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Dakhni Oankar

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If there is any word that is misunderstood in the Sikh Scripture - the Aad Guru Granth Sahib (AGGS) and leads the Sikhs to accept ancient philosophy or Hindu Mythology, it is the word, ‘Oankar’ (EAMkwru), also pronounced by many Sikhs as ‘Omkar’ or ‘Aumkar’. The chief cause of this misunderstanding is the Bani known as "Dakhni Oankar" under Ramkali Raga appearing on page 929-938 of the AGGS. This Bani, in fact, is a discourse between Guru Nanak and a Pundit of OMKAR TEMPLE in South India. The various translations / interpretations of this Bani indicate that the word, EAMkwru, used in the title of this Bani and in the first Pauri (stanza) is mispronounced as well as is misunderstood.

The present study of the first stanza clearly indicates that Guru Nanak is talking about the philosophy of the Pundit of Omkar Temple. In rest of the Bani (from stanza # 2 to 54 including Rahaoo - Pause) Guru Nanak is clearing the confusion of the Pundit about nature and attributes of God. Guru Nanak explains to the Pundit that there is no Trinity (Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva) of God to which the word, ‘Oankar’ or ‘Omkar’, is implied. Guru Nanak further explains to the Pundit that God is ‘One and Only’; does not come into anthropomorphic form (AwjUnI); and no specific/descriptive (ikrqm) name can be coined for God since God is an ‘Eternal Entity’ and ineffable. The critical analysis of the first stanza of this Bani (EAMkwru) also indicates that the word, EAMkwru, has no bearing on the < , the original and unique logo coined by Guru Nanak, which is the first word of the Commencing Verse (commonly called Mool Mantra) of the AGGS. The AGGS starts with this logo, < . It is just ‘1 + Open Oora with its open end extended’, which should be pronounced as ‘Ek Oh Beant or Anant’ (One Oh). The mispronunciation of as Ek Oankar or Ek Onkar or Ek Omkar or Ek Oamkar or Ek Aumkar under the influence of ancient philosophy should be forsaken.

Background

The word, < , with which the Commencing Verse (commonly called as Mool Mantra) of the Aad Guru Granth Sahib (AGGS) [1] starts, is a unique and original logo coined by Guru Nanak [2, 3]. The irony is that it is mispronounced as Ek Oankar or Ek Onkar or Ek Omkar and is misunderstood to be originated from OM (Oam/Aum) by majority of the Sikh scholars and the Sikhs at large. The Sikh literature indicates that Bhai Gurdas [25] was the first, who has introduced that < is coined by Guru Nanak by placing ‘One’ (1) before the ‘Oora’ E (Open Oora with extended end) and pronounced it as ‘EAMkwru’ (Oankar/Omkar). Then Bhai Kahn Singh [17] and Dr Sahib Singh [21] followed him and confirmed that < is iek EAMkwru, which originated from ‘OM’ ( 1 + E + kwr meaning 1 + Om + Kar. Kar is a suffix of Sanskrit words). Thereafter, many scholars followed them and the pronunciation of this original and unique logo, < , became permanently imbibed in the Sikh psyche as Ek Oankar or Ek Onkar or Ek Omkar. Consequently the ‘< ‘ , the logo coined by Guru Nanak lost its originality and uniqueness and became the part and parcel of philosophy of Vedas and Upanishads. Moreover, the Commencing Verse also became the Mool Mantra according to the Veda’s philosophy. The question here to be resolved is:

Was Guru Nanak preaching the philosophy of the Vedas and Upanishads or his own original and unique philosophy?

A critical study of Sikh history and ancient philosophy about the Omkar Temple in the South India; Guru Nanak’s visit to that temple; and a discourse between Guru Nanak and the Pundit of Omkar Temple revealed that mispronunciation of the original and unique logo, < , either as Ek Oankar or Ek Onkar or Ek Omkar is based on the misunderstanding of Bani of Omkar (Oankar or Onkar). In the present study this mispronunciation of < and its misunderstanding have been resolved to prove that philosophy of Guru Nanak is original and unique.

