Fandom

Religion Wiki

Meaning of life

34,278pages on
this wiki
Add New Page
Talk0 Share

Ad blocker interference detected!


Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.

Woher kommen wir Wer sind wir Wohin gehen wir

Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going?
One of Post-Impressionist Paul Gauguin's most famous paintings.

The meaning of life constitutes a philosophical question concerning the purpose and significance of existence and/or biological life in general. This concept can be expressed through a variety of related questions, such as Why are we here?, What is life all about? and What is the meaning of it all? It has been the subject of much philosophical, scientific, and theological speculation throughout history. There have been a large number of answers to these questions from many different cultural and ideological backgrounds.

The meaning of life is deeply mixed with the philosophical and religious conceptions of existence, consciousness, and happiness, and touches on many other issues, such as symbolic meaning, ontology, value, purpose, ethics, good and evil, free will, conceptions of God, the existence of God, the soul, and the afterlife. Scientific contributions are more indirect; by describing the empirical facts about the universe, science provides some context and sets parameters for conversations on related topics. An alternative, human-centric, and not a cosmic/religious approach is the question "What is the meaning of my life?" The value of the question pertaining to the purpose of life may coincide with the achievement of ultimate reality, or a feeling of oneness, or a feeling of sacredness.

Questions

Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn 038-crop

Philosopher in Meditation (detail) by Rembrandt

Questions about the meaning of life have been expressed in a broad variety of ways, including the following:

  • What is the origin of life? [13]
  • What is the nature of life? What is the nature of reality? [13][14][15]
  • What is the significance of life? [17]
  • What is meaningful and valuable in life?[18]
  • What is the value of life?[19]
  • What is the reason to live? What are we living for? [12][20]

These questions have resulted in a wide range of competing answers and arguments, from scientific theories, to philosophical, theological, and spiritual explanations.

Scientific inquiry and perspectives

DNA Overview

DNA, the substance containing the genetic instructions for the development and functioning of all known living organisms.

Claims that descriptive science can shed light on normative issues such as the meaning of life are highly disputed within the scientific and philosophy-of-science communities. Nevertheless, science may be able to provide some context and sets some parameters for conversations on related topics.

Psychological significance and value in life

Science may not be able to tell us what is of essential value in life, but some studies bear on related questions: researchers in positive psychology (and, earlier and less rigorously, in humanistic psychology) study factors that lead to life satisfaction,[21] full engagement in activities,[22] making a fuller contribution by utilizing one's personal strengths,[23] and meaning based on investing in something larger than the self.[24]

One value system suggested by social psychologists, broadly called Terror Management Theory, states that all human meaning is derived out of a fundamental fear of death, whereby values are selected when they allow us to escape the mental reminder of death.

Neuroscience has produced theories of reward, pleasure and motivation in terms of physical entities such as neurotransmitter activity, especially in the limbic system and the ventral tegmental area in particular. If one believes that the meaning of life is to maximize pleasure, then these theories give normative predictions about how to act to achieve this.

Sociology examines value at a social level using theoretical constructs such as value theory, norms, anomie, etc.

Origin and nature of biological life

The exact mechanisms of abiogenesis are unknown: notable theories include the RNA world hypothesis (RNA-based replicators) and the iron-sulfur world theory (metabolism without genetics). The theory of evolution does not attempt to explain the origin of life but the process by which different lifeforms have developed throughout history via genetic mutation and natural selection.[25] At the end of the 20th century, based upon insight gleaned from the gene-centered view of evolution, biologists George C. Williams, Richard Dawkins, David Haig, among others, conclude that if there is a primary function to life, it is the replication of DNA and the survival of one's genes.[26][27]

However, though scientists have intensively studied life on Earth, defining life in unequivocal terms is still a challenge.[28][29] Physically, one may say that life "feeds on negative entropy"[30][31] which refers to the process by which living entities decrease their internal entropy at the expense of some form of energy taken in from the environment.[32][33] Biologists generally agree that lifeforms are self-organizing systems regulating the internal environment as to maintain this organized state, metabolism serves to provide energy, and reproduction allows life to continue over a span of multiple generations. Typically, organisms are responsive to stimuli and genetic information tends to change from generation to generation as to allow adaptation through evolution, these characteristics optimalizing the chances of survival for the individual organism and its descendants respectively.[34][35] Non-cellular replicating agents, notably viruses, are generally not considered to be organisms because they are incapable of "independent" reproduction or metabolism. This controversy is problematic, though, since some parasites and endosymbionts are also incapable of independent life. Astrobiology studies the possibility of different forms of life on other worlds, such as replicating structures made from materials other than DNA.

