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Miracles attributed to Jesus

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According to the canonical Gospels of the Bible, Jesus worked many miracles in the course of his ministry, which may be categorized into cures, exorcisms, dominion over nature, three instances of raising the dead, and various others. To many Christians, the miracles represent actual historical events, while Liberal Christians may consider these stories to be figurative.[1] Critical scholars generally concede that empirical methods are unable to determine if a genuine miracle is historical, considering the issue theological or philosophical. Islamic scholars also believe in most of the miracles of healing and the miracles of resurrecting dead people to life.

Types of miracles

Cures

Meister des Hitda-Evangeliars 002

Jesus healing Peter's mother in law, c. 1020 (Hitda Evangelary, Darmstadt).

The largest group of miracle stories mentioned in the New Testament are those concerning disease and disability. The Gospels give varying amounts of detail for each episode, sometimes Jesus cures simply by saying a few words, or laying on of hands, and at other times employs elaborate rituals using material (e.g. spit or mud). Generally they are recorded in the Synoptic Gospels but not John.

  • Fever - The Synoptics describe Jesus as healing the mother-in-law of Simon Peter when he visited Simon's house in Capernaum, around the time of Jesus recruiting Simon as an Apostle (Mark has it just after the calling of Simon, while Luke has it just before). The synoptics imply that this led other people seeking out Jesus, and him traveling over the whole of Galilee to preach to them.
  • Leprosy - The Synoptics state that, early in Jesus' ministry, he healed a leper, whom he then instructed to offer the requisite ritual sacrifices as proscribed by the Deuteronomic Code and Priestly Code. Jesus instructed the ex-leper not to tell anyone who had healed him; but the man disobeyed, increasing Jesus' fame, and thereafter Jesus withdrew to deserted places, but was followed there. Luke also states that later, while on his way to Jerusalem, Jesus sent ten lepers, who had sought his assistance, to the priests, and that they were healed as they went, but that the only one that came back to thank Jesus was a Samaritan.
  • Long term bleeding - The Synoptics state that while heading to Jairus' house (see the section below on power over death), Jesus was approached by a woman who had been suffering from bleeding for 12 years, and that she touched Jesus' cloak (fringes of his garment: Matt 9:20, 14:36), and was instantly healed. Jesus turned about and, when the woman came forward, said "Daughter, your faith has healed you, go in peace". The bleeding is sometimes interpreted as menorrhagia, but most scholars consider that the duration, 12 years, makes it more plausible that the condition was something more akin to hemophilia.
  • Withered hands - The Synoptics state that Jesus entered a synagogue on the Sabbath, and found a man with a withered hand there, whom Jesus healed, having first challenged the people present to decide what was lawful for a Sabbath - to do good or to do evil, to save life or to kill . The Gospel of Mark adds that this angered the Pharisees so much that they started to contemplate killing Jesus.
  • Dropsy - Luke alone states that, during a Sabbath, Jesus ate in the house of a prominent Pharisee, opposite someone who suffered from dropsy, and Jesus asked the Pharisees that were present if it was lawful to heal on the Sabbath, but, after getting no reply, healed the man. Jesus then challenged the Pharisees to say that they would not immediately pull out an ox, or a son (or a donkey, according to some ancient manuscripts of Luke), if it fell into a well during a Sabbath.
  • Deafness - Mark alone states that Jesus went to the Decapolis and met a man there who was deaf and mute, and cured him. Specifically, Jesus first touched the man's ears, and touched his tongue after spitting, and then said Ephphatha!, an Aramaic word meaning Be opened
  • Blindness - The Synoptics state that Jesus met a beggar (Mark gives the name: bar-Timai or son of Timai) who, though blind, still identified Jesus as the Jewish Messiah; Jesus said that the man's faith has healed him, and he received his sight, and was allowed to follow Jesus. This happened when Jesus was leaving Jericho, and Matthew adds that there was another healed at the same time. John mentions as similar event that happened near the Pool of Siloam, with the following details:
    • The disciples first questioned Jesus whether the man's curse was for his own sins, or those of his parents. Jesus said it was for neither reason, "but that the works of God should be made manifest in him".
    • Jesus healed him by spitting on the ground, mixing his spit with mud, and putting the mixture into his eyes, then sent him to wash in the Pool of Siloam.
    • The event happened on a Sabbath; therefore the Pharisees said, "this man is not of God, because he does not keep the Sabbath". They asked the formerly blind man concerning Jesus, who said, "he is a prophet".
    • The Jews did not believe that the healed man was the same person as the man who had been blind from birth, and asked his parents if the healed man was their son. The parents responded that he was, and had been born blind.
    • Jesus identified himself as the Son of God, and the cured man worshiped him.
Additionally, Mark alone states that Jesus went to Bethsaida and met another man there who was blind, and then cured him. Specifically, Jesus is described as spitting in the man's eyes, to which the man responded that his vision is now blurred; Jesus then touched the man's eyes, and the man responded that he can see clearly now. John's account of the healing of has been argued by some scholars to be a conflation of the account of bar-Timai in Mark, together with the healing method given by Mark's account of the second healing of a blind man.
  • Paralysis - The Synoptics state that a paralytic was brought to Jesus on a mat; Jesus told him to get up and walk, and the man did so. Jesus also told the man that his sins were forgiven, which according to the Synoptics irritated the Pharisees, and according to John irritated the people in general. Jesus is described as responding to the anger by asking whether it is easier to say that someone's sins are forgiven, or to tell the man to get up and walk. The Synoptics state that this happened in Capernaum, Mark and Luke adding that Jesus was in a house at the time, and that the man had to be lowered through the roof by his friends due to the crowds blocking the door. A similar account is given in John and occurs at the Pool of Bethesda; some have argued this is another version of the event described in the synoptics, rather than a separate cure.
  • Unspecified sickness - All four Canonical Gospels state that Jesus was asked by an official to heal a person important to him, and although Jesus is somewhat annoyed at being constantly asked to perform miracles, rather than being asked for teachings, he says that the person would be healed, and the official returned home to find that this has happened. The Synoptics state that official was a centurion, and that it was the centurion's servant that was sick, while the Gospel of John states that the official was a royal official, originating from Canaan, and that it was his son who was sick.

