfiʿ, 58:11, 6:83 V
Loudspeaker 24 Template:Large Al-Muʿizz The Giver of Honor Al-Muʿizz, 3:26 V
Loudspeaker 25 Template:Large Al-Muzill The Giver of Dishonor Al-Muzill, 3:26 V
Loudspeaker 26 Template:Large As-Samīʿ The All-Hearing As-Samīʿ, 2:127, 2:256, 8:17, 49:1 D
Loudspeaker 27 Template:Large Al-Baṣīr The All-Seeing Al-Baṣīr, 4:58, 17:1, 42:11, 42:27 D
Loudspeaker 28 Template:Large Al-Ḥakam The Judge, The Arbitrator Al-Ḥakam, 22:69 V
Loudspeaker 29 Template:Large Al-ʿAdl The Utterly Just Al-ʿAdl, 6:115, See al-Kafʿamī[16]
Loudspeaker 30 Template:Large Al-Laṭīf The Gentle, The Subtly Kind Al-Laṭīf, 6:103, 22:63, 31:16, 33:34 D
Loudspeaker 31 Template:Large Al-Khabīr The All-Aware Al-Khabīr, 6:18, 17:30, 49:13, 59:18 D
Loudspeaker 32 Template:Large Al-Ḥalīm The Forbearing, The Indulgent Al-Ḥalīm, 2:235, 17:44, 22:59, 35:41 A
Loudspeaker 33 Template:Large Al-ʿAẓīm The Magnificent Al-ʿAẓīm, 2:255, 42:4, 56:96 D
Loudspeaker 34 Template:Large Al-Ghafūr The Much-Forgiving Al-Ghafūr, 2:173, 8:69, 16:110, 41:32 D
Loudspeaker 35 Template:Large Ash-Shakūr The Grateful Ash-Shakūr, 35:30, 35:34, 42:23, 64:17 A
Loudspeaker 36 Template:Large Al-ʿAlī The Sublime Al-ʿAlī, 4:34, 31:30, 42:4, 42:51 34:23 D
Loudspeaker 37 Template:Large Al-Kabīr The Great Al-Kabīr, 13:9, 22:62, 13:30, 34:23 D
Loudspeaker 38 Template:Large Al-Ḥafīẓ The Preserver Al-Ḥafīẓ, 11:57, 34:21, 42:6 A
Loudspeaker 39 Template:Large Al-Muqīt The Nourisher Al-Muqīt, 4:85 I
Loudspeaker 40 Template:Large Al-Ḥasīb The Bringer of Judgment Al-Ḥasīb, 4:6, 4:86, 33:39 I
Loudspeaker 41 Template:Large Al-Jalīl The Majestic Al-Jalīl, 55:27, 7:143 A, V
Loudspeaker 42 Template:Large Al-Karīm The Bountiful, The Generous Al-Karīm, 27:40, 82:6 D
Loudspeaker 43 Template:Large Ar-Raqīb The Watchful Ar-Raqīb, 4:1, 5:117 D
Loudspeaker 44 Template:Large Al-Mujīb The Responsive, The Answerer Al-Mujīb, 11:61 A
Loudspeaker 45 Template:Large Al-Wāsiʿ The Vast, The All-Embracing, The Omnipresent, The Boundless Al-Wāsiʿ, 2:268, 3:73, 5:54 A
Loudspeaker 46 Template:Large Al-Ḥakīm The All-Wise Al-Ḥakīm, 31:27, 46:2, 57:1, 66:2 D
Loudspeaker 47 Template:Large Al-Wadūd The Loving Al-Wadūd, 11:90, 85:14 D
Loudspeaker 48 Template:Large Al-Majīd The All-Glorious, The Majestic Al-Majīd, 11:73 A
Loudspeaker 49 Template:Large Al-Bāʿith The Resurrector Al-Bāʿith, 22:7 V
Loudspeaker 50 Template:Large Ash-Shahīd The Witness Ash-Shahīd, 4:166, 22:17, 41:53, 48:28 A
