Ad blocker interference detected!
Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers
Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.
| A series of articles on|
Authors have put forward numerous explanations to explain the origin of the name Jesus,cf. Matthew 1:21 and have offered a still larger number of explanations for the meaning of the name. The name is related to the Hebrew יְהוֹשֻׁעַ Joshua, which is a theophoric name first mentioned within the Biblical tradition Exodus 17:9 as one of Moses' companions (and, according to tradition, later successor). Breaking the name down, there are two parts: יה Yeho, a theophoric reference to YHWH, the distinctive personal name of the God of Israel, plus the three letter root שוע, relating to the noun shua. Due to disputes over how to render שוע lexically, there are a number of generally accepted phrases this combination can translate to:
- "Yhwh" saves
- 'Yhwh" (is) salvation
- "Yhwh" (is) a saving-cry
- "Yhwh" (is) a cry-for-saving
- "Yhwh" (is) a cry-for-help
- "Yhwh" (is) my help
By the time the New Testament was written, the Septuagint had already transliterated ישוע [Yeshua`] into Koine Greek as closely as possible in the 3rd-century BC, the result being Ἰησοῦς [Iēsous]. Where Greek has no equivalent of the semitic letter ש shin [sh], it was replaced with a σ sigma [s], and a masculine singular ending [-s] was added. Many scholars believe some dialects dropped the final letter ע `ayin [`]. The Greek writings of Philo of Alexandria and Josephus frequently mention this name.
From Greek, Ἰησοῦς [Iēsous] moved into Latin at least by the time of the Vetus Latina. The morphological jump this time was not as large as previous changes between language families. Ἰησοῦς [Iēsous] was transliterated to Latin IESVS, where it stood for many centuries. The Latin name has an irregular declension, with a genitive, dative, ablative, and vocative of Jesu, accusative of Jesum, and nominative of Jesus. Lower case letters were developed around 800 and some time later the U was invented to distinguish the vowel sound from the consonantal sound and the J to distinguish the consonant from I. Similarly, Greek minuscules were invented about the same time, prior to that the name was written in Capital letters: ΙΗCΟΥC or abbreviated as: ΙΗC with a line over the top, see also Christogram.
Modern English "Jesus" (ˈdʒiːzəs) derives from Early Middle English Iesu, attested from the 12th century. The name participated in the Great Vowel Shift in late Middle English (15th century). The letter J was first distinguished from 'I' by the Frenchman Pierre Ramus in the 16th, but did not become common in Modern English until the 17th century, so that early 17th century works such as the first edition of the King James Bible (1611) continued to print the name with an I.
The meaning of the name Jesus ("YWAH saves; God saves") describes the purpose of Jesus' life: "For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him shall not perish, but have eternal life. For God did not send the Son into the world to judge the world, but that the world might be saved through Him." John 3:16-17
Yeshua | Yahshua
The original Aramaic (or late Hebrew) name for Jesus is Yeshua—a contraction of yehÖshÙa (Joshua), help of Jehovah + yÀh, Jehovah + hÖshïa, to help." In Hebrew, YESHUA is from the Hebrew YESHA—Yud Shin Ayin—meaning Help, Salvation, Deliverance. The more accurate name for Jesus, derived from YHWH, may be spelled: Yahshua, which means "Yahweh is salvation," or "God is salvation."
An angel told Joseph:
- "…Joseph, son of David, do not be afraid to take Mary as your wife; for the Child who has been conceived in her is of the Holy Spirit. 'She will bear a Son; and you shall call His name Jesus, for He will save His people from their sins.' Now all this took place to fulfill what was spoken by the Lord through the prophet: 'Behold, the virgin shall be with child and shall bear a son, and they shall call his name Immanuel, which translated means, 'GOD WITH US'." Matthew 1:20-23
The Old Testament (WEB) mentions Messiah twice. The Messiah's entrance into Jerusalem is prophesied in Daniel 9:25. In Daniel 9:26, the Messiah's death is prophesied before the destruction of Jerusalem. In Zechariah 9:9, Jesus' coming is prophecied: "Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion! Shout (in triumph,) O daughter of Jerusalem! Behold, your king is coming to you; He is just and endowed with salvation, humble, and mounted on a donkey, even on a colt, the foal of a donkey. This is fulfilled in John 12:13 when the large crowd "…went out to meet Him, and began to shout, 'Hosanna! Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord, even the King of Israel.'"
Though sometimes treated as if it were Jesus' surname, Christ is not a name but a title, and comes into English from the Greek Χριστός (Khristos), via the Latin Christus. It means "anointed one" The Greek is a loan translation of the Hebrew mashiakh (מָשִׁיחַ) or Aramaic mshikha (מְשִׁיחָא), from which we derive the English word Messiah.
The title Christ occurs in the Hebrew Bible, where it signifies the installation of a "king", "prophet", or "high priest": a person, chosen by God or descended from a person chosen by God, to serve as a civil, advisory, religious, and/or military authority.
In Matthew 1:2-16, Jesus' genealogy uses the title "Anointed One" ("Christ") for Jesus, in the sense of an anointed king. It lists the succession of the anointed kings of Judah, starting with David through Solomon until Jeconiah. All of them belong to the Davidic Dynasty, which terminated when Babylon conquered Judah. Then the successors listed after Jeconiah are heirs for when a Neo-Davidic Dynasty is finally restored to Judah. At the conclusion of the list, Jesus is then identified as a new king and thus called the "Anointed One".
Early alternate spellings also exist: Chrestos or Chrestus.
Other titles in the New Testament
The New Testament uses many titles to refer to Jesus, including: God, Prophet, Lord, Son of man, Son of God, Lamb of God, King of the Jews, King of Kings, Rabbi and Emmanuel. These titles attest to Jesus' divinity.
John Dominic Crossan says that the titles "Divine", "Son of God", "God", "Lord", "Redeemer", "Liberator", and "Saviour of the World" were collectively applied to Octavian, who became Caesar Augustus after defeating Mark Antony at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC. Crossan cites what he calls the adoption of them by the early Christians to apply to Jesus as denying them of Caesar the Augustus. "They were taking the identity of the Roman emperor and giving it to a Jewish peasant. Either that was a peculiar joke and a very low lampoon, or it was what the Romans called majistas and we call high treason."
