|Mother Teresa of Calcutta
Agnesë Gonxhe Bojaxhiu
26 August 1910|
Üsküb, Ottoman Empire (today's Skopje, Republic of Macedonia)
5 September 1997 (aged 87)|
|Occupation||Catholic nun, humanitarian|
Mother Teresa (26 August 1910 – 5 September 1997), born Agnesë Gonxhe Bojaxhiu (pronounced [aɡˈnɛs ˈɡɔndʒe bɔjaˈdʒiu]), was an Albanian Catholic nun with Indian citizenship who founded the Missionaries of Charity in Kolkata (Calcutta), India in 1950. For over 45 years she ministered to the poor, sick, orphaned, and dying, while guiding the Missionaries of Charity's expansion, first throughout India and then in other countries. Following her death she was beatified by Pope John Paul II and given the title Blessed Teresa of Calcutta.
By the 1970s she was internationally famed as a humanitarian and advocate for the poor and helpless, due in part to a documentary and book Something Beautiful for God by Malcolm Muggeridge. She won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979 and India's highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna, in 1980 for her humanitarian work. Mother Teresa's Missionaries of Charity continued to expand, and at the time of her death it was operating 610 missions in 123 countries, including hospices and homes for people with HIV/AIDS, leprosy and tuberculosis, soup kitchens, children's and family counselling programs, orphanages, and schools.
She has been praised by many individuals, governments and organizations; however, she has also faced a diverse range of criticism. These include objections by various individuals and groups, including Christopher Hitchens, Michael Parenti, Aroup Chatterjee, Vishva Hindu Parishad, against the proselytizing focus of her work including a strong stance against abortion, a belief in the spiritual goodness of poverty and alleged baptisms of the dying. Medical journals also criticised the standard of medical care in her hospices and concerns were raised about the opaque nature in which donated money was spent.
Agnesë Gonxhe Bojaxhiu (Gonxhe meaning "rosebud" in Albanian) was born on 26 August 1910, in Üsküb, Ottoman Empire (now Skopje, capital of the Republic of Macedonia). Although she was born on August 26, she considered August 27, the day she was baptized, to be her "true birthday." She was the youngest of the children of a family from Shkodër, Albania, born to Nikollë and Drana Bojaxhiu. Her father, who was involved in Albanian politics, died in 1919 when she was eight years old. After her father's death, her mother raised her as a Roman Catholic. According to a biography by Joan Graff Clucas, in her early years Agnes was fascinated by stories of the lives of missionaries and their service, and by age 12 was convinced that she should commit herself to a religious life. She left home at age 18 to join the Sisters of Loreto as a missionary. She never again saw her mother or sister.
Agnes initially went to the Loreto Abbey in Rathfarnham, Ireland to learn English, the language the Sisters of Loreto used to teach school children in India. She arrived in India in 1929, and began her novitiate in Darjeeling, near the Himalayan mountains. She took her first religious vows as a nun on 24 May 1931. At that time she chose the name Teresa after Thérèse de Lisieux, the patron saint of missionaries. She took her solemn vows on 14 May 1937, while serving as a teacher at the Loreto convent school in eastern Calcutta.
Although Teresa enjoyed teaching at the school, she was increasingly disturbed by the poverty surrounding her in Calcutta. The Bengal famine of 1943 brought misery and death to the city; and the outbreak of Hindu/Muslim violence in August 1946 plunged the city into despair and horror.
Missionaries of Charity
On 10 September 1946, Teresa experienced what she later described as "the call within the call" while traveling to the Loreto convent in Darjeeling from Calcutta for her annual retreat. "I was to leave the convent and help the poor while living among them. It was an order. To fail would have been to break the faith." She began her missionary work with the poor in 1948, replacing her traditional Loreto habit with a simple white cotton sari decorated with a blue border, adopted Indian citizenship, and ventured out into the slums. Initially she started a school in Motijhil; soon she started tending to the needs of the destitute and starving. Her efforts quickly caught the attention of Indian officials, including the Prime Minister, who expressed his appreciation.
Teresa wrote in her diary that her first year was fraught with difficulties. She had no income and had to resort to begging for food and supplies. Teresa experienced doubt, loneliness and the temptation to return to the comfort of convent life during these early months. She wrote in her diary:
Our Lord wants me to be a free nun covered with the poverty of the cross. Today I learned a good lesson. The poverty of the poor must be so hard for them. While looking for a home I walked and walked till my arms and legs ached. I thought how much they must ache in body and soul, looking for a home, food and health. Then the comfort of Loreto [her former order] came to tempt me. 'You have only to say the word and all that will be yours again,' the Tempter kept on saying ... Of free choice, my God, and out of love for you, I desire to remain and do whatever be your Holy will in my regard. I did not let a single tear come.
Teresa received Vatican permission on 7 October 1950 to start the diocesan congregation that would become the Missionaries of Charity. Its mission was to care for, in her own words, "the hungry, the naked, the homeless, the crippled, the blind, the lepers, all those people who feel unwanted, unloved, uncared for throughout society, people that have become a burden to the society and are shunned by everyone." It began as a small order with 13 members in Calcutta; today it has more than 4,000 nuns running orphanages, AIDS hospices and charity centers worldwide, and caring for refugees, the blind, disabled, aged, alcoholics, the poor and homeless, and victims of floods, epidemics, and famine.
In 1952 Mother Teresa opened the first Home for the Dying in space made available by the City of Calcutta. With the help of Indian officials she converted an abandoned Hindu temple into the Kalighat Home for the Dying, a free hospice for the poor. She renamed it Kalighat, the Home of the Pure Heart (Nirmal Hriday). Those brought to the home received medical attention and were afforded the opportunity to die with dignity, according to the rituals of their faith; Muslims were read the Quran, Hindus received water from the Ganges, and Catholics received the Last Rites. "A beautiful death," she said, "is for people who lived like animals to die like angels—loved and wanted." Mother Teresa soon opened a home for those suffering from Hansen's disease, commonly known as leprosy, and called the hospice Shanti Nagar (City of Peace). The Missionaries of Charity also established several leprosy outreach clinics throughout Calcutta, providing medication, bandages and food.