Loudspeaker 51 Template:Large Al-Ḥaqq The Truth, The Reality Al-Ḥaqq, 6:62, 22:6, 23:116, 24:25 D
Loudspeaker 52 Template:Large Al-Wakīl The Trustee, The Dependable, The Advocate Al-Wakīl, 3:173, 4:171, 28:28, 73:9 A
Loudspeaker 53 Template:Large Al-Qawiy The Strong Al-Qawiy, 22:40, 22:74, 42:19, 57:25 D
Loudspeaker 54 Template:Large Al-Matīn The Firm, The Steadfast Al-Matīn, 51:58 D
Loudspeaker 55 Template:Large Al-Walī The Friend, Patron and Helper Al-Walī, 4:45, 7:196, 42:28, 45:19 D
Loudspeaker 56 Template:Large Al-Ḥamīd The All Praiseworthy Al-Ḥamīd, 14:8, 31:12, 31:26, 41:42 D
Loudspeaker 57 Template:Large Al-Muḥsee The Accounter, The Numberer of All Al-Muḥṣī, 72:28, 78:29 V
Loudspeaker 58 Template:Large Al-Mubdiʾ The Originator, The Producer, The Initiator Al-Mubdiʾ, 10:34, 27:64, 29:19, 85:13 V
Loudspeaker 59 Template:Large Al-Muʿīd The Restorer, The Reinstater Who Brings Back All Al-Muʿīd, 10:34, 27:64, 29:19, 85:13 V
Loudspeaker 60 Template:Large Al-Muḥyī The Giver of Life Al-Muḥyī, 7:158, 15:23, 30:50, 57:2 V
Loudspeaker 61 Template:Large Al-Mumīt The Bringer of Death Al-Mumīt, 3:156, 7:158, 15:23, 57:2 V
Loudspeaker 62 Template:Large Al-Ḥayy The Living Al-Ḥayy, 2:255, 3:2, 20:111, 25:58, 40:65 D
Loudspeaker 63 Template:Large Al-Qayyūm The Subsisting, The Independent Al-Qayyūm, 2:255, 3:2, 20:111 D
Loudspeaker 64 Template:Large Al-Wājid The Perceiver, The Finder, The Unfailing Al-Wājid, 38:44 V
Loudspeaker 65 Template:Large Al-Mājid The Illustrious, The Magnificent Al-Mājid, 85:15, 11:73, see al-Kafʿamī[17] A
Loudspeaker 66 Template:Large Al-Wāḥid The Unique, The Single Al-Wāḥid, 13:16, 14:48, 38:65, 39:4 D
Loudspeaker 68 Template:Large Aṣ-Ṣamad The Eternal, The Absolute, The Self-Sufficient Aṣ-Ṣamad, 112:2 D
Loudspeaker 69 Template:Large Al-Qādir The All-Powerful, He Who is able to do Everything Al-Qādir, 6:65, 46:33, 75:40 D
Loudspeaker 70 Template:Large Al-Muqtadir The Determiner, The Dominant Al-Muqtadir, 18:45, 54:42, 6:65 A
Loudspeaker 71 Template:Large Al-Muqaddim The Expediter, He Who Brings Forward Al-Muqaddim, 16:61 V
Loudspeaker 72 Template:Large Al-Muʾakhkhir The Delayer, He Who Puts Far Away Al-Muʾakhkhir, 71:4 V
Loudspeaker 73 Template:Large Al-ʾAwwal The First, The Beginning-less Al-ʾAwwal, 57:3 D
Loudspeaker 74 Template:Large Al-ʾAkhir The Last, The Endless Al-ʾAkhir, 57:3 D
Loudspeaker 75 Template:Large Aẓ-Ẓāhir The Manifest, The Evident, The Outer Aẓ-Ẓāhir, 57:3 D