These affirmations, plausible in English, are less easily made in the languages spoken at the time referred to.
In 42 BC, Julius Caesar was formally deified as "the divine Julius" (divus Iulius). His adopted son, Octavian (better known by the title "Augustus" given to him 15 years later, in 27 BC) thus became known as "divi Iuli filius" (son of the divine Julius) or simply "divi filius" (son of the god). He used this title to advance his political position, finally overcoming all rivals for power within the Roman state. The title was for him "a useful propaganda tool", and was displayed on the coins that he issued.
The word applied to Julius Caesar as deified is "divus", not the distinct word "deus". Thus Augustus was called "Divi filius", but never "Dei filius", the expression applied to Jesus in the Vulgate translation of the New Testament, as, for instance, in 1 John 5:5, and in earlier Latin translations, as shown by the Vetus Latina text "Inicium evangelii Ihesu Christi filii dei" preserved in the Codex Gigas. As son of Julius Caesar, Augustus was seen as the son of a god, not as the son of God, which is how Christians see Jesus. The Church continues to uphold the divinity of Jesus as the One and Only Son of God.John 3:16
Greek did not have a distinction corresponding to that in Latin between "divus" and "deus". "Divus" was thus translated as "θεός", the same word used for the Olympian gods, and "divi filius" as "θεοῦ υἱός" (theou huios), which, since it does not include the Greek article, would be understood in a polytheistic context as "son of a god". In the context of the New Testament, the same phrase refers to the one God. Indeed, in the New Testament, Jesus is referred to by the phrase, " ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ" (ho huios tou theou), meaning the son of God; because God the Holy Spirit is the father of Jesus.
Similar comments can be made about some of the other titles, such as "Lord". The Britannica Online Encyclopaedia states that the word "dominus" meant "in ancient Rome, 'master', or 'owner', particularly of slaves. The name became the official title for the emperor, beginning with Diocletian, who reigned from AD 284 to 305; and thus he and his successors are often referred to as the dominate (dominatus), as contrasted with the earlier principate (principatus) of Augustus and his successors." The word "Lord" is the Septuagint translation for the incommunicable Hebrew name Jehovah", and it is in this divine sense that "Jesus is Lord."
In the New Testament, many other titles and names refer to Jesus as divine, as seen below.
"I am the Alpha and the Omega," says the Lord God, "who is, and who was, and who is to come, the Almighty" Revelation 1:8
Alpha and Omega
In the vision/revelation of Jesus Christ to John, Jesus said: "I am the Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last, the Beginning and the End," Revelation 22:13 and "…I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End. To him who is thirsty I will give to drink without cost from the spring of the water of life." Revelation 21:6
Amen (from the Hebrew root "'aman," means "faithful," "trustworthy;" "morally to be true or certain;" "to believe in"—Jesus is faithful and trustworthy…one we can believe in with absolute trust and confidence. "Amen" also means "sure," or "true"—Jesus is "the True One, the God of truth:" In Revelation 3:14, Jesus said to the Laodicean Church: "And unto the angel of the church of the Laodiceans write: 'These things saith the Amen, the faithful and true witness, the beginning of the creation of God.'"
Note: The word "amen" is often translated "verily" or "truly." However, another meaning is in "Amen. I say unto you" (New Testament), which is equivalent to "as I live, saith Jehovah" (Old Testament) Thus, the "Amen" spoken by Jesus at the beginning of a sentence most probably has the Old Testament's meaning of: "as I live, says God" or "Thus says the Lord God"
In the Epistle to the Hebrews, Jesus is called an Apostle. Hebrews 3:1 An apostle is one who is sent for some purpose, who represents the authority of the sender, similar to an emissary. A verbal form of the word is used of Jesus in John 17:3, where it is translated "one…sent".
Author of Eternal Salvation
By obeying God and being perfect, Jesus is the author of eternal salvation: "Though he were a Son, yet learned he obedience by the things which he suffered; And being made perfect, he became the author of eternal salvation to all them that obey him…." Hebrews 5:8-10 The climax of Jesus' obedience is when He humbled—or "emptied himself" of His divine nature—and became voluntarily "obedient," even "unto death." The Bible says Jesus "…humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross." Philemon 2:8
Author of Life
The root Archegos can mean "Prince" or "Author." Peter tells the people: "But you disowned the Holy and Righteous One and asked for a murderer to be granted to you, but put to death the Prince of life, the one whom God raised from the dead, a fact to which we are witnesses." Acts 3:15
Paul says it is the Father (God) "Who hath delivered us from the power of darkness, and hath translated us into the kingdom of his beloved Son; In whom we have redemption through his blood, even the forgiveness of sins." Colossians 1:13-14 Jesus was baptised in the river Jordan, and "Immediately coming up out of the water, He saw the heavens opening, and the Spirit like a dove descending upon Him; and a voice came out of the heavens: "You are My beloved Son, in You I am well-pleased." Mark 1:10-11
In Titus 2:13, Jesus is the "blessed hope": "waiting for the blessed hope and manifestation of the glory of our great God and Saviour Jesus Christ."
Bread of Life
In John 6:47-48, Jesus said: "I tell you the truth, he who believes has everlasting life. I am the bread of life."
In Luke 5:34-35 Jesus refers to himself as the Bridegroom. In Matthew 25:5-10, Jesus refers to himself as the Bridegroom coming for his bride. And in Ephesians 5:27, his bride is "a glorious church, not having spot, or wrinkle, or any such thing; but that it should be holy and without blemish."
Bright and Morning Star
Ephesians 2:20 says "…You are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets with Christ Jesus Himself the chief Cornerstone."
In 1 Peter 5:4, Jesus is the Chief Shepherd: "And when the Chief Shepherd appears, you will receive the crown of glory that will never fade away."