As the Missionaries of Charity took in increasing numbers of lost children, Mother Teresa felt the need to create a home for them. In 1955 she opened the Nirmala Shishu Bhavan, the Children's Home of the Immaculate Heart, as a haven for orphans and homeless youth.
The order soon began to attract both recruits and charitable donations, and by the 1960s had opened hospices, orphanages and leper houses all over India. Mother Teresa then expanded the order throughout the globe. Its first house outside India opened in Venezuela in 1965 with five sisters. Others followed in Rome, Tanzania, and Austria in 1968; during the 1970s the order opened houses and foundations in dozens of countries in Asia, Africa, Europe and the United States.
Her philosophy and implementation have faced some criticism. David Scott wrote that Mother Teresa limited herself to keeping people alive rather than tackling poverty itself. She has also been criticized for her view on suffering: according to an article in the Alberta Report, she felt that suffering would bring people closer to Jesus. The quality of care offered to terminally ill patients in the Homes for the Dying has been criticised in the medical press, notably The Lancet and the British Medical Journal, which reported the reuse of hypodermic needles, poor living conditions, including the use of cold baths for all patients, and an approach to illness and suffering that precluded the use of many elements of modern medical care, such as systematic diagnosis. Dr. Robin Fox, editor of The Lancet, described the medical care as "haphazard", as volunteers without medical knowledge had to take decisions about patient care, because of the lack of doctors. He observed that her order did not distinguish between curable and incurable patients, so that people who could otherwise survive would be at risk of dying from infections and lack of treatment.
The Missionaries of Charity Brothers was founded in 1963, and a contemplative branch of the Sisters followed in 1976. Lay Catholics and non-Catholics were enrolled in the Co-Workers of Mother Teresa, the Sick and Suffering Co-Workers, and the Lay Missionaries of Charity. In answer to the requests of many priests, in 1981 Mother Teresa also began the Corpus Christi Movement for Priests, and in 1984 founded with Fr. Joseph Langford the Missionaries of Charity Fathers to combine the vocational aims of the Missionaries of Charity with the resources of the ministerial priesthood. By 2007 the Missionaries of Charity numbered approximately 450 brothers and 5,000 nuns worldwide, operating 600 missions, schools and shelters in 120 countries.
In 1982, at the height of the Siege of Beirut, Mother Teresa rescued 37 children trapped in a front line hospital by brokering a temporary cease-fire between the Israeli army and Palestinian guerrillas. Accompanied by Red Cross workers, she traveled through the war zone to the devastated hospital to evacuate the young patients.
When Eastern Europe experienced increased openness in the late 1980s, she expanded her efforts to Communist countries that had previously rejected the Missionaries of Charity, embarking on dozens of projects. She was undeterred by criticism about her firm stand against abortion and divorce stating, "No matter who says what, you should accept it with a smile and do your own work."
Mother Teresa traveled to assist and minister to the hungry in Ethiopia, radiation victims at Chernobyl, and earthquake victims in Armenia. In 1991, Mother Teresa returned for the first time to her homeland and opened a Missionaries of Charity Brothers home in Tirana, Albania.
By 1996, she was operating 517 missions in more than 100 countries. Over the years, Mother Teresa's Missionaries of Charity grew from twelve to thousands serving the "poorest of the poor" in 450 centers around the world. The first Missionaries of Charity home in the United States was established in the South Bronx, New York; by 1984 the order operated 19 establishments throughout the country.
The spending of the charity money received has been criticized by some. Christopher Hitchens and the German magazine Stern have said Mother Teresa did not focus donated money on alleviating poverty or improving the conditions of her hospices, but on opening new convents and increasing missionary work.
Additionally, the sources of some donations accepted have been criticized. Mother Teresa accepted donations from the autocratic and corrupt Duvalier family in Haiti and openly praised them. She also accepted 1.4 million dollars from Charles Keating, involved in the fraud and corruption scheme known as the Keating Five scandal and supported him before and after his arrest. The Deputy District Attorney for Los Angeles, Paul Turley, wrote to Mother Teresa asking her to return the donated money to the people Keating had stolen from, one of whom was "a poor carpenter". The donated money was not accounted for, and Turley did not receive a reply.
Colette Livermore, a former Missionary of Charity, describes her reasons for leaving the order in her book Hope Endures: Leaving Mother Teresa, Losing Faith, and Searching for Meaning. Livermore found what she called Mother Theresa's "theology of suffering" to be flawed, despite being a good and courageous person. Though Mother Theresa instructed her followers on the importance of spreading the Gospel through actions rather than theological lessons, Livermore could not reconcile this with some of the practices of the organization. Examples she gives include unnecessarily refusing to help the needy when they approached the nuns at the wrong time according to the prescribed schedule, discouraging nuns from seeking medical training to deal with the illnesses they encountered (with the justification that God empowers the weak and ignorant), and imposition of "unjust" punishments, such as being transferred away from friends. Livermore says that the Missionaries of Charity "infantilized" its nuns by prohibiting the reading of secular books and newspapers, and emphasizing obedience over independent thinking and problem-solving.
Declining health and death
Mother Teresa suffered a heart attack in Rome in 1983, while visiting Pope John Paul II. After a second attack in 1989, she received an artificial pacemaker. In 1991, after a battle with pneumonia while in Mexico, she suffered further heart problems. She offered to resign her position as head of the Missionaries of Charity. But the nuns of the order, in a secret ballot, voted for her to stay. Mother Teresa agreed to continue her work as head of the order.
In April 1996, Mother Teresa fell and broke her collar bone. In August she suffered from malaria and failure of the left heart ventricle. She had heart surgery but it was clear that her health was declining. When she fell ill, she made the controversial decision to be treated at a well-equipped hospital in California instead of one of her own clinics. The Archbishop of Calcutta, Henry Sebastian D'Souza, said he ordered a priest to perform an exorcism on Mother Teresa with her permission when she was first hospitalized with cardiac problems because he thought she may be under attack by the devil.