Introduction

The word ‘EAMkwru’ is transliterated into Roman differently by different authors, for example, Oankar, Onkar, Omkar, Aumkar, Oamkar, Ongkar, etc. But here in this study ‘EAMkwru’ will be spelled as ‘Omkar’, which has been explained later. Moreover, there are also different stories and views about ‘Omkar’:

a. Giani Harbans Singh

  1. This Bani is a dialogue between Guru Nanak and a Pundit of Raja Shivnab in the Janam Sakhi Volume 2 of Harji.
  2. This is a dialogue between Guru Nanak and the Priest of a famous temple named ‘Omkar’ on an island in Madh Bharat (Central India) in Guru Shabd Ratnakar, Punjabi Mahan Kosh.
  3. This is a dialogue between Guru Nanak and a Pundit of Banaras (Varanasi) in ‘Punjgranthi Steek’ by Bhai Veer Singh.
  4. This is a discussion between Guru Nanak and a Pundit Brij Nath in ‘Twarikh Guru Khalsa’ according to Giani Gian Singh.
  5. This is a teaching (updesh) to Gopal Misar in South India according to Pundit Tara Singh Narouttum.
  6. Some authors say that this Bani is called ‘Dakhni Omkar’ since it was composed in South India.

After giving different views of above scholars Giani Harbans Singh further says that:

  1. The title of the Bani is just ‘Omkar’ not ‘Dakhni Omkar’ because the adjective ‘Dakhni’ is for the Raga Ramkali. Therefore, its right title is ‘Omkar’ under the Raga Ramkali Dakhni. He is following the views held by Prof Sahib Singh [21], and Dr Trilochan Singh .
  2. We are not concerned with the above different views of different authors, the main theme of this

Bani is that Guru Nanak has composed this Bani to explain to the Pundit, who teaches to his students, to write ‘O Namo’ at the top of patti (a small wooden board used to write with a washable paste) but he himself does not have any faith in ‘Omkar’.(Omkar is misunderstood as Akal Purkh by Giani Harbans Singh.)

  1. The beginning, middle and end of this Bani is so impressive that one who reads or listens to it attentively, even during his sleep, is imbibed in this great Bani that he does not want to leave it at all.

b. Dr Sahib Singh

According to Dr Sahib Singh ‘Omkar’ is combination of Om + Kar. And ‘Kar’ means ‘Ek Ras - pervades everywhere’ supported by quoting that as in ‘Dhunkar’, ‘Dhun’ means sound and word ‘Dhunkar’ means the sound, which pervades everywhere. “During first odyssey (odasi) when Guru Nanak was returning from Sangladip and passing through Somnath Duarka on the bank of river Nirbda reached a place where a temple, known as Omkar Mandir, was situated. He observed that the people of that place worship an idol of ‘Shiva’ as the idol of ‘Omkar’. The students of that temple used to write ‘Om Namha’ on the wooden plank and they also considered the idol of ‘Shiva’ as the idol of ‘Om’. In the first Pauri (stanza) the differences between ‘Shiva’ and‘Omkar’ have been explained.”

c. Dr Trilochan Singh

Dr Trilochan Singh [24- p 293] writes about the story of visit of Guru Nanak to the Omkar Temple as follows:

Omkar the Temple and Omkar the Song About 53 kilometers from Khandwa is a small township called Mandhata on the Narmada River, which is considered sacred because it is believed to have sprung from the body of Shiva. A small streamlet named Kaveri forms a loop and encircling around merges back into Narmada forming a small island. This island resembles the mystic word Om. The place is known as Omkareshwar and the main temple in it is known as Omkar. The island is also known as Shivapuri while the section on southern bank is divided into Brahmapuri and Vishnupuri, bringing the whole Hindu Trinity there, but identifying Shiva with the “Supreme Being…..According to tradition, the linga, representing Shiva, was installed here by King Mandhata Chakravarti who gave his name to the town. This linga is called Parameshvara (the Supreme Being) and is considered to be one of the most sacred of the twelve lingas. Guru Nanak was surprised to note that profound polytheistic worship of the Hindu Trinity. He composed here his famous composition Omkar in the Raga Ramkali Dakhni and its relation to the Absolute. The opening verse of this composition gives the Guru’s views on Omkara:

From Omkar Brahma was created,
From Omkar was created mind and spirit;
From Omkar, Time and space were created.
From Omkar, Books of wisdom were created.
Omkar is the world of liberation.
Reflect seriously on the Word Om,
The Word Om is the essence of three worlds.

