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Naboth (lit. fruits) "the Jezreelite," is the central figure of a story from the Old Testament. According to the story, Naboth was the owner of a portion of ground on the eastern slope of the hill of Jezreel. Described as a small "plat of ground", the vineyard seems to have been all he possessed and lay close to the palace of Ahab, who wished to acquire to "have it for a garden of herbs" (probably as a ceremonial garden for Baal worship). Naboth, however, had inherited his land from his father, and, according to Jewish law, could not alienate it. Accordingly, he refused to sell it to the king.
Ahab became deeply depressed at not being able to procure the vineyard, and returned to his palace, lying on his bed, his face to the wall, and refused to eat. His wife, Jezebel, after learning the reason for his depression, promised that she would obtain the vineyard for him. To do so, she plotted to kill Naboth by mock trial, and then told Ahab to take possession of the vineyard as the legal heir.
As punishment for this action, the prophet Elijah visited Ahab while he was in the vineyard, pronouncing doom on him. Ahab humbled himself at Elijah's words, and was spared accordingly, with the prophesied destruction being visited instead on his son Joram.
Roger Williams, the founder of the American colony of Rhode Island and the co-founder of the First Baptist Church in America wrote about Naboth's story in The Bloudy Tenent of Persecution for Cause of Conscience as an example of how God disfavored Christians from using government force in religious matters, such as the religious decrees by Jezebel and Ahab. Williams believed using force in the name of religion would lead to political persecution contrary to the Bible.