Chosen of God
God chose Jesus to die for the sins of the world. As Jesus hung on the cross, people tempted him to save himself, saying: "…He saved others; let him save himself, if he be Christ, the chosen of God." (Luke 23:35). But Jesus was obedient unto death, for he was chosen of God to be the Sacrificial Lamb (Messiah) to die for the sins of man. "And being found in fashion as a man, he humbled himself, and became obedient to death, even the death of the cross. Philemon 2:8
Christ, the new Adam
Christ is referred to as "the new Adam." "Thus it is written, The first man, Adam, became a living being; the last Adam became a life-giving spirit," 1 Corinthians 15:45 This is elaborated upon in Romans 5:12-21.
Jesus came as the new the Adam, a new prototype, to reconcile humanity and establish a relationship with the Godhead, establishing a new humanity. The first Adam participated in the Fall, which brought death through sin; while the second Adam brought grace, righteousness, and salvation.
Pannenberg connected the second Adam imagery to the New Testament in "Paul and John's doctrine of Jesus as the incarnate Logos." According to Pannenberg the work of Jesus as the second Adam is the essential link between anthropology and Christology, "affirming the unity of creation as salvation history directed by God towards its eschatological fulfillment in Jesus Christ."
John—who spent time with Jesus—says that Jesus is the Eternal Life: "That which was from the beginning, that which we have heard, that which we have seen with our eyes, that which we beheld, and our hands handled, concerning the Word of life (and the life was manifested, and we have seen, and bear witness, and declare unto you the life, the eternal life, which was with the Father, and was manifested unto us)." John 1:1-2 "…That everyone who sees the Son and believes in him should have eternal life…." John 6:40
Firstborn of all Creation
"He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation. For by Him all things were created, both in the heavens and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities—all things have been created through Him and for Him. Colossians 1:15-16 According to the Institute for Creation Research, "Firstborn of Every Creature" can be translated literally as "begotten before all creation." Jesus is "born" of God, not "made," the "only begotten Son" of God. John 3:16 He is the eternal, living Word, which was "in the beginning with God" John 1:2 and which "was God." John 1:1
Fullness of the Godhead bodily
Paul writes about Jesus: "For in Him dwells all the fullness of the Godhead bodily." Colossians 2:9
God our Savior
Jesus is God our Savior, who can save willing men from Satan's evil, and transform them into instruments of righteousness:
- At one time we too were foolish, disobedient, deceived and enslaved by all kinds of passions and pleasures. We lived in malice and envy, being hated and hating one another. But when the kindness and love of God our Savior appeared, he saved us—not because of righteous things we had done, but because of his mercy. He saved us through the washing of rebirth and renewal by the Holy Spirit. Titus 3:3-5
Jesus is the good shepherd who dies to save his sheep. "I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep…. I am the good shepherd, and I know My own and My own know Me, even as the Father knows Me and I know the Father; and I lay down My life for the sheep." John 10:11,14-15
Head of the Church
A number of passages in the epistles refer to Jesus as Head of the Church. In some of these it is not clear whether it is a formal title or simply a metaphor applied sporadically to Jesus, but the Church has traditionally understood it as a title.
The Epistle to the Hebrews calls Jesus the High Priest.
Holy and Righteous One
Holy One of God
A demon identifies Jesus as the "Holy One of God": "there was a man, which had a spirit of an unclean devil, and cried out with a loud voice, saying, Let us alone; what have we to do with you, you Jesus of Nazareth? are you come to destroy us? I know you who you are: the Holy One of God." Luke 4:33-34
Holy One of Israel...In Israel
"Thus saith the LORD, the Holy One of Israel, and his Maker, Ask me of things to come concerning my sons, and concerning the work of my hands command ye me." Isaiah 45:11
"Thus says the LORD, the Holy One of Israel, and his Maker: 'Ask Me of things to come concerning My sons; and concerning the work of My hands, you command Me.'" Ezekiel 39:7
Horn of Salvation
Jesus is the horn of salvation. Zacharias prophesies, saying: "Blessed be the Lord God of Israel; for he has visited and redeemed his people, and has raised up an horn of salvation for us in the house of his servant David…" The word "horn" comes from from keras, and is a symbol of strength and courage, such as a fighting bull's horn gives him victory in battle. When referred to Jesus in a figurative sense—as horn of His Anointed, the King, the Messiah, the Christ, the Redeemer—the horn implies power.Luke 1:68-69,74-75
"Jesus said to them, 'Truly, I tell all of you with certainty, before there was an Abraham, I AM!'" John 8:58 He had told them earlier, "…you will die in your sins, for unless you believe that I AM, you will die in your sins." John 8:24
"I AM" is the name of God. ("Ehyeh" in the Hebrew, this is the direct immediate answer of the Almighty God to Moses who asked a direct question:
- "And Moses said unto God, 'Behold, when I come unto the children of Israel, and shall say unto them, The God of your fathers hath sent me unto you; and they shall say to me, What is his name? what shall I say unto them?' And God said unto Moses, 'I AM THAT I AM (EHYEH ASHER EHEYEH)'; and he said, 'Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM (EHYEH) hath sent me unto you'." Exodus 3:13-14
Jesus later said, being the selfsame I AM: Jesus said to them, "Verily, verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham was, I am." Greek language notwithstanding, Jesus IS the very same "I AM". Timelessness of this utterance is evident: He has always been at any moment of time: THE "I AM". John 8:58
Image of God
Paul says that Satan who is "...the god of this world 1 has blinded the minds of the unbelieving so that they might not see the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ, who is the image of God."Exodus 3:13-14
Image of The Invisible God
Jesus is the Beloved Son, the Image of the Invisible God, and the Firstborn: "For He rescued us from the domain of darkness, and transferred us to the kingdom of His beloved Son, in whom we have redemption, the forgiveness of sins. He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation." Colossians 1:13-14
Immanuel (also Emmanuel, Emanuel, etc.) is another name associated with Jesus. It is based on Isaiah 7:14, which is then quoted in Matthew 1:23 (and thereby directly associated with Jesus). The name is translated by the author of Matthew to mean "God with us".