Cultural Holiday Web Site

Omkareshwar, the sacred island, shaped like the holiest of all Hindu symbols, 'Om', has drawn to it hundreds of generations of pilgrims. Here, at the confluence of the rivers Narmada and Kaveri, the devout gather to kneel before the Jyotirlinga (one of the twelve Lingas of Shiva throughout India) at the temple of Shri Omkar Mandhata. The information given by this Web site clearly indicates that there was one of the nine Lingas, called Jyotirlinga in this temple of Omkar. From information given by Giani Harbans Singh [15], Dr Sahib Singh [21], Dr Trilochan Singh [24], and Cultural Holiday Web Site [Note 5], it becomes crystal clear that word EAMkwru, which is generally pronounced as ‘Oankar’ or ‘Onkar’ by many Sikhs is in fact ‘Omkar’ = Om + kar.’ Omkar designates the Linga of Shiva or Idol of Shiva. It was also established word (Omkar) for Om to designate Trinity of God: Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva. The word ‘Omkar’ is very common in South India where a temple is also named as ‘Omkar Temple’. This temple existed on the island of Omkareshwar (Mandhata) thousands of years before the visit of Guru Nanak during his odyssey (odasi) in South India. Therefore, the world, EAMkwru, is transliterated as ‘Omkar’ throughout this study, since it was known as ‘Omkar’ thousands of years before the arrival of Guru Nanak in South India. Therefore, it also confirms that word EAMkwru (Omkar) has not been coined by Guru Nanak for the Akal Purkh (Eternal Entity) as is generally accepted by many scholars. Therefore, this word, EAMkwru (Omkar), cannot be Akal Purkh (Eternal Entity) since it represents either the Idol of Shiva or the Linga of Shiva or the Trinity – Brahman, Vishnu, and Shiva ,according to ancient philosophy.

Omkar bani

This Bani of Guru Nanak has been named as EAMkwru (Omkar) after the name of Omkar Temple where one of the nine Lingas of Shiva or Idol of Shiva (called Omkar) is installed for worshiping. This is a discourse between Guru Nanak and the Pundit of Omkar Temple on the subject, Omkar. The Omkar Bani is composed of 54 pauri (stanzas) and one Rahaoo (Pause). Let us compare the translations in English and in Punjabi by some selected authors:

Comparison of Translations of First Stanza and Rahaoo of Omkar Bani EAMkwir bRhmw auqpiq ] EAMkwru kIAw ijin iciq ]
EAMkwir sYl jug Bey ] EAMkwir byd inrmey ]
EAMkwir sbid auDry ] EAMkwir gurmuiK qry ]
Enm AKr suxhu bIcwru ] Enm AKru iqRBvx swru ]1]
suix pwfy ikAw ilKhu jMjwlw ]
ilKu rwm nwm gurmuiK gopwlw ]1] rhwau ]

1. Gopal Singh

Onkar is He who Created Brahma;
Yea, Brahma, who treasured God in his mind.
Onkar is He who Created the mountains, the Yugas.
Onkar is He who created the Vedas.
Onkar is He who Created the Word, Emancipated all.
Onkar is he who, through whom the God-men aresaved.
Hear ye the meaning of the Word “Aum” which, indeed, is the Essence of the three worlds. 1. O Pandit, why writest thou of strife and involvement? Pray, write only the God’s Name, by the Guru’s Grace. Pause.

Gopal Singh pronounces ‘EAMkwir’ as ‘Onkar’ and ‘Onkar’ is understood as the Creator. And ‘Onam’ is translated as ‘Aum’, which pervades everywhere

2. Manmohan Singh

Brahma was created through the one Lord.
Brahma cherished the one Lord in the mind.
It is from the one Lord that mountains and ages have emanated.
It is the Lord who created the Vedas.
It is through one Lord that the world is saved
It is through the Lord that the God-conscious people are emancipated.
Hear though the account of the Imperishable Lord worthy of obeisance
The Eternal Lord is the essence of the three worlds.
Hear, O Pundit, why writest thou the worldly puzzles? By Guru's grace, write thou only the Name of the Lord, the Cherisher of the world. Pause

Manmohan Singh translate ‘EAMkwir ‘ as ‘One Lord’ and also says that ‘One Lord’ is the Creator. Onam’ is translated as ‘Imperishable Lord’ and ‘Eternal Lord’.