Exorcisms

Duc De Berry - Besessener

Christ healing a demoniac, (Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry).

According to the Synoptic Gospels, Jesus performed many exorcisms of demoniacs. These incidents are not mentioned by the Gospel of John.

The accounts in the Synoptic Gospels are:

Controlling nature

Mochenwangen Pfarrkirche Hochaltar Brotwunder

Jesus multiplying the loaves (altarpiece, 1870, Church of the Nativity of Mary, Ravensburg, Germany).

The Gospels tell another group of stories concerning Jesus' power over nature:

  • The Feeding of the 5000 and of the 4000 men - Jesus, praying to God and using only a few loaves of bread and several fish, feeds thousands of men, along with an unspecified number of women and children; there are even a number of baskets of leftovers afterward.
  • The Cursing of the Fig Tree - Jesus cursed a fig tree, and it withered.
  • Turning Water into Wine - at a wedding, when the host runs out of wine, the host's servants fill vessels with water at Jesus' command, then a sample is drawn out and taken to the master of the banquet who pronounces the content of the vessels as the best wine of the banquet.
  • Walking on water - Jesus walked on a lake to meet a boat.
  • Transfiguration of Jesus - Jesus climbed a mountain and was changed so that his face glowed.
  • The Catch of 153 fish - Jesus instructed the disciples to throw their net over the side of the water, resulting in them hauling in the huge catch (for hand fishing) of 153 fish.
Rembrandt Christ in the Storm on the Lake of Galilee

Rembrandt's The Storm on the Sea of Galilee.

Воскрешение Лазаря2

Icon of the Raising of Lazarus (15th century Novgorod school).

  • Calming a storm - during a storm, the disciples woke Jesus, and he rebuked the storm causing it to become calm. Jesus then rebukes the disciples for lack of faith.
  • Transubstantiation during the last supper; disputed by some denominations. (see Christian Interpretations below)

Power over death

The Canonical Gospels report three cases where Jesus calls a dead person back to life:

  • Jairus' daughter - Jairus, a major patron of a synagogue, asks Jesus to heal his daughter, but while Jesus is on his way, men tell Jairus that his daughter has died. Jesus says she was only sleeping and wakes her up with the word Talitha koum!.
  • The son of the widow at Nain - A young man, the son of a widow, is brought out for burial in Nain. Jesus sees her, and his pity causes him to tell her not to cry. Jesus approaches the coffin and tells the man inside to get up, and he does so.
  • The raising of Lazarus - a close friend of Jesus who had been dead for four days is brought back to life when Jesus commands him to get up.
  • Jesus' own resurrection from the dead.

