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Must (from the Latin vinum mustum, “young wine”) is freshly pressed fruit juice (usually grape juice) that contains the skins, seeds, and stems of the fruit. The solid portion of the must is called pomace; it typically makes up 7%–23% of the total weight of the must. Making must is the first step in winemaking. Must is also used as a sweetener in a variety of cuisines.
The length of time that the pomace stays in the juice is critical for the final character of the wine. When the winemaker judges the time to be right, the juice is drained off the pomace which is then pressed to extract the juice retained by the matrix. Yeast is added to the juice to begin the fermentation, while the pomace is often returned to the vineyard or orchard to be used as fertilizer. A portion of selected unfermented must may be kept as Süssreserve, in order to be added prior to bottling as a sweetening component. Some winemakers create a second batch of wine from the used pomace by adding a quantity of water equivalent to the juice removed, letting the mixture sit for 24 hours, and draining off the liquid. This wine may be used as a drink for the employees of the winemaker or as a basis for pomace brandies like grappa.
Must was commonly used as a cooking ingredient in ancient Rome. It was boiled down in lead or bronze kettles into a milder concentrate called defrutum or a stronger concentrate called sapa. It was often used as a souring agent and preservative, especially in fruit dishes. Geochemist Jerome Nriagu published an article in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1983 hypothesizing that defrutum and sapa may have contained enough lead acetate to be of danger to those who consumed it regularly. Reduced must is used in Balkan and Middle Eastern cookery, either as a syrup known as pekmez or dibis or as the basis for confections where it is thickened with flour: moustalevria, soutzoukos, churchkhela. Moustokoúloura (must cookies) is a popular Greek variety of cookies or biscuits whose dough is sweetened with must instead of table sugar. They are made in various shapes and sizes, and they are dark brown in color because of the must.
For mead production
In Christian liturgy
In Roman Catholic liturgy, must may be substituted for sacramental wine, on condition that the ordinary has granted permission for the benefit of a priest or lay person who should not, usually because of alcoholism, ingest wine; but in normal circumstances it may not be used in place of wine.
This teaching goes back at least to Pope Julius I (337–352), who is quoted in Thomas Aquinas's Summa Theologica as having declared that in case of necessity, but only then, juice pressed from a grape could be used. Aquinas himself declared that it is forbidden to offer fresh must in the chalice, because this is unbecoming owing to the impurity of the must; but he added that in case of necessity it may be done.
- ↑ Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger,"Gluten Allergies/Alcohol Intolerance and the Bread and Wine used at Mass", circular letter Prot. 89/78-174 98 of 24 July 2003, Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, to Presidents of Episcopal Conferences.
- ↑ Summa Theologica, III, q. 74, art. 5, reply to objection 3.
- Baldy, Marian W. The University Wine Course: A Wine Appreciation Text & Self Tutorial, 2nd Edition. San Francisco, Calif.: The Wine Appreciation Guild, 1995. ISBN 0-932664-69-5.
- Gozzini Giacosa, Ilaria. A Taste of Ancient Rome. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994. ISBN 0-226-29032-8.
- Herbst, Ron, and Sharon Tyler Herbst. Wine Lover's Companion. Hauppauge, N.Y.: Barron's, 1995. ISBN 0-8120-1479-0.
- Nriagu, Jerome O. "Saturnine Gout Among Roman Aristocrats: Did Lead Poisoning Contribute to the Fall of the Empire?" New England Journal of Medicine 11, no. 308 (17 March 1983): 660–3.
- Whittaker, John. Winemaking Made Easy. Edmonton: Lone Pine Publishing, 1993. ISBN 1-55105-030-7.
- Further information from the USCCB's Committee on Divine Worship
- Further information from the Liturgy Office of the Catholic Bishops' Conference of England and Walesbar:Mosd