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Mirian Greek (Greek: Μιριάνική Ἑλληνική γλώσσα Greek pronunciation: [mirianike hɛlenike ˈɣlɔsa]) is the scholastic (academic) Greek language used in the Mirian Church to study Greek manuscripts of the Septuagint and the New Testament. It is a derivative of the Koine Greek language spoken in the coastal regions of the eastern Mediterranean during the Hellenistic era to the days of the Roman Empire.

Language family: Indo-European > Hellenic > Ancient Greek > Eastern (Attic-Ionic) > Koine > Mirian Greek

Writing system: Greek alphabet

Native to: Kerala, India; Hawaiian Islands


The phonetic notation of speech sounds (within slashes) in this article follows IPA format. The corresponding Greek upper and lower case letters are in bold.


Front Back
unrounded rounded rounded
Close /i/ Ι ι /y/ Υ υ /u/ Ου ου
Mid /e/ Η η   /o/ Ο ο
Open Mid /ɛ/ Ε ε   /ɔ/ Ω ω
Open /a/ Α α




Table of Mirian Greek consonant phonemes
Labial Bilabial Dental Alveolar Velar Glottal
plain emphatic plain
Nasal /m/ Μ μ /n/ Ν ν /ŋ/ γγ
Plosive /p/ Π π /b/ Β β /pʰ/ Φ φ /t/ Τ τ /d/ Δ δ /tʰ/ Θ θ /k/ Κ κ /ɡ/ κγ /ʔ/ ᾿ ¨
Fricative /s/ Σ σ/ς /z/ Ζ ζ /x/ Χ χ /ɣ/ Γ γ /h/
Approximant /l/ Λ λ
Trill /r/ ([r̥ʰ]) Ρ ρ (῾Ρ ῥ)

Consonant combinations occur for the two Greek letters Ψ ψ /ps/ and Ξ ξ /ks/.


As with its predecessor, Mirian Greek has an orthography that utilizes a variety of diacritical marks which act as accents, breathings and diaereses. A reduction in the use of the Ancient Greek iota subscript and adscript occurs in Mirian Greek orthography.


Pitch accents (Greek: τόνοι, singular τόνος) are placed over a vowel (e.g. ά) or over the last of two vowels in a diphthong (e.g. αί), and indicate pitch patterns. Mirian Greek has three accents: acute (´), grave (`), and circumflex ( ̑).

Acute Grave Circumflex
Άά Έέ Ήή Ίί Όό Ύύ Ώώ Ὰὰ Ὲὲ Ὴὴ Ὶὶ Ὸὸ Ὺὺ Ὼὼ ̑Αᾶ ̑Ηῆ ̑Ιῖ ̑Υῦ

The acute accent (Ancient Greek: ὀξεῖα, "sharp" or "high") — marks a high pitch on a short vowel or rising pitch on a long vowel.

The grave accent (Ancient Greek: βαρεῖα, "heavy" or "low") — marks a low or falling pitch.

The circumflex (Ancient Greek: περισπωμένη, "twisted around") – marks a high and falling pitch within a syllable. Also known as ὀξύβαρυς meaning "high-low" or "acute-grave," it only appears on long vowels or diphthongs due to its compound nature.

Breathing marks

The breathings are written over a vowel or over the Rho (Ρρ).

Rough Smooth
Ἁἁ Ἑἑ Ἡἡ Ἱἱ Ὁὁ Ὑὑ Ὡὡ Ἀἀ Ἐἐ Ἠἠ Ἰἰ Ὀὀ ὐ Ὠὠ

The rough breathing (δασὺ πνεῦμα) indicates a voiceless glottal fricative (/h/) before the vowel usually at the beginning of Greek words. In Greek grammar, this is known as aspiration. It is different from aspiration in phonetics, which applies to consonants only, and not to vowels.

Rho (Ρρ) at the beginning of a word always takes rough breathing, marking unvoiced pronunciation.

Upsilon (Υυ) at the beginning of a word usually takes rough breathing. Thus, Greek words beginning with it are usually pronounced with a /hy/, but can be pronounced with an /ʔy/ if a capitalized upsilon is unmarked orthographically or if it has a diaeresis (see below).

The smooth breathing (ψιλὸν πνεῦμα) marks the absence of /h/, but acts as a glottal stop (/ʔ/). The glottal stop is not a common feature in most ancient and modern Greek dialects, so its use in Mirian Greek is probably due to contact with Semitic languages such as Mirian Syriac and Mirian Hebrew.