On 13 March 1997, she stepped down from the head of Missionaries of Charity. She died on 5 September 1997.
At the time of her death, Mother Teresa's Missionaries of Charity had over 4,000 sisters, and an associated brotherhood of 300 members, operating 610 missions in 123 countries. These included hospices and homes for people with HIV/AIDS, leprosy and tuberculosis, soup kitchens, children's and family counseling programs, personal helpers, orphanages, and schools. The Missionaries of Charity were also aided by Co-Workers, who numbered over 1 million by the 1990s.
Global recognition and reception
Reception in India
Mother Teresa had first been recognised by the Indian government more than a third of a century earlier when she was awarded the Padma Shri in 1962. She continued to receive major Indian rewards in successive decades including, in 1972, the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding and, in 1980, India's highest civilian award, the Bharat Ratna.
Indian views on Mother Teresa were not uniformly favourable. Her critic Aroup Chatterjee, who was born and raised in Calcutta but lived in London, reports that "she was not a significant entity in Calcutta in her lifetime". Chatterjee blames Mother Teresa for promoting a negative image of his home city. Her presence and profile grated in parts of the Indian political world, as she often opposed the Hindu Right. The Bharatiya Janata Party clashed with her over the Christian Dalits, but praised her in death, sending a representative to her funeral. The Vishwa Hindu Parishad, on the other hand, opposed the Government's decision to grant her a state funeral. Its secretary Giriraj Kishore said that "her first duty was to the Church and social service was incidental" and accused her of favouring Christians and conducting "secret baptisms" of the dying. But, in its front page tribute, the Indian fortnightly Frontline dismissed these charges as "patently false" and said that they had "made no impact on the public perception of her work, especially in Calcutta". Although praising her "selfless caring", energy and bravery, the author of the tribute was critical of Mother Teresa's public campaigning against abortion and that she claimed to be non-political when doing so. More recently, the Indian daily The Telegraph mentioned that "Rome has been asked to investigate if she did anything to alleviate the condition of the poor or just took care of the sick and dying and needed them to further a sentimentally-moral cause."
Mother Teresa lay in state in St Thomas, Kolkata for one week prior to her funeral, in September 1997. She was granted a state funeral by the Indian Government in gratitude for her services to the poor of all religions in India.
Reception in the rest of the world
In 1962, Mother Teresa received the Philippines-based Ramon Magsaysay Award for International Understanding, given for work in South or East Asia. The citation said that "the Board of Trustees recognizes her merciful cognizance of the abject poor of a foreign land, in whose service she has led a new congregation". By the early 1970s, Mother Teresa had become an international celebrity. Her fame can be in large part attributed to the 1969 documentary Something Beautiful for God, which was filmed by Malcolm Muggeridge and his 1971 book of the same title. Muggeridge was undergoing a spiritual journey of his own at the time. During the filming of the documentary, footage taken in poor lighting conditions, particularly the Home for the Dying, was thought unlikely to be of usable quality by the crew. After returning from India, however, the footage was found to be extremely well lit. Muggeridge claimed this was a miracle of "divine light" from Mother Teresa herself. Others in the crew thought it was due to a new type of ultra-sensitive Kodak film. Muggeridge later converted to Catholicism.
Around this time, the Catholic world began to honor Mother Teresa publicly. In 1971, Paul VI awarded her the first Pope John XXIII Peace Prize, commending her for her work with the poor, display of Christian charity and efforts for peace. She later received the Pacem in Terris Award (1976). Since her death, Mother Teresa has progressed rapidly along the steps towards sainthood, currently having reached the stage of having been beatified.
Mother Teresa was honoured by both governments and civilian organizations. She was appointed an honorary Companion of the Order of Australia in 1982, "for service to the community of Australia and humanity at large". The United Kingdom and the United States each repeatedly granted awards, culminating in the Order of Merit in 1983, and honorary citizenship of the United States received on 16 November 1996. Mother Teresa's Albanian homeland granted her the Golden Honour of the Nation in 1994. Her acceptance of this and another honour granted by the Haitian government proved controversial. Mother Teresa attracted criticism, particularly from the left, for implicitly giving support to the Duvaliers and to corrupt businessmen such as Charles Keating and Robert Maxwell. In Keating's case she wrote to the judge of his trial asking for clemency to be shown.
Universities in both the West and in India granted her honorary degrees. Other civilian awards include the Balzan Prize for promoting humanity, peace and brotherhood among peoples (1978), and the Albert Schweitzer International Prize (1975).
In 1979, Mother Teresa was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, "for work undertaken in the struggle to overcome poverty and distress, which also constitutes a threat to peace." She refused the conventional ceremonial banquet given to laureates, and asked that the $192,000 funds be given to the poor in India, stating that earthly rewards were important only if they helped her help the world's needy. When Mother Teresa received the prize, she was asked, "What can we do to promote world peace?" She answered "Go home and love your family." Building on this theme in her Nobel Lecture, she said: "Around the world, not only in the poor countries, but I found the poverty of the West so much more difficult to remove. When I pick up a person from the street, hungry, I give him a plate of rice, a piece of bread, I have satisfied. I have removed that hunger. But a person that is shut out, that feels unwanted, unloved, terrified, the person that has been thrown out from society—that poverty is so hurtable [sic] and so much, and I find that very difficult." She also singled out abortion as 'the greatest destroyer of peace in the world'.
Towards the end of her life, Mother Teresa attracted some negative attention in the Western media. The journalist Christopher Hitchens has been one of her most active critics. He was commissioned to co-write and narrate the documentary Hell's Angel about her for the British Channel 4 after Aroup Chatterjee encouraged the making of such a program, although Chatterjee was unhappy with the "sensationalist approach" of the final product. Hitchens expanded his criticism in a 1995 book, The Missionary Position.
Chatterjee writes that while she was alive Mother Teresa and her official biographers refused to collaborate with his own investigations and that she failed to defend herself against critical coverage in the Western press. He gives as examples a report in The Guardian in Britain whose "stringent (and quite detailed) attack on conditions in her orphanages ... [include] charges of gross neglect and physical and emotional abuse", and another documentary Mother Teresa: Time for Change? broadcast in several European countries. Both Chatterjee and Hitchens have themselves been subject to criticism for their stance.