While the raising of the daughter of Jairus is in all the Synoptic Gospels (but not in the Gospel of John), the raising of the son of the widow of Nain appears only in the Gospel of Luke, and the raising of Lazarus appears only in the Gospel of John. It has been argued by several scholars and commentators that the story of the raising of Lazarus and that of the Nain widow's son really refer to the same event, considered to derive from the raising of the youth in the original Mark.

Supernatural knowledge

The ability of Jesus to know things by supernatural means could also be classed as a miracle.

This may explain the reason why Nathaniel responded to Jesus saying, "Before that Philip called thee, when thou was under the fig tree, I saw thee", by answering, "Rabbi, thou art the Son of God; thou art the King of Israel."[2] It could be perhaps that when he was under the fig tree, Nathaniel had been praying in secret which elicited this response, rather than that he did not know that he had merely been observed in the natural way.

The story of the Samaritan woman at the well is an example where Jesus supernaturally knew the history of the woman including the men in her life.

Interpretations

Christian

To many Christians, the miracles represent actual historical events. Most Christians accept the resurrection of Jesus as fact, indeed defining being a Christian with a belief in the resurrection. Theologically, the miracles are usually understood as demonstrating Jesus' lordship. In Reformed theology, the miracles are sometimes regarded as part of Christ's active obedience which is imputed to believers.

Many Christians accept that exorcisms as having really happened as actual evictions of real demons : the Roman Catholic Church maintains a detailed protocol of what is to be done to perform an exorcism, and most local denominations have an exorcism 'specialist' at hand, as does the Anglican Church of England, which maintains an exorcist in each diocese. Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, and Anglo Catholics consider the Last supper and transubstantiation as miraculous events while most Protestants see the Eucharist in symbolic terms.

The miraculous works of Jesus were an important part of testifying to the Hypostatic Union or dual natures of Jesus Christ as God and Man.[3]

Liberal Christianity and miracles

Liberal Christians place less emphasis on miraculous events associated with the life of Jesus than on his teachings. The effort to remove "superstitious" elements from Christian faith dates to intellectual reformist Christians such as Erasmus and the Deists in the 15th–17th centuries.[4] In the 19th century, self-identified liberal Christians sought to elevate Jesus's humane teachings as a standard for a world civilization freed from cultic traditions and traces of "pagan" belief in the supernatural.[5] The debate over whether a belief in miracles was mere superstition or essential to accepting the divinity of Christ constituted a crisis within the 19th-century church, for which theological compromises were sought.[6] The 19th-century theologian Adolf von Harnack maintained that miracles were impossible, but said that the acts of healing performed by Jesus were real and must have seemed miraculous. Harnack found the mythical elements of the life of Jesus "disturbing," but denied that their scientific implausibility was reason to reject the credibility of the Gospels:

Historical science in this last generation has taken a great step in advance by learning to pass a more intelligent and benevolent judgment on those narratives, and accordingly even reports of the marvellous can now be counted amongst the materials of history and turned to good account.[7]

Attempts to account for miracles through scientific or rational explanation were mocked even at the turn of the 19th–20th century.[8] A belief in the authenticity of miracles was one of five tests established in 1910 by the Presbyterian Church to distinguish true believers from false professors of faith such as "educated, 'liberal' Christians."[9]

Contemporary liberal Christians may prefer to read Jesus's miracles as metaphorical narratives for understanding the power of God.[10] The early 20th-century liberal theologian Edward Scribner Ames asserted that "if religion is to be vital and satisfying in this new age, it must also deal with facts of actual experience, discarding superstitions, miracles and magic." Not all theologians with liberal inclinations reject the possibility of miracles, but may reject the polemicism that denial or affirmation entails; Gustav Niebuhr prized intellectual freedom, but opposed modernists who denied the miracles of the New Testament.[11]

Gnostic

To some Gnostics, death had a profoundly allegorical meaning; people who had renounced their lack of knowledge and their carnality, becoming gnostics, were referred to as having died, since they had metaphorically escaped the prison of the body. Some Gnostics viewed resurrection as an allegory for people attaining gnosis, and not as something that had to literally have happened, hence viewing these miracles as metaphors, and teaching devices, not actual events. According to those who see Gnosticism as the original version of Christianity, this is how the events were intended to be interpreted, and hence they were non historic, never really having been meant to be seen as historic.