Loudspeaker 76 Template:Large Al-Bāṭin The Hidden, The Unmanifest, The Inner Al-Bāṭin, 57:3 D
Loudspeaker 77 Template:Large Al-Wālī The Patron, The Protecting Friend, The Friendly Lord Al-Wālī, 13:11 I
Loudspeaker 78 Template:Large Al-Mutaʿālī The Supremely Exalted, The Most High Al-Mutaʿālī, 13:9 D
Loudspeaker 79 Template:Large Al-Barr The Good, The Beneficent Al-Barr, 52:28 D
Loudspeaker 80 Template:Large At-Tawwāb The Ever-Returning, Ever-Relenting At-Tawwāb, 2:128, 4:64, 49:12, 110:3 D
Loudspeaker 81 Template:Large Al-Muntaqim The Avenger Al-Muntaqim, 32:22, 43:41, 44:16 P
Loudspeaker 82 Template:Large Al-ʿAfū The Pardoner, The Effacer, The Forgiver Al-ʿAfū, 4:43, 4:99, 4:149, 22:60, 58:2 V, I
Loudspeaker 83 Template:Large Ar-Raʾūf The Kind, The Pitying Ar-Raʾūf,3:30, 9:117, 57:9, 59:10 I
Loudspeaker 84 Template:Large Mālik-ul-Mulk Owner of all Sovereignty Mālik-ul-Mulk, 3:26 D
Loudspeaker 85 Template:Longitem Template:Longitem Lord of Majesty and Generosity Dhū-l-Jalāli-wa-l-ʾikrām, 55:27, 55:78 D
Loudspeaker 86 Template:Large Al-Muqsiṭ The Equitable, The Requiter Al-Muqsiṭ,7:29, 3:18, See al-Kafʿamī[18] O
Loudspeaker 87 Template:Large Al-Jāmiʿ The Gatherer, The Unifier Al-Jāmiʿ, 3:9 I
Loudspeaker 88 Template:Large Al-Ghanī The Rich, The Independent Al-Ghanī,3:97, 39:7, 47:38, 57:24 I, A, D
Loudspeaker 89 Template:Large Al-Mughnī The Enricher, The Emancipator Al-Mughnī, 9:28 V
Loudspeaker 90 Template:Large Al-Māniʿ The Withholder, The Shielder, The Defender Al-Māniʿ, See al-Kafʿamī[19]
Loudspeaker 91 Template:Large Aḍ-Ḍārr The Distressor, The Harmer, The Afflictor Aḍ-Ḍārr, 6:17, see al-Kafʿamī[20]
Loudspeaker 92 Template:Large An-Nāfiʿ The Propitious, The Benefactor, The Source of Good An-Nāfiʿ, 30:37, see al-Kafʿamī[20]
Loudspeaker 93 Template:Large An-Nūr The Light An-Nūr, 24:35 I
Loudspeaker 94 Template:Large Al-Hādī The Guide, The Way Al-Hādī, 22:54 I
Loudspeaker 95 Template:Large Al-Badīʿ The Incomparable, The Unattainable, The Beautiful Al-Badīʿ, 2:117, 6:101 I
Loudspeaker 96 Template:Large Al-Bāqī The Immutable, The Infinite, The Everlasting Al-Bāqī, 55:27, see al-Kafʿamī[21] V
Loudspeaker 97 Template:Large Al-Wārith The Heir, The Inheritor of All Al-Wārith, 15:23, 57:10 P
Loudspeaker 98 Template:Large Ar-Rashīd The Guide to the Right Path Ar-Rashīd, 2:256, 72:10, see al-Kafʿamī[21]
Loudspeaker 99 Template:Large Aṣ-Ṣabūr The Timeless, The Patient Aṣ-Ṣabūr, 2:153, 3:200, 103:3 I