The German magazine Stern published a critical article on the first anniversary of Mother Teresa's death. This concerned allegations regarding financial matters and the spending of donations. The medical press has also published criticism of her, arising from very different outlooks and priorities on patients' needs. Other critics include Tariq Ali, a member of the editorial committee of the New Left Review, and the Irish-born investigative journalist Donal MacIntyre.
Her death was mourned in both secular and religious communities. In tribute, Nawaz Sharif, the Prime Minister of Pakistan said that she was "a rare and unique individual who lived long for higher purposes. Her life-long devotion to the care of the poor, the sick, and the disadvantaged was one of the highest examples of service to our humanity." The former U.N. Secretary-General Javier Pérez de Cuéllar said: "She is the United Nations. She is peace in the world." During her lifetime and after her death, Mother Teresa was consistently found by Gallup to be the single most widely admired person in the US, and in 1999 was ranked as the "most admired person of the 20th century" by a poll in the US. She out-polled all other volunteered answers by a wide margin, and was in first place in all major demographic categories except the very young.
Spiritual lifeAnalyzing her deeds and achievements, John Paul II asked: "Where did Mother Teresa find the strength and perseverance to place herself completely at the service of others? She found it in prayer and in the silent contemplation of Jesus Christ, his Holy Face, his Sacred Heart." Privately, Mother Teresa experienced doubts and struggles over her religious beliefs which lasted nearly fifty years until the end of her life, during which "she felt no presence of God whatsoever", "neither in her heart or in the eucharist" as put by her postulator Rev. Brian Kolodiejchuk. Mother Teresa expressed grave doubts about God's existence and pain over her lack of faith:
Where is my faith? Even deep down ... there is nothing but emptiness and darkness ... If there be God—please forgive me. When I try to raise my thoughts to Heaven, there is such convicting emptiness that those very thoughts return like sharp knives and hurt my very soul ... How painful is this unknown pain—I have no Faith. Repulsed, empty, no faith, no love, no zeal, ... What do I labor for? If there be no God, there can be no soul. If there be no soul then, Jesus, You also are not true.
With reference to the above words, the Rev. Brian Kolodiejchuk, her postulator (the official responsible for gathering the evidence for her sanctification) indicated there was a risk that some might misinterpret her meaning, but her faith that God was working through her remained undiminished, and that while she pined for the lost sentiment of closeness with God, she did not question his existence. Many other saints had similar experiences of religious doubt, or what Catholics believe to be spiritual tests, such as Mother Teresa's namesake, St. Therese of Lisieux, who called it a "night of nothingness." Contrary to the mistaken belief by some that the doubts she expressed would be an impediment to canonization, just the opposite is true; it is very consistent with the experience of canonized mystics.
Mother Teresa described, after ten years of doubt, a short period of renewed faith. At the time of the death of Pope Pius XII in the fall of 1958, praying for him at a requiem mass, she said she had been relieved of "the long darkness: that strange suffering." However, five weeks later, she described returning to her difficulties in believing.
Mother Teresa wrote many letters to her confessors and superiors over a 66-year period. She had asked that her letters be destroyed, concerned that "people will think more of me—less of Jesus." However, despite this request, the correspondences have been compiled in Mother Teresa: Come Be My Light (Doubleday). In one publicly released letter to a spiritual confidant, the Rev. Michael van der Peet, she wrote, "Jesus has a very special love for you. [But] as for me, the silence and the emptiness is so great, that I look and do not see,—Listen and do not hear—the tongue moves [in prayer] but does not speak ... I want you to pray for me—that I let Him have [a] free hand."
Many news outlets have referred to Mother Teresa's writings as an indication of a "crisis of faith." Some critics of Mother Teresa, such as Christopher Hitchens, view her writings as evidence that her public image was created primarily for publicity despite her personal beliefs and actions. Hitchens writes, "So, which is the more striking: that the faithful should bravely confront the fact that one of their heroines all but lost her own faith, or that the Church should have gone on deploying, as an icon of favorable publicity, a confused old lady who it knew had for all practical purposes ceased to believe?" However, others such as Brian Kolodiejchuk, Come Be My Light's editor, draw comparisons to the 16th century mystic St. John of the Cross, who coined the term the "dark night of the soul" to describe a particular stage in the growth of some spiritual masters. The Vatican has indicated that the letters would not affect her path to sainthood. In fact, the book is edited by the Rev. Brian Kolodiejchuk, her postulator.
In his first encyclical Deus Caritas Est, Benedict XVI mentioned Teresa of Calcutta three times and he also used her life to clarify one of his main points of the encyclical. "In the example of Blessed Teresa of Calcutta we have a clear illustration of the fact that time devoted to God in prayer not only does not detract from effective and loving service to our neighbour but is in fact the inexhaustible source of that service." Mother Teresa specified that "It is only by mental prayer and spiritual reading that we can cultivate the gift of prayer."
Although there was no direct connection between Mother Teresa's order and the Franciscan orders, she was known as a great admirer of St. Francis of Assisi. Accordingly, her influence and life show influences of Franciscan spirituality. The Sisters of Charity recite the peace prayer of St. Francis every morning during thanksgiving after Communion and many of the vows and emphasis of her ministry are similar. St. Francis emphasized poverty, chastity, obedience and submission to Christ. He also devoted much of his own life to service of the poor, especially lepers in the area where he lived.