Jesus Christ our Savior
The Bible tells how God rebirths us. We are "born again" through the royal bloodline of Jesus and into the Family of God, by the renewal-power of the Holy Spirit. "…He saved us through the washing of rebirth and renewal by the Holy Spirit, whom he poured out on us generously through Jesus Christ our Savior, so that, having been justified by his grace, we might become heirs having the hope of eternal life." Titus 3:5-7
Jesus Christ the Righteous
John writes that Jesus Christ the righteous will help us (talk to God on our behalf) if we sin: "My little children, I am writing these things to you so that you may not sin. And if anyone sins, we have an Advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous." 1 John 2:1
King of Kings
In Revelation 17:4, Jesus is the overcomer and the supreme Lord and King: "…the Lamb will overcome them, because He is Lord of lords and King of kings…." "And on His robe and on His thigh He has a name written, KING OF KINGS and LORD OF LORDS." Revelation 19:16
King of the Jews
The title of "King of the Jews" is used to refer to Jesus in two recorded episodes during his life. It is first used by the Magi, who ask of King Herod "Where is the one who has been born king of the Jews? We saw his star when it rose and have come to worship him." Matthew 2:2 The teachers of the law answer that he will be found in Bethlehem, according to the prophesy of Micah. Micah 5:2
It is again used in Jesus' trial. In all of the gospels, Pilate is recorded as asking Jesus "Are you king of the Jews?", to which Jesus replies "You have said so." Mark 15:2 et al. This may imply that the Sanhedrin told Pilate that Jesus had claimed this title, see also Sanhedrin Trial of Jesus. Pilate then orders the written charge on the sign on Jesus' cross to read "Jesus of Nazareth, the King of the Jews." John 19:19 John reports that the sign was written in Aramaic, Latin and Greek. John 19:20 In Latin this can be translated as "Iesus Nazarenus Rex Iudaeorum". The abbreviation INRI is therefore used to represent this in many depictions of Jesus' crucifixion.
Lamb of God
A title of Jesus used exclusively by John the Evangelist (John 1:29, John 1:36; cf. Revelation 5:6 passim) though "lamb" is used by other New Testament writers. Paul specifically identifies Jesus with the Paschal lamb (1 Corinthians 5:7). Scholars such as Geza Vermes and the late Charles Burney averred that the title "Lamb of God" does not necessarily refer to the metaphor of a sacrificial animal. They point out that in Galilean Aramaic the word talya, literally "lamb", had the common meaning of "male child". This is akin to "kid" meaning "child" in modern colloquial English. The female equivalent of Talya was Talitha, literally "ewe lamb" and figuratively "girl" (the word is found in the Narrative of the Daughter of Jairus (Mark 5:21-43). Thus, "Lamb of God" could have been a slang means of saying "Son of God" or "God's Kid". As Burney further points out in Galilean Aramaic, talya can additionally mean "servant" (with allusions to the "Servant of God" in Isaiah 53) allowing for a threefold pun between "lamb" "child" and "servant." But scriptures point to Jesus as God's sacrificial lamb.
"Lamb of God" refers to the Sacrificial Lamb, Jesus, who, by his crucifixion, took the punishment for the sins of humanity. He enabled the forgiveness of sins through his shed blood, thus breaking the power of Satan over people. "For our Passover Lamb has already been offered in sacrifice—even Christ" (1 Corinthians 5:7).
"The next day John seeth Jesus coming unto him, and saith , 'Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world" (John 1:29)
Lamb that was Slain
In a vision of heaven, John heard the voices of many angels "saying with a great voice, 'Worthy is the Lamb that was slain to receive the power, and riches, and wisdom, and strength, and honour, and glory, and blessing!'" (Revelation 5:12)
Lamb Slain from the Foundation, the 7 Spirits of God, the Seven Lamps, Seven Horns, Seven Eyes
Revelation 4:5 And out of the throne proceeded lightnings and thunderings and voices: and there were seven lamps of fire burning before the throne, which are the seven Spirits of God.
Isaiah 11:2 (Seven Spirits of God) And there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a Branch shall grow out of his roots: (1)And the spirit of the LORD shall rest upon him, (2)the spirit of wisdom and (3)understanding, (4)the spirit of counsel and (5)might, (6)the spirit of knowledge and (7)of the fear of the LORD; And shall make him of quick understanding in the fear of the LORD: and he shall not judge after the sight of his eyes, neither reprove after the hearing of his ears: But with righteousness shall he judge the poor, and reprove with equity for the meek of the earth: and he shall smite the earth: with the rod of his mouth, and with the breath of his lips shall he slay the wicked. Revelation 5:6 And I beheld, and, lo, in the midst of the throne and of the four beasts, and in the midst of the elders, stood a Lamb as it had been slain, having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven Spirits of God sent forth into all the earth. Revelation 5:12 (Making the further association with "Lamb that was slain" above) Saying with a loud voice, Worthy is the Lamb that was slain to receive power, and riches, and wisdom, and strength, and honour, and glory, and blessing. Revelation 13:8 And all that dwell upon the earth shall worship him, whose names are not written in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world.
Lamb without Blemish
God used the blood of Jesus—as a lamb without blemish—to free us from satan's power (sins, curses): "…the payment that freed you was the precious blood of Christ, the lamb with no defects or imperfections …a lamb without blemish and without spot" (1 Peter 1:19).
Light of Men
This is what the disciple John says of Jesus, "In him was life; and the life was the light of men" (John 1:4).
Light of the World
In John 8:12, Jesus calls himself the Light of the World: "I am the Light of the world; he who follows Me will not walk in the darkness, but will have the Light of life."
Lion of Judah
In 1 Peter 2:4, Jesus is "the living Stone—rejected by men but chosen by God and precious to him." He is "the source of life to us. Like no earthly rock, He lives and gives life."
John 1:14-18 calls Jesus the Logos in the flesh. Logos can refer both to the Written Word Bible and the Living Word Jesus. John 1:1 says: "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth" (John 1:14).
Lord of All
Paul writes that there is no difference between races (or groups) of believers who are saved by faith in Jesus, because Jesus is the same Lord of all. for there is no difference between Jew and Greek, for the same Lord of all is rich to all those calling upon Him" (Romans 10:12).