a Can vary based on context.     b D = Direct; V = from Verb; A = from Adjective or Adjectival Phrase; I = from Indefinite noun; P = from Plural noun; O = Other

The Greatest Name

The 99 names point to the inherent unity of the all-embracing Greatest Name (Ismi Azam).[22] In Islamic traditions, it is stated "The Greatest Name of Allah is the one which if He [Allah] is called (prayed to) by it, He will Answer."[23]

Personal names

According to Islamic tradition,[24] a Muslim may not be given any of the 99 names of God in exactly the same form. For example, nobody may be named al-Malik (The King), but may be named Malik (King). This is because of the belief that God is almighty, and no human being is the equivalent of God, and no human being will ever be the equivalent of God. Muslims are allowed to use the 99 names of God for themselves but should not put 'Al' at the front of them.[25]

However the names of God can be combined with the word "‘Abd-" which means "servant/Worshiper" (of God) and are commonly used as personal names among Muslims. For example ‘Abd ar-Raḥmān ("Servant of the Most Compassionate/the Beneficent"). The two parts of the name may be written separately (as above) or combined as one transliterated name; in such a case, the vowel transcribed after ‘Abd is often written as u when the two words are transcribed as one: e.g., Abdurrahman, Abdul'aziz, "Abdul Jabbar", or even Abdullah ("Servant of God"). (This has to do with Arabic case vowels, the final u vowel showing the normal "quote" nominative/vocative case form: ‘abd-u.)

Some Muslim people have names resembling those 99. Examples include:

Views of other religions

Bábí and Bahá'í view

Bahá'í sources state that the 100th name was revealed as "Bahá’" (an Arabic word بهاء meaning "glory, splendor" etc.), which is the root word for Bahá'u'lláh and Bahá'í. They also believe that it is the 'Greatest Name'.[26][27] The Báb wrote a noted pentagram-shaped tablet with 360 derivatives of the word "Bahá'" used in it.[26]

According to Bahá'í scholar ‘Abdu’l-Hamíd Ishráq-Khávari, Baha' ad-Din al-`Amili adopted the pen name (takhallus) 'Baha' after being inspired by words of Shi'a Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (the fifth Imam) and Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq (the sixth Imam), who had stated that the Greatest Name of God was included in either Du'ay-i-Sahar or A`amaal Ummi Dawud.[26] In the first verse of the Du'ay-i-Sahar, a dawn prayer for Ramadan, the name "Bahá" appears four times: "Allahumma inni as 'aluka min Bahá' ika bi Abháh va kulla Bahá' ika Bahí".[28]