Miracle and beatification
|Blessed Teresa of Calcutta|
|Venerated in||Roman Catholicism|
|Beatified||19 October 2003, St. Peter's Basilica, Rome by Pope John Paul II|
|Major shrine||Mother House of the Missionaries of Charity, Calcutta, India|
|Patronage||World Youth Day|
Following Mother Teresa's death in 1997, the Holy See began the process of beatification, the third step towards possible canonization. This process requires the documentation of a miracle performed from the intercession of Mother Teresa. In 2002, the Vatican recognized as a miracle the healing of a tumor in the abdomen of an Indian woman, Monica Besra, following the application of a locket containing Mother Teresa's picture. Monica Besra said that a beam of light emanated from the picture, curing the cancerous tumor. Critics including some of Besra's medical staff and, initially, Besra's husband insisted that conventional medical treatment eradicated the tumor. Dr. Ranjan Mustafi, who told the New York Times he had treated Besra, said that the cyst was not cancer at all, but a cyst caused by tuberculosis. He insisted, "It was not a miracle…. She took medicines for nine months to one year."
An opposing perspective of the claim is that Monica's medical records contain sonograms, prescriptions, and physicians' notes that could conceivably prove whether the cure was a miracle or not. Monica has claimed Sister Betta of the Missionaries of Charity is holding them. The publication has received a "no comments" statement from Sister Betta. The officials at the Balurghat Hospital where Monica was seeking medical treatment are claiming that they are being pressured by the Catholic order to declare the cure as a miracle.
Christopher Hitchens was the only witness called by the Vatican to give evidence against Mother Teresa's beatification and canonization process, as the Vatican had abolished the traditional "devil's advocate" role, which fulfilled a similar purpose. Hitchens has argued that "her intention was not to help people", and he alleged that she lied to donors about the use of their contributions. “It was by talking to her that I discovered, and she assured me, that she wasn't working to alleviate poverty,” says Hitchens. “She was working to expand the number of Catholics. She said, ‘I'm not a social worker. I don't do it for this reason. I do it for Christ. I do it for the church.’" In the process of examining Teresa's suitability for beatification and canonization, the Roman Curia (the Vatican) pored over a great deal of documentation of published and unpublished criticisms of her life and work. Vatican officials say Hitchens' allegations have been investigated by the agency charged with such matters, the Congregation for the Causes of Saints, and they found no obstacle to Mother Teresa's beatification. Due to the attacks she has received, some Catholic writers have called her a sign of contradiction. The beatification of Mother Teresa took place on 19 October 2003, thereby bestowing on her the title "Blessed". A second miracle is required for her to proceed to canonization.
Mother Teresa inspired a variety of commemorations. She has been memorialized through museums, been named patroness of various churches, and had various structures and roads named after her. Various tributes have been published in Indian newspapers and magazines authored by her biographer, Navin Chawla.
- Missionaries of Charity
- Kalighat Home for the Dying
- Mother Teresa Memorial House
- The Missionary Position (book), Christopher Hitchens' book criticizing Teresa
- List of female Nobel laureates
- ↑ PBS Online Newshour (September 5, 1997). Mother Teresa Dies, www.pbs.org. Retrieved August, 2007
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Spink, Kathryn (1997). Mother Teresa: A Complete Authorized Biography. New York. HarperCollins, pp.16. ISBN 0-06-250825-3.
- ↑ Mother Teresa of Calcutta (1910–1997)
- ↑ Mother Teresa | Humanitarian
- ↑ Associate Press. (October 14, 2003). "Full house for Mother Teresa ceremony". CNN. Retrieved May 30, 2007.
- ↑ "Blessed Mother Teresa". (2007). Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved May 30, 2007.
- ↑ (2002) "Mother Teresa of Calcutta (1910–1997)". Vatican News Service. Retrieved May 30, 2007.
- ↑ Lester, Meera (2004). Saints' Blessings By Meera Lester Saints' Blessing. Fair Winds. pp. 138. ISBN 1592330452. http://books.google.com/books?id=HSg6f3JaN1IC&pg=PA139&lpg=PA139&dq=Nikolle+bojaxhiu&source=web&ots=bCgwkpbTe7&sig=sIXUKONOEt1BcY9DtqkJcg_NQfM&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=2&ct=result Saints' Blessings By Meera Lester. Retrieved 2008-12-14.
- ↑ Although some sources state that she was 10 when her father died, in an interview with her brother, the Vatican documents her age at the time as "about eight". Citation needed
- ↑ Clucas, Joan Graff. (1988). Mother Teresa. New York. Chelsea House Publications, pp. 24. ISBN 1-55546-855-1.
- ↑ Sharn, Lori (5 September 1997). "Mother Teresa dies at 87". USA Today. Retrieved May 30, 2007
- ↑ Clucas, Joan Graff. (1988). Mother Teresa. New York. Chelsea House Publications, pp. 28–29. ISBN 1-55546-855-1.
- ↑ Clucas, Joan Graff. (1988). Mother Teresa. New York. Chelsea House Publications, pp. 31. ISBN 1-55546-855-1.
- ↑ Sebba, Anne (1997).Mother Teresa: Beyond the Image. New York. Doubleday, p.35. ISBN 0-385-48952-8.
- ↑ Blessed Mother Teresa of Calcutta and St. Therese of Lisieux: Spiritual Sisters in the Night of Faith
- ↑ Clucas, Joan Graff. (1988). Mother Teresa. New York. Chelsea House Publications, pp. 32. ISBN 1-55546-855-1.
- ↑ Spink, Kathryn (1997). Mother Teresa: A Complete Authorized Biography. New York. HarperCollins, pp.18–21. ISBN 0-06-250825-3.
- ↑ Spink, Kathryn (1997). Mother Teresa: A Complete Authorized Biography. New York. HarperCollins, pp.18, 21–22. ISBN 0-06-250825-3.
- ↑ Clucas, Joan Graff. (1988). Mother Teresa. New York. Chelsea House Publications, pp. 35. ISBN 1-55546-855-1.
- ↑ Clucas, Joan Graff. (1988). Mother Teresa. New York. Chelsea House Publications, pp. 39. ISBN 1-55546-855-1.
- ↑ "Blessed Mother Teresa". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9071751. Retrieved 2007-12-20.
- ↑ Clucas, Joan Graff. (1988). Mother Teresa. New York. Chelsea House Publications, pp. 48–49. ISBN 1-55546-855-1.
- ↑ Williams, Paul (2002). Mother Teresa. Indianapolis. Alpha Books, p. 57. ISBN 0-02-864278-3.