Critical analysis

Symbolic

Aside from literal interpretations, and assumptions of them being fiction, numerous other explanations of the events have been put forward throughout history. Beginning with the Gnostics, it has been suggested that the reports of alleged miracles were actually intended just as allegories, not as factual events. Healing the blind has been argued to be a metaphor for people who previously could not, or would not, see the truth being shown it; healing the deaf has been interpreted as simply meaning that people who could not, or would not, listen to true teachings were made to; similarly, healing paralysis has been interpreted as an allegory for rectifying inaction; and healing leprosy for removing the societal stigmatism associated with certain stances. It has also been argued that bar-Timai is a direct reference to Plato's Timaeus, a philosophical work, and that bar-Timai symbolizes the Hellenic audience of Mark's gospel, and that curing his blindness is a metaphor for the Gospel giving a revelation to the audience. [12]

Herbal medicines

Other scholars have suggested that the Bible is more literal than that, but that the events can be scientifically explained by arguing that Jesus had a high knowledge of herbalism, as was common amongst the teachers of many mystery religions, and ascetic groups like the Essenes, and simply applied quite ordinary and scientific cures for the symptoms described. Though things like blindness and deafness may seem incurable without very modern medicine, it has been argued by these scholars that it is not true blindness, deafness, etc., being referred to, but more easily curable illness such as conjunctivitis, and glue ear. Out of the Canonical Gospels, Matthew adds several other episodes of Jesus healing people who are blind, deaf, mute, lame, or some combination of these four; many scholars see this as an example of the common trait of Matthew trying to portray Jesus as fulfilling an Old Testament prophecy, in this case Isaiah 35:5-6. Those who believe the miracles happened as literally stated also sometimes think there is a reference to this part of Isaiah, though in their case, these believers argue that Jesus was fulfilling the prophecy, rather than the author editing Jesus to fit it.

Some modern scholars dismiss exorcisms as simply being cases of mental illness and afflictions such as epilepsy. Some scholars typically see these exorcisms of such illness as allegorical, representative of Jesus' teachings clearing even the most troubled mind. Some critical scholars, however, have suggested that the events could have been real, though with the scientific explanation of the illnesses, and that the cures given were really just psychological drugs that Jesus, like many others in the era, would have been aware of; for example, Sage and Mistletoe were used in early times to treat epilepsy, and Snakeroot was used to treat schizophrenia.

A study by the Jesus Seminar of what aspects of the Gospel accounts are likely to be factual, held that while the various cures Jesus gave for diseases are probably true, since there were many others in the ancient world credited with healing power, most of the other miracles of Jesus are nonfactual, at least in their literal interpretation from the Bible. The veracity of exorcisms carried out by Jesus is questioned among some scholars, as according to modern science there is no evidence for demonic possession.

List of miracles attributed to Jesus in various sources

It is not always clear when two reported miracles refer to the same event. An attempt has been made to indicate those that probably are related. Summarizing the table below, there are 47 miracles of Jesus recorded during his life-time, 40 of them recorded in the canonical Gospels and 7 recorded only in non-canonical sources[13]. The chronological order of the miracles is difficult to determine, so this list should not be viewed as a sequence.