See also


  1. Fleming, Marrianne; Worden, David (2004). Religious Studies for AQA; Thinking About God and Morality. Oxford: Heinemann Educational Publishers. ISBN 0-435-30713-4. 
  2. Abdullah Saeed, The Qur'an: An Introduction, pg. 63. London: Routledge, 2008. ISBN 9781134102945
  3. Taymiyya, Ibn. The Goodly Word: al-Kalim al-Ṭayyib. Islamic Texts Society. p. 72. ISBN 1-903682-15-0. 
  4. Ibn Majah, Book of Du`a; Imam Malik, Muwatta', Kitab al-Shi`r.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Diane Morgan, Essential Islam: A Comprehensive Guide to Belief and Practice, pg. 10. Santa Barbara, California Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2010. ISBN 9780313360251
  6. Template:Hadith-usc
  7. Mahmoud Abdul Razek Al Radwany, "Of the 99 Names Of Allah That We Repeat: Only 69 Are Authentic" published in the Egyptian daily, Al Ahram, on Nov 18, 2005. His objections are mostly grammatical in that a 'name' in Arabic must be a noun: "only 69 of those Names are authenticated from the Quran and Sunnah, while 29 are not authentic in that 22 are verbs or adjectives, and 7 are 'modafa' or 'added to.'" Islamic Forum
  8. See the suras "Al-A'raf" (7:180), "Al-Isra" (17:110), "Ta-Ha" (20:8) and "Al-Hashr" (59:24).
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 Malcolm Clark, Islam For Dummies. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2011. ISBN 9781118053966
  10. Martin Parsons, Unveiling God, pg. 206. William Carey Library, 2005. ISBN 9780878084548
  11. Juan Eduardo Campo, Encyclopedia of Islam, pg. 515. Infobase Publishing, 2009. ISBN 9781438126968
  12. Susanne Enderwitz, "The 99: Islamic Superheroes - A New Species." Taken from Transcultural Turbulences: Towards a Multi-Sited Reading of Image Flows, pgs. 84-85. Springer, 2011. ISBN 9783642183935
  13. The 99 names of Allah; the ‘Most Beautiful Names’ at BBC Online. Accessed 8 April 2014.
  14. "Al-Quran (القرآن) :: Online Quran Project :: Translation and Tafsir". 
  15. al-Kafʿamī, ʾIbrahīm bin ʿAlī (1436-1500 CE). al-Maqām al-asnā fī tafsīr al-asmāʼ al-ḥusnā. Beirut: Dār al-Hādī (1992). page 38. (WorldCat listing)
  16. al-Kafʿamī, ʾIbrahīm bin ʿAlī (1436-1500 CE). al-Maqām al-asnā fī tafsīr al-asmāʼ al-ḥusnā. Beirut: Dār al-Hādī (1992). page 40. (WorldCat listing)
  17. al-Kafʿamī, ʾIbrahīm bin ʿAlī (1436-1500 CE). al-Maqām al-asnā fī tafsīr al-asmāʼ al-ḥusnā. Beirut: Dār al-Hādī (1992). page 48. (WorldCat listing)
  18. al-Kafʿamī, ʾIbrahīm bin ʿAlī (1436-1500 CE). al-Maqām al-asnā fī tafsīr al-asmāʼ al-ḥusnā. Beirut: Dār al-Hādī (1992). pages 58-59. (WorldCat listing)
  19. al-Kafʿamī, ʾIbrahīm bin ʿAlī (1436-1500 CE). al-Maqām al-asnā fī tafsīr al-asmāʼ al-ḥusnā. Beirut: Dār al-Hādī (1992). page 61. (WorldCat listing)
  20. 20.0 20.1 al-Kafʿamī, ʾIbrahīm bin ʿAlī (1436-1500 CE). al-Maqām al-asnā fī tafsīr al-asmāʼ al-ḥusnā. Beirut: Dār al-Hādī (1992). page 58. (WorldCat listing)
  21. 21.0 21.1 al-Kafʿamī, ʾIbrahīm bin ʿAlī (1436-1500 CE). al-Maqām al-asnā fī tafsīr al-asmāʼ al-ḥusnā. Beirut: Dār al-Hādī (1992). page 64. (WorldCat listing)
  22. Schimmel, Annemarie (1993). The Mystery of Numbers. New York, USA: Oxford University Press. p. 271. ISBN 0-19-508919-7. 
  23. Momen, Moojan (2000). Islam and the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. p. 241. ISBN 0-85398-446-8.  The endnote states: "Ibn Májah, Sunan, 34. (Kitáb ad-Du'á), ch. 9, no. 3856, vol. 2, p. 1267. See also: Ad-Dárimí, Sunan, 23 (Fada'il al-Qur'án), ch. 15, no. 3296, vol. 2, pp. 324-5. Similar statements in Shi'i Traditions include: Majlisí, Bihár al-Anwár, vol. 26. p. 7."
  24. Islam-QA website Are there any names which it is forbidden to use? If so, what are they?
  25. [1][dead link]
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 Lambden, Stephen (1993). "The Word Bahá': Quintessence of the Greatest Name". Bahá'í Studies Review 3 (1). 
  27. Smith, Peter (2000). "greatest name". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 167–8. ISBN 1-85168-184-1. 
  28. Khadem, Dhikru'llah (March 1976). "Bahá'u'lláh and His Most Holy Shrine". Bahá'í News (540): 4–5. 

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