- ↑ Spink, Kathryn (1997). Mother Teresa: A Complete Authorized Biography. New York. HarperCollins, pp.37. ISBN 0-06-250825-3.
- ↑ Williams, Paul (2002). Mother Teresa. Indianapolis. Alpha Books, p. 62. ISBN 0-02-864278-3.
- ↑ Spink, Kathryn (1997). Mother Teresa: A Complete Authorized Biography. New York. HarperCollins, pp.284. ISBN 0-06-250825-3.
- ↑ Sebba, Anne (1997).Mother Teresa: Beyond the Image. New York. Doubleday, pp. 58–60. ISBN 0-385-48952-8.
- ↑ 28.0 28.1 Spink, Kathryn (1997). Mother Teresa: A Complete Authorized Biography. New York. HarperCollins, pp.55. ISBN 0-06-250825-3.
- ↑ Sebba, Anne (1997).Mother Teresa: Beyond the Image. New York. Doubleday, pp. 62–63. ISBN 0-385-48952-8.
- ↑ Clucas, Joan Graff. (1988). Mother Teresa. New York. Chelsea House Publications, pp. 58–59. ISBN 1-55546-855-1.
- ↑ Spink, Kathryn (1997). Mother Teresa: A Complete Authorized Biography. New York. HarperCollins, pp.82. ISBN 0-06-250825-3.
- ↑ Spink, Kathryn (1997). Mother Teresa: A Complete Authorized Biography. New York. HarperCollins, pp.286–287. ISBN 0-06-250825-3.
- ↑ Scott, David A Revolution of Love: The Meaning of Mother Teresa Chicago, Loyola Press, 2005. ISBN 0829420312 p.7ff "She deals only with the disease (of poverty), but not with preventing it, but people in the West continue to give her money"
- ↑ Byfield, Ted (20 October 1997), "If the real world knew the real Mother Teresa there would be a lot less adulation", Alberta Report/Newsmagazine 24 (45)
- ↑ 35.0 35.1 35.2 Loudon, Mary. (1996)The Missionary Position: Mother Teresa in Theory and Practice, Book Review, BMJ vol.312, no.7022, 6 January 2006, pp.64–5. Retrieved August 2, 2007
- ↑ Fox, Robin (1994), "Mother Theresa's care for the dying", The Lancet 344 (8925): 807
- ↑ God's People Yearn For Holy Priests, Founded by Blessed Mother Teresa of Calcutta. Corpus Christi Movement for Priests. Retrieved August 2, 2007.
- ↑ The Religious Community of priests founded by Mother Teresa. Missionaries of Charity Fathers. Retrieved August 2, 2007.
- ↑ Slavicek, Louise (2007). Mother Teresa. New York; Infobase Publishing, pp. 90–91. ISBN 0791094332.
- ↑ CNN Staff, "Mother Teresa: A Profile", retrieved from CNN online on May 30, 2007
- ↑ Clucas, Joan Graff. (1988). Mother Teresa. New York. Chelsea House Publications, pp. 17. ISBN 1-55546-855-1.
- ↑ Cooper, Kenneth J. (14 September 1997). "Mother Teresa Laid to Rest After Multi-Faith Tribute". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 30, 2007
- ↑ (May 30, 2007) "A Vocation of Service". Eternal Word Television Network. Retrieved August 2, 2007.
- ↑ Embassy of India in Armenia Official Website. Describes how Mother Teresa journeyed to Armenia in December 1988 following the great earthquake. She and her order established an orphanage there. Retrieved May 30, 2007.
- ↑ Williams, Paul (2002).Mother Teresa. Indianapolis. Alpha Books, pp. 199–204. ISBN 0-02-864278-3.
- ↑ Clucas, Joan Graff. (1988). Mother Teresa. New York. Chelsea House Publications, pp. 104. ISBN 1-55546-855-1.
- ↑ Hitchens, Christopher (20 October 2003). "Mommie Dearest". Slate Magazine. Retrieved May 30, 2007.
- ↑ Hitchens, Christopher (1995). The Missionary Position. London: Verso. pp. 4, 64–71.
- ↑ KERA's Think Podcast: Leaving Mother Teresa, Losing Faith, and Searching for Meaning. Dec 15, 2008.
- ↑ Irish Independent http://www.independent.ie/unsorted/features/easter-the-church-and-the-same-party-line-42461.html
- ↑ Bindra, Satinder (September 7, 2001). "Archbishop: Mother Teresa underwent exorcism". CNN Retrieved May 30, 2007.
- ↑ "Mother Teresa – The Nobel Peace Prize 1979". Nobel Prize.org. The Nobel Foundation. 1979. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/teresa-bio.html. Retrieved 2009-10-15.
- ↑ 53.0 53.1 53.2 53.3 53.4 Parvathi Menon Cover story: A life of selfless caring, Frontline, Vol.14 :: No. 19 :: 20 September–3 October 1997
- ↑ "Mother Teresa: The Authorized Biography" ISBN 978-0756755485.
- ↑ 55.0 55.1 55.2 Chatterjee, Aroup, Introduction to The Final Verdict
- ↑ Victor Banerjee A Canopy most fatal, The Telegraph, Sunday, September 8, 2002.
- ↑ Associated Press (14 September 1997). ""India honors nun with state funeral". Archived from the original on 2005-03-06. http://web.archive.org/web/20050306224148/http://www.chron.com/cgi-bin/auth/story/content/chronicle/page1/97/09/14/teresa.html. ". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved May 30, 2007.
- ↑ Ramon Magsaysay Award Foundation (1962) Citation for Mother Teresa.
- ↑ 59.0 59.1 59.2 59.3 59.4 "Mother Teresa's Crisis of Faith". Time. http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1655415,00.html. Retrieved 2007-08-24.
- ↑ Sebba, Anne (1997). Mother Teresa: Beyond the Image. New York. Doubleday, pp. 80–84. ISBN 0-385-48952-8.
- ↑ Alpion, Gezmin (2007). Mother Teresa: Saint or Celebrity?. Routledge Press, pp. 9. ISBN 0415392462.
