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Monday (pronounced: ˈmʌndeɪ, or ˈmʌndi) is the day of the week between Sunday and Tuesday.

Etymology

The English noun Monday derived sometime before 1200 from monedæi, which itself developed from Old English (around 1000) mōnandæg and mōndæg (literally meaning "moon's day"), which is cognate to other Germanic languages, including Old Frisian mōnadeig, Middle Low German and Middle Dutch mānendach (modern Dutch Maandag), Old High German mānetag (modern German Montag), and Old Norse mánadagr (Swedish and Norwegian nynorsk måndag. Danish and Norwegian bokmål mandag). The term is a Germanic interpretation of Latin lunae dies ("day of the moon").[1]

The Russian word, eschewing pagan names, is понедельник (poniediélnik), meaning "after holiday". In Turkish it is called "pazartesi", which means the day after Sunday. In most of the Indian languages, the word for Monday is Somvar, with Soma being the Sanskrit name for the moon. The Japanese word for Monday is getsuyōbi (月曜日) which means day of the moon.

Position in the week

The international ISO 8601 standard places Monday as the first day of the week, and this is widely used on calendars in Europe and in international business, however according to traditional Christian count, Sunday is the first day of the week. This is the standard format in the United States, Canada and Japan.

In many other cultures, Monday is held to be the first day of the week. For example, Monday is xingqi yi (星期一) in Chinese, meaning day one of the week. The international standard ISO 8601 defines Monday as the first day of the week. Its name in Georgian and Syriac means "first day". Quakers traditionally refer to Monday as "Second Day" eschewing the pagan origin of the English name "Monday". For similar reasons the official liturgical calendar of the Roman Catholic Church refers to Monday as the second celebration day - Feria II. (The Portuguese and the Greek (Eastern Orthodox Church) name for Monday reflects this, as do all the days' names except Saturday and Sunday: the Portuguese word for Monday is segunda-feira and the Greek word is deutéra (Δευτέρα) ).

Modern culture usually looks at Monday as the beginning of the workweek, as it is typically Monday when adults go back to work and children back to school after the weekend. Thus, Mondays are often seen as a misfortune. In Middle Eastern countries, however, the beginning of the workweek is usually Saturday (Thursday and Friday are observed as the weekend). In Israel, Sunday is the first day of the workweek. Friday is half a work day and Friday night and Saturday are the Sabbath

Religious observances

In Judaism and Islam Mondays are considered auspicious days for fasting. The Didache warned early Christians not to fast on Mondays to avoid Judaizing, and suggests Wednesdays instead.

In Judaism the Torah is read in public on Monday mornings, one of three days the Torah is read each week (the other two days being Thursday and Saturday). Special penitential prayers are recited on Monday, unless there is a special occasion for happiness which cancels them.

In the Eastern Orthodox Church Mondays are days on which the angels are commemorated. The Octoechos contains hymns on this theme, arranged in an eight-week cycle, that are chanted on Mondays throughout the year. At the end of Divine Services on Monday, the dismissal begins with the words: "May Christ our True God, through the intercessions of his most-pure Mother, of the honorable, Bodiless Powers (i.e., the angels) of Heaven…". In many Eastern monasteries Mondays are observed as fast days; because Mondays are dedicated to the angels, and monks strive to live an angelic life. In these monasteries the monks abstain from meat, fowl, dairy products, fish, wine and oil (if a feast day occurs on a Monday, fish, wine and oil may be allowed, depending upon the particular feast).

Cultural references

In the "Monday's Child" folk rhyme, "Monday's child is fair of face".

In Thailand, the color associated with Monday is yellow.

The Boomtown Rats have a famous song called "I Don't Like Mondays".

Through the movie Office Space the quote "Someone is having a case of the Mondays!" entered the pop culture lexicon.

In the Garfield comic strips and television shows, the titular cat hates Mondays, and is frequently harmed during them.

Monday in different languages

Names for Monday in different languages and cultures (selection)
Language Pronunciation Meaning Notes
Latin dies lunae Day of the moon (literal translation)
Swedish Måndag Moon day (literal translation)
Albanian E Hene Day of the moon (literal translation)
Italian lunedì Day of the moon (literal translation)
Galician luns Day of the moon (literal translation)
Gaeilge Dé Luain Day of the moon (literal translation)
Catalan dilluns Day of the moon (literal translation)
Spanish lunes Day of the moon (literal translation)
French lundi Day of the moon (literal translation)
Welsh dydd Llun Day of the moon (literal tranlsation)
Norwegian mandag Moon Day (literal translation)
Romanian luni Day of the moon (literal translation)
Akan Edwada day of the moon beginning of the week
German Montag Moon day (literal translation)
Dutch Maandag Moon day (literal translation)
English Monday Moon day (literal translation)
Hungarian hétfő head of seven (=week) beginning of the week
Russian Понедельник
Ponedel'nik
after a holiday (literal translation from Old Russian)
Polish Poniedziałek after Sunday (literal translation)
Kashubian Pòniedzôłk after Sunday (literal translation)
Tibetan གཟའ་ཟླ་བ། "planet moon" (literal translation)
Khmer ថ្ងៃច័ន្ទ
tngae chan
moon day (literal translation)
Croatian Ponedjeljak after Sunday (literal translation)
Bulgarian Понеделник
Ponedelnik
after Sunday (literal translation)
Ukrainian Понеділок
Ponedilok
after Sunday (literal translation)
Czech pondělí after Sunday (literal translation)
Serbian Понедељак / Ponedelyak after Sunday (literal translation)
Slovak Pondelok after Sunday (literal translation)
Slovenian Ponedeljek after Sunday (literal translation)
Kiswahili Jumatatu the third day (almost literal translation)
Bosnian Ponedjeljak after Sunday (literal translation)
Macedonian Понеделник
Ponedelnik
after Sunday (literal translation)
Turkish Pazartesi after Sunday (literal translation)
Kurdish dúschem first day (literal translation)
Greek Δευτέρα
deutéra
the second (day) (literal translation)
Arabic الاثنين
al-ithnayn
the second(day) (literal translation)
Armenian Երկուշաբթի
Yergoushapti
the second (day) (literal translation)
Persian دوشنبه
do-schambe
the second day (literal translation)
Hebrew יום שני
yom scheni
the second day (literal translation)
Portuguese segunda-feira second (liturgical) celebration (literal translation)
Chinese 禮拜一
星期一
libaiyi
xingqiyi
first day of the week (literal translation)
Estonian esmaspäev first day of the week (literal translation)
Japanese 月曜日
getsuyôbi
moon day Japanese days are called by the names of celestial bodies, starting with sun and moon then five planets
Korean 월요일 月曜日
woryoil
moon day Korean days are called by the names of five basic elements, the moon, and the Sun.
Hindi सोमवार
som-vaar
day of Soma The sacrament/deity Soma was associated with the moon, as the moon's waxing symbolized the cup of Soma filling.
Malayalam തി‍‍‍ങ്കളാഴ്ച
thingka-lazhtcha
day of the moon (literal translation)
Lithuanian Pirmadienis First Day (literal translation)
Albanian E hënë First Day (literal translation)
Urdu پیر
Peer
Basque astelehena week-first (literal translation)

Astrology

Monday aligns with the celestial body, the Moon, and the astrological sign of Cancer.

Named days

Notes

  1. Barnhart (1995:485).

References

  • Barnhart, Robert K. (1995). The Barnhart Concise Dictionary of Etymology. Harper Collins. ISBN 0062700847
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