Lord of Glory
In 1 Corinthians 2:7-8, Paul writes of God's hidden secret—the Lord of Glory—who is Jesus. "…we speak about God's wisdom in a hidden secret, which God destined before the world began for our glory. None of the rulers of this world understood it, because if they had, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory.
Lord of Lords
Jesus is the Chief Lord of all lords. In Revelation 17:4, Jesus is Lord of Lords: "…the Lamb will overcome them, because He is Lord of lords and King of kings…" Revelation 19:16 And on His robe and on His thigh He has a name written, "KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS."
The Gospels and Acts frequently use "Lord" as a title for Jesus. The word "Lord" comes from kuros (supremacy), and can refer to a title given to: God, the Messiah. According to the Gospel of John, Jesus accepted this title as his own John 13:13-14). Obedience is required for Lordship. In Matthew 7:21-23, Jesus said:
- Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven; but he that doeth the will of my Father which is in heaven. Many will say to me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in thy name? and in thy name have cast out devils? and in thy name done many wonderful works? And then will I profess unto them, I never knew you: depart from me, ye that work iniquity.
Many Christians interpret the term as a reference to divinity. In one passage Jesus is addressed as "My Lord and my God" (John 20:28). Scholars explain the use of this title in various ways. Some believe that Jesus' disciples called him "Lord", but not because he was divine. According to Geza Vermes, a close reading of the Gospels suggests that most people addressed Jesus as lord as a sign of respect for a miracle-worker (especially in Mark and Matthew) or as a teacher (especially in Luke). In many cases one can substitute the words "sir" or "teacher" for "lord", and the meaning of the passage in question will not change, though in some instances the substitution would make little sense (Acts 2:36). Others believe that the New Testament uses the term lord to mean divine, but that it was only after Jesus' death and resurrection that his followers ascribed to him divinity.
After Easter, one of the most important OT texts to be applied to the Risen One was Psalm 110:1. Here the word 'Lord' is used both for God and for the messianic king (Acts 2:34). The application of this text to Jesus meant that the title mari, 'my Lord,' addressed to him during his earthly life in recognition of his unusual authority was upgraded as a messianic address. Thus, we get the liturgical acclamation in Aramaic marana tha, 'our Lord, come' (1 Cor. 16:22; Rev. 22:20). Still others argue that neither Jesus nor his disciples used the Aramaic term for lord, mara, and that the Greek term κύριος (kurios) was borrowed from pagan Hellenic usage. With the mission to the Gentiles, which began in Antioch (Acts 11:20), Christianity entered a milieu in which the title 'Lord' was already given to the deities of various religious cults. They were 'lords' (the feminine, kyria, was used for the goddess Isis) of their religious communities. Scholars used to hold that this pagan usage was the source for the application of the title kyrios to Jesus, but that theory has been ruled out by the Aramaic evidence for the use of 'Lord.' Moreover, Christianity did not regard Jesus as a cult deity. Christian worship was directed to the Father through the Son in the power of the Holy Spirit. At the same time Paul can assert the Lordship of Christ polemically against the pagan cults. 'There are many 'gods' and many 'lords'—yet for us there is one God, the Father. . .and one Lord, Jesus Christ' (1 Cor. 8:6). (Ibid., Harper's Bible Dictionary). However, kurios had long been used by the Septuagint to translate אדני (adon). "[T]he divine name was increasingly regarded as too sacred to be uttered; it was thus replaced vocally in the synagogue ritual by the Hebrew word Adonai (My Lord), which was translated as Kyrios (Lord) in the Septuagint, the Greek version of the Old Testament."
The translation of YHWH by the word Lord in the King James's and in other versions is due to the traditional reading of the Tetragrammaton as Adonai, and this can be traced to the oldest translation of the Bible, the Septuagint. [. . .T]he Greek translators of the Bible. . .took great care to render the name Π I Π I regularly Κυριός, Lord, as if they knew of no other reading but Adonai. Translations dependent upon the Septuagint have the same reading of the Name. [Note: Occults do not consider Jesus as divine, whereas true Christianity does. Mature Christians who are born-again of the Holy Spirt can easily believe Jesus is divine; but most occults can not.]
Lord (or kyrios) is "the title given to God, the Messiah," and can also mean "owner." Man as 'owner often comes by conquest, force, or by money purchase. But Jesus as 'owner comes by man's free-will choice to believe Jesus; and the "ransom money" to buy man back from satan's power is the blood of Jesus. The blood "washes away" a person's sins; the person is thus rescued from satan's ownership ("kingdom of darkness"), and comes into God's family ("kingdom of light"). Jesus is at the right hand of God to defend the person, and the Holy Spirit empowers the person to overcome satan and sin. Thus, "Lord" applies "to Jesus as the Messiah, since by his death he acquired a special ownership in mankind, and after his resurrection was exalted to a partnership in the divine administration…" [T]his force of the word ["Lord"] appears in… Acts 10:36; Romans 14:8; 1 Corinthians 7:22; 1 Corinthians 8:6; and Philippians 2:9-11
The Hebrew Bible distinguishes between "lord" (adon) and "God"; the word "lord" does not necessarily imply divinity, although God is often described as "the Lord". Surviving inter-testamental Aramaic texts frequently use the Aramaic mara to mean "the Lord", that is, God; but they also provide evidence of people using mara and kurios as personal titles (for example, used to address a husband, father, or king). There is little evidence that term was used specifically to mean "teacher", but there is much evidence of students using the term mar to refer to their teachers respectfully, or to refer to an especially respected and authoritative teacher. In one passage in the New Testament "lord" and "teacher" are distinguished by two different Greek words (John#Chapter 13|John 13]]:13-14). While there are many lords, there is only One Lord Jesus who is divine—who can save humanity from the Lake of Fire and give him eternal life in heaven. In Romans 10:13,the Bible says, "For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved."
The word "Lord" [from kuros] means supremacy, or supreme in authority. (Strong's 2962) The Bible points to Jesus as the Supreme Authority and Supreme Lord: "All authority has been given to Me in heaven and on earth."—(Jesus, in Matthew 28:18) "…God highly exalted Him, and bestowed on Him the name which is above every name,"—(Philippines 2:9 NASB)—"far above all principality, and authority, and might, and lordship, and every name named, not only in this age, but also in the coming one (Ephesians 1:21, Young's Literal Translation); "It is at the name of Jesus that every knee will one day bow and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord" (Philippians 2:10-11).