- ↑ Clucas, Joan Graff. (1988). Mother Teresa. New York. Chelsea House Publications, pp. 81–82. ISBN 1-55546-855-1.
- ↑ Quad City Times staff (October 17, 2005). "Habitat official to receive Pacem in Terris honor". Peace Corps. Retrieved 26 May 2007.
- ↑ It's an Honour: AC
- ↑ Mother Teresa of Calcutta, Fondazione Internazionale Balzan, 1978 Balzan Prize for Humanity, Peace and Brotherhood among Peoples. Retrieved 26 May 2007.
- ↑ Jones, Alice & Brown, Jonathan (7 March 2007). "Opposites attract? When Robert Maxwell met Mother Teresa". The Independent. Retrieved 26 May 2007.
- ↑ Locke, Michelle for the Associated Press (March 22, 2007). "Berkeley Nobel laureates donate prize money to charity". San Francisco Gate. Retrieved May 26, 2007
- ↑ Mother Teresa (11 December 1979). "Nobel Prize Lecture". NobelPrize.org. Retrieved 25 May 2007.
- ↑ 69.0 69.1 MacIntyre, Donal (August 22, 2005), New Statesman 134 (4754): 24–25, http://www.newstatesman.com/200508220019
- ↑ "Sins of the Missions.". The Guardian. 14 October 1996.
- ↑ 71.0 71.1 (October 16, 2006) Online Memorial Tribute to Mother Teresa. ChristianMemorials.com. Retrieved August 2, 2007.
- ↑ Frank Newport (December 31, 1999). Mother Teresa Voted by American People as Most Admired Person of the Century
- ↑ Greatest of the Century Gallup/CNN/USA Today Poll. 20–21 Dec. 1999.
- ↑ John Paul II (October 20, 2003). "Address Of John Paul II To The Pilgrims Who Had Come To Rome For The Beatification Of Mother Teresa". Vatican.va. http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/speeches/2003/october/documents/hf_jp-ii_spe_20031020_pilgrims-mother-teresa_en.html. Retrieved 2007-03-13.
- ↑ David Van Biema (2007-08-23). "Mother Teresa's Crisis of Faith". TIME. http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1655415,00.html.
- ↑ 76.0 76.1 Teresa, Mother; Kolodiejchuk, Brian (2007). Mother Teresa: Come Be My Light. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0385520379. http://books.google.com/books?id=EVaPAgAACAAJ&dq=Mother+Teresa:+Come+Be+My+Light.
- ↑ 77.0 77.1 77.2 New Book Reveals Mother Teresa's Struggle with Faith Beliefnet, AP 2007
- ↑ 78.0 78.1 "Hitchens Takes on Mother Teresa". Newsweek. http://www.newsweek.com/id/38603. Retrieved 2008-12-11.
- ↑ "Mother Teresa's Crisis of Faith". Sun Times. http://www.suntimes.com/news/metro/524638,CST-NWS-mother24.article. Retrieved 2007-08-26. [dead link]
- ↑ "Mother Teresa's Crisis of Faith". Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/11/29/wteres29.xml. Retrieved 2007-08-26.
- ↑ "Mother Teresa's canonisation not at risk". Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/08/24/wteresa224.xml. Retrieved 2007-08-26.
- ↑ Pope Benedict XVI (December 25, 2005). Deus Caritas Est. (PDF). Vatican City, pp.10. Retrieved August 2, 2007.
- ↑ Mother Teresa (197). No Greater Love. http://books.google.com/books?id=e9-Jvizc9IUC&pg=PA5&lpg=PA5&dq=mental+prayer&source=web&ots=dqQvjV7q0E&sig=7jADR3Y9qakbaUyq0EugJxpzll0#PPA5,M1. Retrieved 2007-08-12.
- ↑ 84.0 84.1 "Mother Teresa of Calcutta Pays Tribute to St. Francis of Assisi" on the American Catholic website, retrieved May 30, 2007.
- ↑ Orr, David (May 10. 2003). "Medicine cured 'miracle' woman – not Mother Teresa, say doctors". The Telegraph. Retrieved May 30, 2007.
- ↑ "Her Legacy: Acceptance and Doubts of a Miracle", by David Rohde. New York Times. Oct 20, 2003
- ↑ Anonymous (October 14. 2002)."What's Mother Teresa Got to Do with It?". Time Magazine. Retrieved October 10, 2008.
- ↑ Hitchens, Christopher (6 January 1996). "Less than Miraculous". Free Inquiry Magazine. Volume 24, Number 2.
- ↑ The Debate Over Sainthood. (9 October 2003). CBS News. Retrieved 26 May 2007.
- ↑ Shaw, Russell. (September 1, 2005). Attacking a Saint, Catholic Herald. Retrieved May 1, 2007.
- ↑ Vatican news release
- ↑ "The miracle of faith"
- ↑ "Memories of Mother Teresa"
- ↑ " Touch the Poor...
- ↑ " The path to Sainthood "
- ↑ " In the shadow of a saint
- ↑ "Mission Possible"
- ↑ " Mother Teresa and the joy of giving
- Navin Chawla. Mother Teresa: The Authorized Biography. Diane Pub Co. (March 1992). ISBN 978-0756755485. First published by Sinclair-Stevenson, U.K. (1992), since translated into 14 languages in India and abroad. Indian language editions include Hindi, Bengali, Gujarati, Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu, and Kannada. The foreign language editions include French, German, Dutch, Spanish, Italian, Polish, Japanese, and Thai. In both Indian and foreign languages, there have been multiple editions. The bulk of royalty income goes to charity.
- Eileen Egan and Kathleen Egan, OSB. Prayertimes with Mother Teresa: A New Adventure in Prayer, Doubleday, 1989. ISBN 978-0385-26231-6.
- Brian Kolodiejchuk (ed.). Mother Teresa: Come be My Light, Doubleday, 2007, ISBN 978-0385-52037-9.
- Raghu Rai and Navin Chawla. Faith and Compassion: The Life and Work of Mother Teresa. Element Books Ltd. (December 1996). ISBN 978-1852309121. Translated also into Dutch and Spanish.