Miracle Matthew Mark Luke John Other sources
Annunciation Luke 1:26-38 Qur'an 3:45-51, 19:16-26
Miraculous baptism Matt 3:13-17 Mark 1:9-11 Luke 3:21-22 John 1:32-34
Angels protected Jesus in the desert Matthew 4:11 Mark 1:12-13
Miraculous conversion of Nathanael John 1:45-51
Turned water into wine John 2:1-11
Exorcism in Capernaum Mark 1:21-28 Luke 4:31-37
Healed every disease Matt 4:23-25 Mark 1:39
Caught large number of fish, converted fishermen to "fishers of men" Luke 5:1-11
Jesus' name exorcises demons and performs many miracles Matt 7:22 Mark 9:38-40, 16:17 Luke 9:49-50, 10:17 John 1:12-13. 2:23, 3:18, 14:13-14, 17:11-12 Acts 3:6, 4:10, 4:30, 16:18, 19:11-20
Cured a leper Matt 8:1-4 Mark 1:40-45 Luke 5:12-16 Egerton Gospel 2, Qur'an
Miraculous conversion of a Samaritan woman John 4:28-29
Cured a centurion's boy-servant Matt 8:5-13 Luke 7:1-10
Cured a royal official's son John 4:46-54
Cured Peter's mother-in-law's fever and drove out many evil spirits Matt 8:14-17 Mark 1:29-34 Luke 4:38-41
Drove 7 demons out of Mary Magdalene Mark 16:9 Luke 8:2
Calmed a storm at sea by rebuking the wind and waves Matt 8:23-27 Mark 4:35-41 Luke 8:22-25
Healed the Gerasene Demoniac Matt 8:28-34 Mark 5:1-20 Luke 8:26-39
Cured a paralytic at Capernaum Matt 9:1-8 Mark 2:1-12 Luke 5:17-26
Cured a paralytic at the Pool of Bethesda John 5:1-18
Raised the son of a widow at Nain Luke 7:11-17
Raised Jairus' daughter by saying Talitha koum! Matt 9:18-26 Mark 5:21-43 Luke 8:40-56
Healed a woman with a hemorrhage who touched the fringes of his garment [14] Matt 9:20-22 Mark 5:24-34 Luke 8:43-48
Healed two blind men, a mute, and every disease and ailment Matt 9:27-35
Twelve Apostles given authority to exorcise demons and raise the dead Matt 10:1, 10:8 Mark 3:13-15, 6:7 Luke 9:1
Unspecified miracles at Chorazin, Bethsaida, Capernaum Matt 11:20-24 Luke 10:13-15
Healed a man's withered hand Matt 12:9-13 Mark 3:1-6 Luke 6:6-11
Healed huge crowds Matt 12:15-21 Mark 3:7-12 Luke 6:17-19
Healed a blind and dumb demoniac Matt 12:22-32 Mark 3:20-30 Luke 11:14-23; 12:10
Fed 5000 Matt 14:13-21 Mark 6:30-44 Luke 9:10-17 John 6:1-14
Walked on water Matt 14:22-33 Mark 6:45-52 John 6:15-21
All those who touched the fringes of his garment were cured Matt 14:34-36 Mark 6:53-56
Exorcised a Canaanite (Syro-Phoenician) woman Matt 15:21-28 Mark 7:24-30
Healed a deaf-mute by saying Ephphatha! Mark 7:31-37
Healed large numbers of crippled, blind and mute Matt 15:29-31
Fed 4000 Matt 15:32-39 Mark 8:1-10
Restored a man's sight at Bethsaida Mark 8:22-26
Transfiguration Matt 17:1-13 Mark 9:2-13 Luke 9:28-36 2 Peter 1:17-18
Exorcised a possessed boy Matt 17:14-21 Mark 9:14-29 Luke 9:37-43
paid temple tax with a stater coin taken from a fish's mouth Matt 17:23-27
Healed a woman on the Sabbath Luke 13:10-17
Continued to cast out demons even though Herod Antipas wanted to kill him Luke 13:31-32
Raised Lazarus John 11:1-44 Qur'an
Healed a man with dropsy Luke 14:1-6
Healed ten lepers Luke 17:11-19
Healed large crowds in Judea Matt 19:1-2
Healed two blind men Matt 20:29-34
Healed the blind beggar Bartimaeus Mark 10:46-52 Luke 18:35-43 Qur'an
Blind man given sight John 9
Healed blind and lame at Herod's Temple Matt 21:14
Cursed a fig tree Matt 21:18-22 Mark 11:12-14, 11:20-25
Transubstantiation of bread and wine[15] Matt 26:26-30 Mark 14:22-26 Luke 22:14-20 John 6:48-66 1 Cor 11:23-26
Satanic possession of Judas John 13:26-30
Healed High Priest's servant's ear Luke 22:49-51
Darkness like a Solar eclipse during Passover, see also Crucifixion eclipse Matt 27:45 Mark 15:33 Luke 23:44-45 Apocryphal sources:Gospel of Peter[16] and Gospel of Nicodemus[17]
Many of the dead resurrected when Jesus died Matt 27:50-54
Empty tomb Matt 27:62–28:15 Mark 16:1–8 Luke 24:1–12 John 20:1-10 Gospel of Peter 8:1-13:3
Resurrection appearances Matt 28:9-10, 28:16-20 Mark 16:9-18 Luke 24:13-49 John 20:11-23 Acts 1:1-8, 2:24, Romans 10:9, 1 Cor 9:1, 15:1-15
Ascended to Heaven Mark 16:19-20 Luke 24:50-53 John 20:17 Acts 1:9-11, Ephesians 4:7-13, 1 Peter 3:21-22, Secret Book of James 10:1-3, Qur'an
Doubting Thomas John 20:24-31
Catch of 153 fish post-resurrection John 21:1-14
Miraculous conversion of Paul Acts 9:1-19,22:1-22,26:9-24
Descended into Hell Ephesians 4:8-10, Acts 2:27, 2:31, 1 Peter 3:19-20, 4:6, Apostles' Creed, Ante-Nicene Fathers
Sent Paraclete/Holy Spirit Matt 3:10-12 Mark 1:8 Luke 3:16-17 John 14:16, 14:26, 15:26, 16:7 Acts 1:5, 1:8, 2:4, 2:38, 11:16, Qur'an
Rich young man raised from the dead Secret Gospel of Mark 1
Water controlled and purified Infancy Thomas 2.2
Made birds of clay and brought them to life Infancy Thomas 2.3, Qur'an 3:49
Resurrected dead playmate Zeno Infancy Thomas 9
Healed a woodcutter's foot Infancy Thomas 10
Held water in his cloak Infancy Thomas 11
Harvested 100 bushels of wheat from a single seed Infancy Thomas 12
Stretched a board that was short for carpentry Infancy Thomas 13
Resurrected a teacher he earlier struck down Infancy Thomas 14-15
Healed James' viper bite Infancy Thomas 16
Resurrected a dead child Infancy Thomas 17
Resurrected a dead man Infancy Thomas 18
Miraculous Virgin Birth verified by midwife Infancy James 19-20