Diaeresis Acute,
Ϊϊ Ϋϋ ΐ ΰ ῒ ῢ ῗ ῧ


As with all of the ancient Indo-European languages, especially the Koine Greek language, Mirian Greek is highly inflectional. It preserves several morphological features from its linguistic ancestor, Proto-Indo-European. Thus, Mirian Greek nouns have five cases (nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, and vocative), three genders (masculine, feminine, and neuter), and two numbers (singular and plural). Verbs in Mirian Greek have four moods (indicative, imperative, subjunctive, and optative), three voices (active, middle, passive), and three persons (first, second, and third). Verbs are also conjugated through seven tense-aspect combinations (Tenses: present, future, imperfect; Aspects: aorist-perfective, present perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect).



Nouns, pronouns, articles, and adjectives

All nouns, pronouns and articles in Mirian Greek are ascribed grammatical genders: Masculine, feminine, or neuter. The stems of nouns and pronouns decline into forms according to one of the five morphological cases: Nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, or vocative. Likewise, adjectives are ascribed genders and morphological cases, and always agree with the nouns, pronouns, and articles they modify.

Definite article


Basic vocabulary

Below is a list of about 210+ basic words in both English and Mirian Greek. This list may grow to become more inclusive of other common words, but is currently limited to 210 core vocabulary.

Each Mirian Greek word is given in its original Greek form; use the tables in Phonology above as pronunciation guides.