- Alpion, Gezim. Mother Teresa: Saint or Celebrity?. London: Routledge Press, 2007. ISBN 0-415-39247-0
- Benenate, Becky and Joseph Durepos (eds). Mother Teresa: No Greater Love (Fine Communications, 2000) ISBN 1-56731-401-5
- Bindra, Satinder (2001-09-07). "Archbishop: Mother Teresa underwent exorcism". CNN.com World. http://archives.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/asiapcf/south/09/04/mother.theresa.exorcism/index.html. Retrieved 2006-10-23.
- Chatterjee, Aroup. Mother Teresa: The Final Verdict (Meteor Books, 2003). ISBN 81-88248-00-2, [http://www.meteorbooks.com/index.html introduction and first three chapters of fourteen (without pictures). Critical examination of Agnes Bojaxhiu's life and work.
- Chawla, Navin. Mother Teresa. Rockport, Mass: Element Books, 1996. ISBN 1-85230-911-3
- Chawla, Navin. Mother Teresa: The Authorized Biography, Diane Pub Co. (March 1992), ISBN 978-0756755485.
- Chawla, Navin. The miracle of faith, article in the Hindu dated August 25, 2007 " The miracle of faith"
- Chawla, Navin. Memories of Mother Teresa, article in the Hindu dated August 26, 2006" Memories of Mother Teresa"
- Chawla, Navin. Touch the Poor... – article in India Today dated 15 September 1997 " Touch the Poor..."
- Chawla, Navin. The path to Sainthood, article in The Hindu dated Saturday, Oct 04, 2003 " The path to Sainthood "
- Chawla, Navin. In the shadow of a saint, article in The Indian Express dated September, 05, 2007 " In the shadow of a saint "
- Chawla, Navin. Mission Possible, article in India Today dated April 21, 2008"Mission Possible"
- Chawla, Navin. Mother Teresa and the joy of giving, article in The Hindu dated August 26, 2008 " Mother Teresa and the joy of giving"
- Clucas, Joan. Mother Teresa. New York: Chelsea House, 1988. ISBN 1-55546-855-1
- Dwivedi, Brijal. Mother Teresa: Woman of the Century
- Hitchens, Christopher. The Missionary Position: Mother Teresa in Theory and Practice. London: Verso, 1996. ISBN 1-85984-054-X
- Le Joly, Edward. Mother Teresa of Calcutta. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1983. ISBN 0-06-065217-9.
- Muggeridge, Malcolm. Something Beautiful for God. ISBN 0-06-066043-0.
- Muntaykkal, T.T. Blessed Mother Teresa: Her Journey to Your Heart. ISBN 1-903650-61-5. ISBN 0-7648-1110-X. "Book Review". Archived from the original on 2006-02-09. http://web.archive.org/web/20060209154430/http://www.fish.co.uk/culture/books/1203/051203_mother_theresa.htm. .
- Scott, David. A Revolution of Love: The Meaning of Mother Teresa. Chicago: Loyola Press, 2005. ISBN 0829420312.
- Sebba, Anne. Mother Teresa: Beyond the Image. New York: Doubleday, 1997. ISBN 0-385-48952-8.
- Slavicek, Louise. Mother Teresa. New York: Infobase Publishing, 2007. ISBN 0791094332.
- Spink, Kathryn. Mother Teresa: A Complete Authorized Biography. New York: HarperCollins, 1997. ISBN 0-06-250825-3.
- Teresa, Mother et al., Mother Teresa: In My Own Words. Gramercy Books, 1997. ISBN 0-517-20169-0.
- Teresa, Mother & Kolodiejchuk, Brian, Mother Teresa: Come Be My Light, New York: Doubleday, 2007. ISBN 0385520379.
- Williams, Paul. Mother Teresa. Indianapolis: Alpha Books, 2002. ISBN 0-02-864278-3.
- Wüllenweber, Walter. "Nehmen ist seliger denn geben. Mutter Teresa—wo sind ihre Millionen?" Stern (illustrated German weekly), 10 September 1998. English translation.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Mother Teresa|
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Mother Teresa|
- Mother Teresa of Calcutta Center, India – Official Site
- Missionaries of Charity Fathers (MC Fathers / MC Priests) – Official Website: Biography of Mother Teresa
- Missionaries of Charity Brothers (Active Branch)
- Mother Teresa and her patron saint, St. Therese of Lisieux
- Mother Teresa Memorial Page
- Nobel Laureate Biography (Nobel Foundation)
- Complete Mother Teresa Quotations
- Mother Teresa: Angel of Mercy (CNN)
- The TIME 100: The Most Important People of the Century—Mother Teresa
- Mother Teresa's Crisis of Faith (TIME.com)
- Speech at National Prayer Breakfast, Washington, D.C. 3 February 1994
- Peggy Noonan, "Still, Small Voice," Crisis, 1 February 1998 (account of the National Prayer Breakfast speech)
- Mother Teresa at the Internet Movie Database
- Missionaries of Charity Active and Contemplative Sisters with U.S. contact information (CMSWR member page)
- India to give Mother Teresa state funeral, CNN
- "The Illusory vs The Real Mother Teresa", by Michael Hakeem, is a review of Christopher Hitchens' The Missionary Position. Published in Freethought Today, August 1996.
- Christopher Hitchens' critiques of specific individuals#Mother Teresa, and articles "Saint to the rich" in Salon.com, September 1997 and "Mommie Dearest" in Slate.com, 20 October 2003, both by Christopher Hitchens.
- "The squalid truth behind the legacy of Mother Teresa" by Donal MacIntyre in the New Statesman, August 22, 2005
- "Mother Teresa: Where are her millions?", Stern 10 September 1998.
- "Mother Teresa's House of Illusions" by Susan Shields
- "Mother Teresa of Calcutta" Website of Sally Warner
- "Mother Teresa, John Paul II, and the Fast-Track Saints" by Michael Parenti, CommonDreams.org, October 22, 2007
|Catholic Church titles|
|Superior General of the Missionaries of Charity|
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