Offspring of David
In Revelation 22:16 (KJV), Jesus says: "…I am the root and the offspring of David, and the bright and morning star."
Only Begotten Son
In John 4:9, Jesus is the only-begotten Son. The "only-begotten" emphasizes Jesus' uniqueness by the two words: (1) "Only" (O.E.anlic "only, unique, solitary), and (2) "Begotten" (Gr. "monogenes" from "monos"=single, sole; and "ginomai"=generate; to come into being; manifest). In this was manifested the love of God in us, because His Son—the only begotten—hath God sent to the world, that we may live through him;
In 1 Corinthians 5:7, Jesus is called the Passover Lamb]. What God did for Israel, Jesus did for humanity. The families of Israel put the blood of a sacrificial lamb on the doorposts of their houses, causing the Death Angel to "pass over" and spare them from death. Also, by faith in Jesus, His shed blood cleanses us from sin, and God "passes over our sins" and spares us from death in the Lake of Fire. Instead of death, He adopts us into His royal family, and gives us Eternal Life in heaven. Today, practicing Jews still celebrate the Passover Feast, as God told them to do.
Power of God
In 1 Corinthians 1:22-24, Paul writes: "For the Jews require a sign, and the Greeks seek after wisdom: But we preach Christ crucified, to the Jews a stumbling block, and to the Greeks foolishness; But to them which are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God, and the wisdom of God."
Prince and Savior
In Acts 5:29-31, the high priest questions Jesus' followers, but Peter answers: "We must obey God rather than men. The God of our fathers raised up Jesus, whom you had put to death by hanging Him on a cross. He is the one whom God exalted to His right hand as a Prince and a Savior, to grant repentance to Israel, and forgiveness of sins."
Prince of Life
- "15 but [you] put to death the Prince of life, the one whom God raised from the dead, a fact to which we are witnesses. 16 "And on the basis of faith in His name, it is the name of Jesus which has strengthened this man whom you see and know; and the faith] which comes through Him has given him this perfect health in the presence of you all."
The root Archegos can mean "prince," "author," or "source"—such as "Prince of Life," "Author of Life," "Source of Life."
According to the New Testament, many Jews of the time thought of Jesus as a prophet. The New Testament also indicates that Jesus considered himself to be a prophet. In the Hebrew Bible, prophets were generally men who spoke for God, proclaiming God's words to the people, and often predicting future events. But in some other passages like Mark 12 gives a distinction between Jesus and Old Testament Prophets. Jesus is distinctly more than a prophet: he is the Messiah [Savior] whom God sent and of whom the prophets spoke. Matthew 11 says that "all the prophets and the law prophesied until John,": which means the prophets "prophesied of the Messiah as to come…; whereas John spake of him as already come, and in plain terms, and directed to his very person"—JESUS. --The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible
Mary Magdalene calls Jesus Rabboni, which means "my rabbi" [lit. "my teacher"], which is also used for Jesus in other passages. A rabbi is a Jewish teacher, usually referring to a religious teacher and associated with the Pharisees.
Resurrection and Life
In John 11:25, Jesus is the Resurrection and Life: "Jesus said to her, I am the resurrection, and the life: he that believes in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live [in everlasting life]."
When Paul knew he was going to die, he wrote to Timothy: "…there is laid up for me the crown of the righteousness that the Lord—the Righteous Judge—shall give to me in that day, and not only to me, but also to all those loving his manifestation (2 Timothy 4:8). As the rightous and just judge, Jesus tells us how he judges: "You judge according to the flesh…" (John 8:15) "As I hear, I judge, and my judgment is righteous; because I don't seek my own will, but the will of my Father who sent me" (John 5:30).
The coming of the Righteous One is announced by the Prophet Isaiah: "…the Righteous One, My Servant, will justify the many, As He will bear their iniquities" (Isaiah 53:11) and by the Prophet Jeremiah: "…this is his name whereby he shall be called, THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS" (Jeremiah 23:6).
At the trial of Jesus in Matthew 27:24, Pilate finds Jesus innocent and says Jesus is the righteous one: "And Pilate…having taken water, he did wash the hands before the multitude, saying, 'I am innocent from the blood of this righteous one…'" After Jesus was crucified, the first Christian martyr, Stephen, in Acts 7:52, says to his accusers: "Which one of the prophets did your fathers not persecute? They killed those who had previously announced the coming of the Righteous One, whose betrayers and murderers you have now become"
Ruler of the Kings of the Earth
In Revelation 1:5, John tells the seven Churches that the revelation (vision, prophecy) of the future End times came from Jesus: "and from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, the firstborn from the dead, and the ruler of the kings of the earth. To him who loves us and has freed us from our sins by his blood…."
Savior of the World
In 1 John 4:14, Jesus is Savior of the World: "…the Father has sent the Son to be the Savior of the world." Jesus is Savior of the World because he saves the world (every true believer) from the power of Satan (sin in our lives) and from the Lake of Fire, and he grants them eternal life in heaven, where he rules.
Jesus' human lineage is important because it fulfills the Messianic Prophecies. The Messiah is to come from the son of David, the son of Abraham. Bible scriptures verify Jesus' genealogy: The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham.--Matthew 1:1, Luke 3:23-38.
Son of God
The New Testament frequently refers to Jesus as The Son of God; Jesus seldom does, but often refers to God as his father. This is because Jesus wanted his divine identity kept secret. When Peter said: "You are the Christ, the Son of the living God!", Jesus "…strictly ordered the disciples not to tell anyone that he was the Christ (Messiah)" Matthew 16:16,20).