English-Mirian Greek Basic Vocabulary
English Mirian Greek
above (prep.) ἀνω
all πας
and και
ash σποδος
at ἐπι
back (spine) νωτος
bad (evil) κάκος
belly κοιλία
below κατω
big μεγως
bird πετινυν; ὄρνεον (hen or fowl) / ὄρνις
black μελας
blood ἁιμα
bone ὀστεον
branch (of a tree; arm) κλειμα
breast μαστος
child τεκνυν
cloud νεφιλι
cold ψυχος
correct; true ὀρθυ; ἀληθης
day ἡμέρα
dirty ῥυπαρος
dog κυων
dry ξερος
dull; blunt ἀμβλυς; μωρος
dust κονις; χους
ear οὐς
earth; soil γης; χους
egg ὠον
Eight ὀκτώ
eye ὀφθαλμος
far μακρος
fat; grease λιπαρος
father πατηρ
feather φτερος
Fifty πεντηκοντα
fire πυρ
fish ἰχθος
Five πεντε
flower ἀνθος
fog ὁμιχλος
Four τεσσαρες
fruit καρπος
good ἀγαθος
grass χορτος
green χλωρος
hair θριξ; κομη; τριχός
hand χειρο; δάκτυλος (a finger)
he/she αὐτος/αὐτή
head κεφαλή
heavy βαρυς
house οἰκος
how? πος
husband ἀνηρ
I ἐγω
if εἰ
in; inside ἐν
intestines ἐντερον; σπλάγχνα
lake λίμνη
leaf φύλλο
left εὐώνυμος
leg; foot σκελος; ποδι
lightning ἀστραπή
liver σπλάγχνον; ἡπατος
long μακρος
louse φθεΐρ
man/male ἀνδρας/ἀνηρ
many πολύς
meat/flesh κρεας/σαρξ
moon στελήνή
mosquito κονοψι
mother μητερ
mouth στομα
name ὄνομα
narrow στενός
near ἐγγυς; πλησίον
neck τραχηλος
needle ῥαφίς
new νεος; καινός
night νυξ
Nine ἐννέα
no; not οὐ / οὐκ (before a vowel) / οὐχ (before an aspirated vowel); μη
nose ῥίνα; μυκτήρ
old παλαιός; γῆρας (old age)
One εἷς; μία; ἑν
One hundred ἑκατον
One thousand χίλιοι
other ἀλλος; ἕτερος
painful; sick ἄρρωστος; λυπημενος (sad, sorrowful)
person; human being προσωπο; ἀνθρωπος
rain βροχη
rat ἀρρουραίος; ὔνδρα (loan from Indic)
red ἐρυθρός
right δεξιός (side); δίκαιος (equitable, just); πρέπω (to be fitting or right)
road; path ὁδος
root ῥίζα
rope σχοινιον
rotten σαπρος
salt ἅλας; ἅλς
sand ἄμμος
sea θάλασσα
Seven ἑπτα
sharp ὀξύς; αἰχμηός
short βραχύς
shoulder ὦμος
shy; ashamed αἰσχυνό
Six ἑξι
skin δέρμα
sky οὐρανός
small μικρός
smoke καπνός
snake ὄφις
spider ἀράχνη
star ἀστήρ
stick; wood ῥάβδος; ξύλον
stone λίθος; πέτρος (rock, small stone)
tail οὐρά
Ten δέκα
that ἐκεῖνος; ὁτι (because, since)
thatch; roof στέγη
they αὑτοί / αὑταί (masc./fem.)
thick παχύς
thin λεπτος
this οὑτος / αὕτη / τουτο (masc./fem./neut.)
thou σύ
Three τρεῖς; τρία
thunder βροντη
to bite δάκνω; βρύχω
to blow φυσαω
to breathe πνέω
to burn καίω; πυρόω
to buy ἀγοράζω; κταομαι (to gain, acquire); ὠφελέω (to profit/benefit); ὠνέομαι (to purchase)
to chew μασσάομαι; τρώγω (to gnaw); γέυομαι (to taste)
to choose αἱρεω; ἐκλέγομαι
to climb ἀναβαίνω
to come ἔρχομαι; ἐλθεῗν (aorist-infinitive-active)
to cook ὀπταω
to count ἀριθμέω (to number); ἀξιόω (to value); ψηφίζω (to calculate)
to cry δακρύω (to tear); κραζω (to cry out)
to cut; hack διχάζω (to separate); κόπτω (to cut off, stike, or by extension be grief-stricken)
to die; be dead θνήσκω
to dig σκάπτω; ὀρύσσω (to burrow)
to dream ἐνυπνιαζομαι
to drink πίνω
to eat ἐσθίω (related to ἐδω); φάγω
to fall πίπτω (from the root πετ-) / πεσω
to fear φοβοῦμαι (present-indicative-middle/passive)
to flow ῥέω; παραρρέω (to drift by/away)
to fly πέτομαι (from πέτω)
to grow φύω (to bring forth/produce); αὐξάνω (to cause to grow); βλάστομαι
to hear ἀκούω
to hide κρύπτω
to hit κοπτω
to hold ἔχω (or "to have"); φέρω (to bear or carry); τηρέω (to keep or guard)
to hunt θηρεύω
to kill φονεύω
to know, be knowledgeable γινώσκω
to laugh γελάω
to lie down κατακεϊμαι
to live, be alive βιόω (to live physically); ζάω (from the roots ζη- and ζω-)
to open, uncover ἀνοίγω; ἀποκαλύπτω; εὑρίσκω (to find)
to plant φυτεύω
to pound, beat πατάσσω; πλήσσω (to strike); τύπτω
to say ἐρεῶ (to call, speak or tell); λέγω; φημί
to scratch κνήθω
to see βλέπω; ὁράω (to perceive or beware)
to sew ῥαπτω
to shoot τόξω (from τόξον, meaning "a bow")
to sit καθέζομαι (to sit down); καθίζω (transitive or intransitive)
to sleep κοιμαώ; κοιμαομαι; (Noun form: ὑπνος)
to sniff, smell ὄσφραίνομαι; ὄζω (to emit an odor, or to stink)
to spit πτύω
to split μερίζω (to divide; from μέρος, meaning "a portion"); σχίζω
to squeeze θλίβω (to press or persecute); πειράζω (to be pressured or put to trial); πίεζω (the proper word meaning "to squeeze")
to stab, pierce ἐκκεντέω (to pierce or transfix); νύσσω
to stand στήκω; ἵστημι (to make stand); μενω (to stay/remain)
to steal κλέπτω
to suck θηλάζω
to swell πιμπράω; πίμπρημι
to swim κολυμβάω
to think φρονέω
to throw βάλλω; ῥίπτω; σκορπίζω (to scatter or shake out)
to tie up, fasten δεω; κολλάω (to glue, join or unite)
to turn τρέπω; στρέφω (to change); ἐκκλίνω (to deviate)
to vomit ἐμέω
to walk περιπατέω; βαίνω (to go)
to work ἐργάζομαι (Noun form: κόπος, meaning "toil")
to yawn ζαμβόμαι (loan from Indic)
tongue γλῶσσα; διάλεκτος (language/speech)
tooth ὀδούς; ὀδόντος
Twenty εἴκοσι
Two δύο
warm θερμός (can also mean "hot"); χλιαρός (lukewarm, tepid)
water ὕδωρ
we ἡμεῗς
wet ὑγρός
what? τίς; τί
when? πότε
where? ποῦ
white λευκός
who τίς
wide πλατύς
wife γυναίκα; γυνή; νύμφη (bride/wife-to-be)
wind ἄνεμος (a gust of air); πνεῦμα (breath, spirit)
wing πτέρυξ
woman/female γυνή / θῆλυς
woods/forest ὕλη
worm (earthworm) σκολέξ
year ἐνιαυτός (cycle of time); ἔτος
yellow ξανθός (the color blonde); πίτα (loan from Indic; adjectival); χρυσός (the color gold)
you σύ

See also

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