3. Pritam Singh Chahil

Brahma was created through one Lord.
Brahma cherished the one Lord in his mind.
It is from one Lord that mountains and ages were emanated.
It is the Lord who created Vedas.
It is through the one Lord that the world is saved.
It is through the Lord that the God-conscious people are emancipated.
Listen thou the account of the Imperishable Lord worthy of obeisance.
The Eternal Lord is the essence of the three worlds.
Listen, O Pundit, what rigmarole writes thou? By Guru's grace, write thou only the Name of the Lord, the cherisher of the world. Pause

Chahil’s translation is almost word-by-word copy of Manmohan Singh’s translation

4. Talib, Gurbachan Singh

From the Supreme Being, Sole and Unique got Brahma his existence.
Who in mind bore the Supreme Being, Sole and Unique.
From the Supreme Being, Sole and Unique, took birth mountains and yugas.
By the Supreme Being, Sole and Unique were created the Vedas.
By grace of the Supreme Being, Sole and Unique were beings saved through the holy Word.
By grace of the Supreme Being, Sole and Unique, by guidance of the Master are being saved
Listen to the discourse on the syllable Om worthy of obeisance – Om, worth of obedience that of the three worlds is the essence.
Listen thou Brahmin pedagogue! What rigmarole art the writing? Indite by the Master’s guidance, the Name Divine, cherisher of the universe. Pause.

Talib translates ‘EAMkwir’ as the ‘Supreme Being’, ‘Sole and Unique’, and says that is the Creator; and ‘Onam’ as ‘Om’.

5. Sant Singh Khalsa

From Ongkaar, the One Universal Creator God,Brahma was created.
He kept Ongkaar in his consciousness.
From Ongkaar, the mountains and the ages were created.
Ongkaar created the Vedas.
Ongkaar saves the world through the Shabad, Ongkaar saves the Gurmukhs.
Listen to the Message of the Universal, Imperishable Creator Lord.
The Universal, Imperishable Creator Lord is the essence of the three worlds. ||1||
Listen, O Pandit, O religious scholar, why are you writing about worldly debates?
As Gurmukh, write only the Name of the Lord, the Lord of the World. ||1||Pause||

Sant Singh Khalsa is quite different from all others and ‘EAMkwir’ is transliterated as ‘Ongkaar’; and ‘Onam’ is translated as ‘Lord’

Note: Changing the spellings of ‘EAMkwir’ as ‘Ongkaar’ cannot be separated from its connection with Om. Since all these words with different spellings (Oankar, Onkar, Omkar, Oamkar, Aumkar, Ongkaar, etc.) still represent OM, the Trinity, in Vedas and Upanishad. This word has not been coined by Guru Nanak since it was already being used thousands of years before the visit of Guru Nanak in South India and writing of the Omkar Bani. The Sikh theologians generally forget that Guru Nanak has not coined any specific/descriptive (ikrqm) name for God since God is ineffable.

6. Dr Sahib Singh

Hey Pundit! You call the installed idol of Shiva (as mentioned earlier by Dr Sahib Singh but Dr Trilochan Singh [24] says it is Shiva’s Linga) as the Omkar and say Brahma created the world but Omkar is that who pervades everywhere from which Brahma took birth, that Brahma has kept that, which is Pervading Everywhere, in his mind. The whole world was created by that, Pervading Everywhere, and Veda also came from Omkar. Living beings are saved from bad deeds with the help of Sabd of that Pervading Everywhere Parmatma and one can swim through the sea of life by following his way.

(Hey Pundit! You write ‘Om Namah’ on the planks of your students but consider that idol as ‘Om’.) Listen about that Great Entity for whom you write the word, ‘Om Namah’. This word, ‘Om Namah’ is for (that Great Akal Purkh) who is the creator of the whole world.