Geza Vermes has argued that Jesus and his followers may have understood this title differently. He observes that the Hebrew Bible uses the phrase "son of God" in other senses: to refer to heavenly or angelic beings; to refer to the Children of Israel, and to refer to kings. There is no New Testament evidence to suggest that early Christians thought of Jesus as an angel, so the first two usages seem not to apply. In the Gospels, the being of Jesus as "son of God", corresponds exactly to the typical Hasid from Galilee, a "pious" holy man that by God intervention performs miracles and exorcisms. "Was Jesus God?" The Bible says Jesus is much more than a holy man who performed miracles and exorcisms; it points to Jesus as being divine, equal to God.
Mark identifies Jesus as the son of King David, and Matthew and Luke provide lineages linking Jesus to King David. II Samuel 7:14, Psalm 89:26-27 and possibly 2:7, refer to David as a "son" of God, although historians find no evidence that the authors of the Bible believed David to be divine or literally God's son. (Some Christians, namely those believing in Bible prophecy, interpret these and other Psalms as referring prophetically to Jesus, the "seed" referred to in Psalm 89. See Christ in the Psalms by Father Patrick Reardon).
In post-Biblical Judaism, the title was often applied to righteous men: Sirach 4:10 and Wisdom of Solomon 2:17-18 use the term to refer to just men, and Book of Jubilees 1:24-25 has God declaring all righteous men to be his sons. Philo too wrote that good people are sons of God, and various rabbis in the Talmud declare that when Israelites are good, they are sons of God. The Talmud provides one example that parallels that of Jesus: Rabbi Hanina, whom God referred to as "my son", was also a miracle worker, and was able to resist Agrat, queen of the demons. Vermes suggests that "son of God" was a title used in the vicinity of Galilee by miracle-workers. Fausset writes that: "Many names which belong to Christ in the singular are assigned to Christians in the plural. He [Jesus] is "THE SON," "High Priest," "King," "Lamb"; they [Christians], "sons," "priests," "kings," "sheep," "lambs."—Jamieson, Fausset I& Brown Commentary In this sense, a man can spiritually mature into "a son of God"; so there are many "sons," but only Jesus is The Son of God—uniquely divine by birthright (conceived by the Holy Spirit).
Other scholars have suggested that the identification of "son of God" with divinity is pagan in origin; the Ptolemaic kings of Egypt referred to themselves as sons of Zeus or of Helios; Roman emperors used the title divi filius, or son of God. They suggest that the belief that Jesus was in fact "the son of God", and the association of his divine paternity with his being "messiah", were added after Christianity broke with Judaism. But these men were wrong. People who lived at the time of Jesus called him "Son of God," and Jesus' beloved disciple, John, said: "Jesus did many other miracles, which are not written here. But these are written that you may believe that Jesus is The Christ, The Son of God, and that by believing in Him, you may have everlasting life."—John 20:30-31
Jesus as divine—The Son of God—was undisputed by the first century Apostolic Church Fathers; but it became less pure when teachings—based on man's thinking or "high imaginations"—entered the Church. Today, these adultered teachings continue, guided by the reasonings/intellectualizations of man, not by faith in God, study of God's Word, and guidance by the Holy Spirit. In his book Against Heresy, Irenaeus writes at a time when eyewitnesses of Jesus were still alive: He warns against men who, "with great craftiness, adapted such parts of Scripture to their own figments, lead away captive from the truth those who do not retain a steadfast faith in one God, the Father Almighty, and in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God." Irenaeus clarifies the faith of the Church, as taught by Jesus' apostles and disciples:
- The [First Century] Church believes: "in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven, and earth, and the sea, and all things that are in them; and in one Christ Jesus, the Son of God, who became incarnate for our salvation; and in the Holy Spirit, who proclaimed through the prophets the dispensations of God, and the advents, and the birth from a virgin, and the passion, and the resurrection from the dead, and the ascension into heaven in the flesh of the beloved Christ Jesus, our Lord, and His (future) manifestation from heaven in the glory of the Father "to gather all things in one," and to raise up anew all flesh of the whole human race, in order that to Christ Jesus, our Lord, and God, and Saviour, and King, according to the will of the invisible Father, "every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth, and that every tongue should confess" to Him, and that He should execute just judgment towards all; that He may send "spiritual wickednesses," and the angelswho transgressed and became apostates, together with the ungodly, and unrighteous, and wicked, and profane among men, into everlasting fire; but may, in the exercise of His grace, confer immortality on the righteous, and holy, and those who have kept His commandments, and have persevered in His love, some from the beginning (of their Christian course), and others from (the date of) their repentance, and may surround them with everlasting glory.—Irenaeus Against Heresy, Book 1, Chapter 10
The Bible refers to Jesus as the "Son of God" in two ways: (1) Jesus, as intrinsically divine [The Son of God; The Word Made Flesh; conceived by the Holy Spirit]; and (2) Jesus, as a human babe, birth by a virgin [Son of Man], who matured into the Image of God—The Firstborn Son. All who have faith in Jesus can be born again by the Spirit of God, be adopted into God's family, and Acts 1:8 receive power] to grow from being "babes or children in Christ," into mature "sons of God"—a [New Creation].
As the "Son of God",Jesus' life is unique from all men: (1) Jesus' birth is prophecied by the prophets; (2) His mother is a virgin (Son of Man); his father is the Holy Spirit (Son of God), (3) Unclean spirits and satan knew he was the Son of God; (4) He lived a life without sin; (5) He is our redeemer: crucified on the cross to pay the punishment for our sins; (6) He enables man's spirit to be "born again" of the Holy Spirit, with God's power to overcome sin; (7) He rose from the dead; (8) He ascended to heaven; (9) God gave him all power; (11) He will judge all men, whether to heaven or hell; (10) He is at the right hand of God.
Son of Man
Jesus is rarely described as Son of man (בר נשא bar nasha, in Aramaic) outside of the Gospels, but in the Synoptic Gospels this title is used in several speeches attributed to Jesus, in a way that is near universally considered to have been intended as a self-reference. Historically, the title is a Semitic idiom that originated in Ancient Mesopotamia, used to denote humanity or self in a humble manner. As a result, it was commonly used in prayer or in poetry. (see Son of Man)
Some argue that the phrase alludes to Daniel 7:13 which associates "one like a son of man" with a messianic vision, and six Gospel uses of the title directly refer to, and many others allude to, Daniel. Since Daniel is an apocalyptic work, some scholars link Jesus' use of the term "son of man" with the short apocalypse of chapter 13 of the Gospel of Mark (see Olivet discourse); such a view paints Jesus as preacher of apocalyptic Judaism. When the authors of the Gospels used the title "the Son of Man", the idea of Daniel's "Son of Man" was probably a factor in their use. Bruce Chilton puts it this way "the concept of the son of man as used in Daniel was certainly in the air when Jesus used the term and a fortiori when the New Testament was composed."