See also

References

Notes

  1. See discussion under Liberal Christianity and miracles.
  2. John 1:48,49
  3. John Gill. "John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible, John 10". http://www.freegrace.net/gill/John/John_10.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-23. "Christ appeals to his miracles as proofs of his deity, sonship, and Messiahship"  While Christ's experiences of hunger, weariness, and death were evidences of Christ's humanity, the miracles were evidences of Christ's deity. By definition, the Hypostatic Union describes Christ's dual natures as God and Man. See also (John 10:37-38)
  4. Linda Woodhead, "Christianity," in Religions in the Modern World (Routledge, 2002), pp. 186 online and 193.
  5. Burton L. Mack, The Lost Gospel: The Book of Q and Christian Origins (HarperCollins, 1993), p. 29 online.
  6. The Making of American Liberal Theology: Imagining Progressive Religion 1805–1900, edited by Gary J. Dorrien (Westminster John Knox Press, 2001), passim, search miracles.
  7. Adolf von Harnack, "What Is Christianity? Lectures Delivered in the University of Berlin during the Winter Term 1899–1900," lecture 2, section 27, available through the Christian Classics Ethereal Library online.
  8. F.J. Ryan, Protestant Miracles: High Orthodox and Evangelical Authority for the Belief in Divine Interposition in Human Affairs (Stockton, California, 1899), p. 78 online. Full text downloadable.
  9. Dan P. McAdams, The Redemptive Self: Stories Americans Live By (Oxford University Press, 2006), p. 164 online.
  10. Ann-Marie Brandom, "The Role of Language in Religious Education," in Learning to Teach Religious Education in the Secondary School: A Companion to School Experience (Routledge, 2000), p. 76 online.
  11. The Making of American Liberal Theology: Idealism, Realism, and Modernity, 1900-1950, edited by Gary J. Dorrien (Westminster John Knox Press, 2003), passim, search miracles, especially p. 413; on Ames, p. 233 online; on Niebuhr, p. 436 online.
  12. Mark 10
  13. This count includes his own resurrection, but excludes transubstantiation.
  14. Jewish Encyclopedia: Jesus: "Jesus wore the Ẓiẓit (Matt. ix. 20)"; Strong's Concordance G2899; Walter Bauer's Greek-English Lexicon of the NT, 3rd ed., 1979: "κράσπεδον: 1. edge, border, hem of a garment - But meaning 2 is also possible for these passages, depending on how strictly Jesus followed Mosaic law, and also upon the way in which κράσπεδον was understood by the authors and first readers of the gospels. 2. tassel (ציצת), which the Israelite was obligated to wear on the four corners of his outer garment, according to Num 15:38f; Dt 22:12." ... Of the Pharisees ... Mt 23:5.
  15. This is viewed as a miracle only in Churches that believe in transubstantiation, such as Roman Catholicism. Protestant churches do not view the Lord's Supper as a miracle.
  16. Gospel of Peter Fragment I: V-15.
  17. Acts of Pilate. In W. Barnston (Ed.) (1984). The Other Bible (pp. 368). New York: HarperCollins Publishers ISBN 0-06-250030-9.
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