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Myo Cheong's Rebellion
During the reign of king Injong of Goryeo, Myo Cheong argued that Korea had become weakened by Confucian ideals. His views directly conflicted with Kim Bu-sik, a China-oriented confucian scholar. On a broader scale, this represented the ongoing struggle between the Confucian and Buddhist elements in Korean society.
It was during this period an organized Jurchen state was putting pressure on Goryeo. The trouble with the Jurchens was partly due to Goryeo's underestimation of the newly established state and the ill treatment of its envoys (i.e. killing them and humiliating their corpse). Goryeo's dislike for Jurchens stemmed from the fact that they were once a subservient tribe under Goryeo's predecessor state Goguryeo, and took Jurchen assertion of equality with Goryeo as an offense. Taking advantage of the situation, Myo Cheong purposed to attack the Jurchens and that moving the capital to Pyongyang would assure success.
The King actually did listen to him and was persuaded. However, the rest of the court and the bureaucracy did not support the move and the King actually had to back out of his commitments to Myo Cheong.
Eventually, Myo Cheong led a rebellion against the government. He moved to Pyongyang, once the capital of Gojoseon (which at the time was called Seogyeong(西京)), and declared the establishment his new state of Daewhe. According to Myo Cheong, Kaesong was "depleted of virtue." This made Pyongyang the ideal location for the supposed dynastic revival.