Geza Vermes, observing that other Aramaic texts reveal that the phrase was used frequently to mean simply "man", or as a way by which a speaker may refer to himself, concluded that it is possible that this phrase was actually not a title. Whatever the meaning of the expression, when transcribed into Greek it is almost always used with the direct article ὁ (ho), translated "the", when it refers to Jesus.
The phrase 'Son of Man' as a title is most commonly used outside of the Gospels in the book of Ezekiel. In addition, save for the possible exception of John 13:13, Jesus never referred to himself as "Lord" or "God," but Jesus used the name God gave to Moses (I AM): "Before Abraham was, I am" (John 8:58). In the Gospels, Jesus referred to himself in the third person as both the "Son of Man" and "Son of God."
In Mark 10:45, Jesus speaks of himself: "…the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give His life a ransom for many." In John 10:36, Jesus asks his accusers: "…why do you say that I'm dishonoring God because I said, 'I'm the Son of God'? God set me apart for this holy purpose and has sent me into the world."
Son of the Blessed One
At the trial of Jesus, the people and the high priest asked him questions. "But he kept silent and didn't answer at all. The high priest asked him again, "Are you the Messiah, the Son of the Blessed One?" Jesus said, "I AM" (Mark 14:61-62).
Son of the Highest
In Luke 1:30-32, "An angel appeared to the virgin Mary, and said: 'Fear not, Mary: for thou hast found favour with God. 31 And, behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name JESUS. He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest'."
"Highest" and "most high" come from the word "hypsistos;" of rank, it is "the most high God." So another title is "Son of the Most High God."
Son of the Living God
In Matthew 16:15-16 Jesus asked his disciples: "'But who do you say that I am?' Simon Peter answered, 'You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.'" In John 6:68-69, Simon Peter tells Jesus …you have the words of eternal life. And we believe and are sure that you are that Christ, the Son of the living God."
In Matthew 16:15-16, Jesus asked his disciples: "'But who do you say that I am?' Simon Peter answered, 'You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.'"
When the Jews were in the desert for 40 years, twice Moses struck a rock, and twice water gushed out of the rock for the people to drink (Numbers 20:1-13; Exodus 17:1-6). The rock is a manifest type of Christ: And did all drink the same spiritual drink: for they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them: and that Rock was Christ (1 Corinthians 10:4). Today, Jesus is the Spiritual Rock out of which spiritual blessings, grace, and mercy gush out upon His true believers.
In Matthew 22:36-39 (NASB), a Pharisee/lawyer asked Jesus a question: "'Teacher, which is the great commandment in the Law?'" And He said to him, "'You shall love the lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind.' This is the great and foremost commandment. The second is like it, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.'"
In John 2:18-19,21-22, The Jews asked Jesus: "What miracle can you show us to justify what you're doing?" 19 Jesus replied, "Tear down this temple, and I'll rebuild it in three days." The Jews thought the temple was a physical building, "21 But the temple Jesus spoke about was his own body. 22 After he came back to life, his disciples remembered that he had said this. So they believed the Scripture and this statement that Jesus had made."
In John 14:6, "Jesus said to him, "I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me."
In John 14:6, "Jesus said to him, "I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me."
In John 14:6, "Jesus said to him, "I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me."
The Word of God
In Revelation 19:13, Jesus sits on a white horse "13 and he is arrayed with a garment covered with blood, and his name is called, The Word of God.
In John 15:1 and John 15:4, Jesus is the True Vine and his Father is the husbandman (i.e., the great Proprietor of the vineyard, the Lord of the spiritual kingdom. Jesus says: "I am the true vine, and my Father is the husbandman; 4…remain in me, and I in you, as the branch is not able to bear fruit of itself, if it may not remain in the vine, so neither ye, if ye may not remain in me." (Young's Literal Translation).
Before he died, Jesus promised his disciples he would come back to live in them through the Holy Spirit: John 14:18-23: "18 I will not leave you comfortless: I will come to you…26 But the Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name… 20 At that day you shall know that I am in my Father, and you in me, and I in you…" Jesus then tells how we can be joined to him—the True Vine: "21 He that has my commandments, and keeps them, he it is that loves me: and he that loves me shall be loved of my Father, and I will love him, and will manifest myself to him. 23 …If a man love me, he will keep my words: and my Father will love him, and we will come to him, and make our stayed with him…"
Note: Jesus said "we"—meaning that the Godhead] (the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit) lives in the Christian who is joined to the True Vine, Jesus. Believers, by union with Him, partake of His fulness of the divine nature (John 1:16, 2 Peter 1:4; … Ephesians 3:19 (Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary) …not only divine powers, but divine nature, Col 1:19. (Wesley's Notes)
Wisdom of God
In 1 Corinthians 1:24, the Bible says: "…to those who are the called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God. "…But to those who obey the gospel call…the Crucified Christ is found to be the power of God, and the wisdom of God. The gospel not only is found to be mighty, but wise in meeting the wants of the soul."
1 John 5:7 states that another title of Jesus is "the Word": "For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one."
"In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God." —John 1:1
"And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father), full of grace and truth." —John 1:14
- Vermes, Geza Jesus the Jew: A Historian's Reading of the Gospels, Augsburg Fortress Pub, 1981. ISBN 0-8006-1443-7
- Hebrew Names and Titles for Yeshua (Jesus).
- A. J. Maas, Origin of the Name of Jesus Christ, Catholic Encyclopedia
- A list of all the names that Jesus was called
|This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original article was at Names and titles of Jesus in the New Testament. The list of authors can be seen in the page history.|