Hey Pundit! Listen! There can be no benefit of writing only (worldly strife) jumbled words.(If you want to succeed in your life) write the name of the Parmatama, the Lord of the world. Rahaoo

Dr Sahib Singh says that the Pundit accepts the Idol of Shiva or Linga of Shiva as ‘EAMkwir’ (Omkar) as well as ‘Om’. On the other hand he himself considers Omkar as the Akal Purk

7. Giani Harbans Singh

(Hey Pundit!) Brahma was created by Akal Purkh,which pervades everywhere, and that Brahma has kept that Akal Purkh in his mind, from Omkar the mountains and yugas (Periods of time) came into existence. From Omkar Vedas came into existence. From Omkar through the Sabd the living beings were saved (from drowning into the sea of bad deeds). Through Omkar the Guru–oriented swam (worldly sea).

(Hey Pundit!) Listen! What you write as O Namey word (that is worth respecting) and hear its philosophy. (This) word, ‘Om’ is the basic gist of Three Worlds . Hey Pundit! (You) Listen! The worldly word you are writing (has no benefit at all). (Leave such words) Write the name of the Preserver of the world. Rahaoo.

Giani Harbans Singh does not correlate ‘Omkar’ with the idol of Shiva or Linga of Shiva or Om in his translation but interprets Omkar as ‘Akal Purkh’; and Onam as the basic gist of Three Words

Inference from the above Translations

  1. The first stanza of Omkar Bani has been translated word-by-word by all these authors.
  2. Omkar is considered as Akal Purkh, Creator, Lord, Supreme Being, or Eternal Lord by all the authors.
  3. These authors (and many others) consider the first stanza as if Guru Nanak is explaining his own philosophy

The Fact

  1. According to the ancient history and ancient philosophy ‘Omkar’ is either an ‘Idol of Shiva’ or the ‘Linga of Shiva’ installed in a temple, which is called Omkar Temple. Therefore, ‘Omkar’ cannot be considered as God or Akal Purkh since Shiva is one of the three gods of the Trinity.
  2. Om is considered as sound according to Vedas and Upanishads, which represents Trinity. Guru Nanak does not accept Trinity of God.
  3. In the first stanza Guru Nanak is talking about the ancient concept being taught by the Pundit: The Idol of Shiva or Linga of Shiva is considered as ‘EAMkwir’ (Omkar) by the Pundit of Omkar Temple. And the Pundit also equates ‘Omkar’ to OM, which represent Trinity of God. Therefore, it is not the philosophy of Guru Nanak as is explained in details in the following section.

Analysis and Interpretation of First Stanza of Omkar Bani

A critical analysis of the first Pauri (stanza) indicates that it is about the ancient philosophy being taught by the Pundit to his students. In fact, it is not the philosophy of Guru Nanak. The gist of Guru Nanak’s philosophy is given in the Rahaoo (pause), which is followed immediately after the first stanza. In the rest of the Bani (from stanza # 2 to 54) Guru Nanak is clearing the Confusion of the Pundit about the God. Guru Nanak does not accept the Trinity of God as is accepted in ancient philosophy, which was being taught by the Pundit to his students.

God for Guru Nanak is ‘One and Only’, does not come into anthropomorphic form (AwjUnI) and no pecific/ descriptive (ikrqm) name can be coined for God (as explained in the rest of 53 stanzas of this Bani). The God for Guru Nanak is the ‘Eternal Entity’ [2, 3]. Before interpreting the first stanza of this Bani, it is very important to understand the ‘Nanakian Methodology’ used by Guru Nanak and other Sikh Gurus to express their philosophy [3, 4]. In most of the cases Guru Nanak first talks about the ancient philosophy or the concepts usually accepted or held true by people, then he explains his own philosophy. For example, in stanza # 22 of JAP Guru Nanak first quotes the concept of universe according to Vedas then he quotes the Semitic concept about the universe. finally Guru Nanak explains his own philosophy [3]:

Cosmos

pwqwlw pwqwl lK Awgwsw Awgws ]
EVk EVk Bwil Qky vyd khin iek vwq ]
shs ATwrh khin kqybw AsulU ieku Dwqu ]
lyKw hoie q ilKIAY lyKY hoie ivxwsu ]
nwnk vfw AwKIAY Awpy jwxY Awpu ] 22 ]
AGGS, Jap 22, p 5.

• After great research the Vedas have concluded thatthere are hundreds of thousands of nether worlds, and hundreds of thousands of skies.

• The Semitic books say that there are eighteen thousand worlds and that is the fact. However, Nanak says:

• It cannot be possible to count (number of the celestial bodies in the universe) because the accounting person may reach the end of his life during counting, it will still be incomplete. He further says that (the God) is the Great who knows the account (of the celestial bodies in the universe).

Note: The first three phrases give the information of Vedas and Semitic books; this is not the view of Guru Nanak. However, some scholars and preachers erroneously interpret that it is Guru Nanak who says that there are lacs (hundreds of thousands) of Patal (nether worlds) and lacs of skies.

Theme

In this stanza Guru Nanak is referring to that the Vedas say that there are hundreds of thousands of Patal (nether worlds) and hundreds of thousands of skies and on the other hand Semitic books say that there are 18,000 worlds.

Explanation

Scientifically there is no nether world. It is an ancient myth. Similarly, there is no sky. The blue color we see is the color due to the deflection of light in the air through which the sunlight asses before coming to us. In fact it is a void or space. After quoting the information available or the accepted concept at that time Guru Nanak gives his own observations. He says that the cosmos (universe) contains countless number of celestial bodies. The real number would be only known to the God, the creator. According to the present scientific information available there are billions of galaxies and each galaxy is composed of billions of stars and their planets and moons. Our sun is one of the billions of stars of our galaxy, Milky Way, having nine planets revolving around it. Another similar example [3] also indicates that Guru Nanak first talks about the concept generally accepted then he explains his own philosophy

Conclusions

- Omkar Temple has existed in South India thousands of years before the visit of Guru Nanak to this temple.

- The temple is named after Omkar, which refers to the ‘Idol of Shiva’ or ‘Linga of Shiva’ installed in that temple.

- Omkar is the name originated from OM, which represents Trinity: Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva.

- Omkar is variously spelled as Oankar, Onkar, Oumkar, Oamkar, and Aumkar in Vedas and Upanishads.

- EAMkwru (Oankar, Onkar, Omkar, Oamkar, Aumkar) was not coined by Guru Nanak as claimed by many Sikh scholars including Bhai Gurdas.

- EAMkwru (Omkar) Bani was composed by Guru Nanak to explain to the Pundit of Omkar Temple that God cannot be represented as OMKAR since it originated from OM – The Trinity: Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva.

- Since EAMkwru (Omkar) originated from OM – The Trinity, therefore, it cannot be equated with Akal Purkh as is generally considered by many theologians and writers.

- According to Guru Nanak God (Akal Purkh) does not come into anthropomorphic form (AwjUnI); and no specific/descriptive (ikrqm) name can be coined for God since God is an ‘Eternal Entity’ and ‘Ineffable’.

- Open Oora with extended end in < is neither an abbreviation of EAMkwru nor has any connection with the EAMkwru (Oankar, Onkar, Omkar, Oamkar, Aumkar) as is generally accepted by all the Sikh scholars and Sikh theologians, including Bhai Gurdas.

- EAMkwru is just another descriptive (ikrqm) name or metaphoric name of God like Ram, Hari, Gopal, Dyal, etc used in AGGS. There is no verse in the entire AGGS other than the Commencing Verse (commonly called 'Mool Mantra) that gives concise and precise description of God in accordance with Nanakian Philosophy. Such a concise and precise description of God is not found anywhere else (outside of the AGGS).

- The right pronunciation and meaning of < is: ieku E byAMq (Ek + Oh + Beant) (One Oh ∝ = One and Only, Oh, the Infinite). Or ieku E AnMq (Ek OhAnanat).

- < is original and unique logo/emblem coined by Guru Nanak not found anywhere else.

- < is original and unique logo coined by Guru Nanak which has no connection with EAMkwru or eykMkwru or OM

- This logo (emblem), < , which is the keystone of Sikhism (Nanakian philosophy) should neither be misinterpreted nor be reckoned by Sikhs as originating from ancient (Hindu) philosophy, failing which Sikhism in all likelihood will be gradually absorbed as a branch of Hinduism.

Acknowledgements

The author is very thankful to Dr Jaspal Singh Mayell for helping me in comparison of translations of the first stanza of EAMkwru (Omkar) Bani. My thanks are due to Mr Gurtej Singh of New Zealand, Mr Amandeep Singh of Australia, Mrs A Singh of Ontario, Canada, and Dr Avtar Singh Dhaliwal of Tennessee, USA for their valuable suggestions to improve the text. I must thank my son for his help for occasional suggestions to be careful in presenting sensitive issues like this UNDERSTANDING SIKHISM – The Research Journal) and its maintenance. I must admit here that if there is any mistake in this study it is my fault not of any reviewer. Finally, I am very grateful to Mr Ajit Singh Batra of New York, USA, who has taken special interest to improve its presentation and also for his encouragement to settle the pronunciation of < in its real perspective to save the originality and uniqueness of Nanakian Philosophy from being amalgamated into Hinduism

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  17. Singh, (Bhai) Kahn. 1981. Mahan Kosh (Punjabi). Bhasha Vibhag, Punjab, Patiala, India.
  18. Singh, Manmohan.1981, Siri Guru Granth Sahib (Gurmukhi, English and Punjabi translations), Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Amritsar, Punjab, India, 2nd edition, 8 volumes.
  19. Singh, Pritam (ed.). 1985. Sikh Concept of Divine. Guru Nanak Dev University Press, Amritsar, India.
  20. Singh, Pritam. 1985. The Interpretation of Mul Mantra. In: Sikh Concept of Divine. Pritam Singh, Editor. Pp 1-
  21. Guru Nanak Dev University Press, Amritsar, India.
  22. Singh, (Dr) Sahib.1972. Sri Guru Granth Sahib Darpan. (Punjabi). Vols 10. Raj Publishers (Reg.), Jallandhar, India.
  23. Singh, Sher. 1966. Philosophy of Sikhism. Sterling Publishers (P) Ltd. Jallandhar, India.
  24. Singh, (Principal) Teja. Year? Japji Steek (Punjabi). Dharam Parchar Committee, Sri Amritsar,India.
  25. Singh, Trilochan. 1969. Guru Nanak: Founder of Sikhism. Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Sis Ganj, Chandni Chowk, Delhi (pp293-294.).
  26. Singh, (Dr) Veer. 1984 (ed.). Vaaran Bhai Gurdas Stek. Khalsa Samachar, Hall Bazar, Amritsar.
  27. Talib, Gurbachan Singh.1988. Sri Guru Granth Sahib. Vols. 4. Punjabi University, Patiala.
  28. Webster’s Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary. 1991. Thomas Allen & Son Ltd. Markham, Ontario.

NOTES

1. http://hinduwebsite.com/brahman.htm
2. www.manilsuri.com/glossary.htm
3. www.vedanta-newyork.org/glos.htm
4. http://hinduism.about.com/library/weekly/extra/bl-glossary-a.htm
5. htt p:// www. cult ure holi da ys . com/ Temples/omkareshwar.htm
6. Prem Sanjeeev. http://www.esamskriti.com/html/new_inside.asp?cat_name=Jaina&cid=831&sid=10504&count1=2
7. List of Participants of the seminar: Pritam Singh, Dr. Krishan Lal, Sharma, (The Late) Dr Parma Nand, Ram Singh, Dr Manmohan Singh, Dr Jaswant Singh Neki, Dr Jasbir Singh Ahluwalia, (The Late) Dr Bhai Jodh Singh, Dr Jagjit Singh Saluja, Dr Trilochan Singh, (The Late) Dr Taran Singh, Sohan Singh, Dr Wazir Singh, Hardev Bahri, Dr B. B. Chaubey, M. P. Christanand Pillai, G. S. Talib, Dr Gurinder Kaur (was not participant but her paper was included in the proceedings. Note: It is a pre-print, which will be appearing in the UNDERSTANDING SIKHISM - The Research Journal of July 2005 issue. It is being posted on www.iuscanada.com for general information to those who are involved in correcting the UNESCO Dossier for the award World Heritage Status to Darbar Sahib, Amritsar.

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