Origins and ultimate fate of the universe

CMB Timeline75

The metric expansion of space. The inflationary epoch is the expansion of the metric tensor at left. (WMAP image, 2006)

Though the Big Bang model was met with much skepticism when first introduced, partially because of a connection to the religious concept of creation, it has become well supported by several independent observations.[36] However, current physics can only describe the early universe from 10−43 seconds after the Big Bang (where zero time corresponds to infinite temperature), a theory of quantum gravity would be required to go further back in time. Nevertheless, many physicists have speculated about what would have preceded this limit, and how the universe came into being.[37] Some physicists think that the Big Bang occurred coincidentally, and when considering the anthropic principle, it is most often interpreted as implying the existence of a multiverse.[38]

However, no matter how the universe came into existence, humanity's fate in this universe appears to be doomed as —even if humanity would survive that long— biological life will eventually become unsustainable, be it through a Big Freeze, Big Rip or Big Crunch. It would seem that the only way to survive indefinitely would be by directing the flow of energy on a cosmic scale and altering the fate of the universe.[37][page needed]

Scientific questions about the mind

The true nature and origin of consciousness and the mind itself are also widely debated in science. The explanatory gap is generally equated with the hard problem of consciousness, and the question of free will is also considered to be of fundamental importance. These subjects are mostly addressed in the fields of cognitive science, neuroscience and philosophy of mind, though some evolutionary biologists and theoretical physicists have also made several allusions to the subject.[39][40]

Ascent of the Blessed

Hieronymus Bosch's Ascent of the Blessed depicts a tunnel of light and spiritual figures, often described in reports of near-death experiences.

Reductionistic and eliminative materialistic approaches, for example the Multiple Drafts Model, hold that consciousness can be wholly explained by neuroscience through the workings of the brain and its neurons, thus adhering to biological naturalism.[40][41][42]

On the other hand, some scientists, like Andrei Linde, have considered that consciousness, like spacetime, might have its own intrinsic degrees of freedom, and that one's perceptions may be as real as (or even more real than) material objects.[43] Hypotheses of consciousness and spacetime explain consciousness in describing a "space of conscious elements",[43] often encompassing a number of extra dimensions.[44] Electromagnetic theories of consciousness solve the binding problem of consciousness in saying that the electromagnetic field generated by the brain is the actual carrier of conscious experience, there is however disagreement about the implementations of such a theory relating to other workings of the mind.[45][46] Quantum mind theories use quantum theory in explaining certain properties of the mind. Explaining the process of free will through quantum phenomena is a popular alternative to determinism, such postulations may variously relate free will to quantum fluctuations,[47] quantum amplification,[48] quantum potential[47] and quantum probability.[49]

Based on the premises of non-materialistic explanations of the mind, some have suggested the existence of a cosmic consciousness, asserting that consciousness is actually the "ground of all being".[15][48][50] Proponents of this view cite accounts of paranormal phenomena, primarily extrasensory perceptions and psychic powers, as evidence for an incorporeal higher consciousness. In hopes of proving the existence of these phenomena, parapsychologists have orchestrated various experiments. Meta-analyses of these experiments indicate that the effect size (though very small) has been relatively consistent, resulting in an overall statistical significance.[51][52][53] Although some critical analysts feel that parapsychological study is scientific, they are not satisfied with its experimental results.[54][55] Skeptical reviewers contend that apparently successful results are more likely due to sloppy procedures, poorly trained researchers, or methodological flaws than to actual effects.[56][57][58][59]

Philosophical perspectives

The philosophical perspectives on the meaning of life are those ideologies which explain life in terms of ideals or abstractions defined by humans.

Ancient Greek philosophy

Sanzio 01 Plato Aristotle

Plato and Aristotle in The School of Athens fresco, by Raphael.

Platonism

Plato was one of the earliest, most influential philosophers to date — mostly for realism about the existence of universals. In the Theory of Forms, universals do not physically exist, like objects, but exist as ghostly, heavenly forms. In The Republic, the Socrates character's dialogue describes the Form of the Good. The Idea of the Good is ekgonos (offspring) of the Good, the ideal, perfect nature of goodness, hence an absolute measure of justice.

In Platonism, the meaning of life is in attaining the highest form of knowledge, which is the Idea (Form) of the Good, from which all good and just things derive utility and value. Human beings are duty-bound to pursue the good, but no one can succeed in that pursuit without philosophical reasoning, which allows for true knowledge.

Aristotelianism

Aristotle, an apprentice of Plato, was another, early, most influential philosopher, who argued that ethical knowledge is not certain knowledge (like metaphysics and epistemology), but is general knowledge. Because it is not a theoretical discipline, a person had to study and practice in order to become 'good', thus if the person were to become virtuous, he could not simply study what virtue is, he had to be virtuous, via virtuous activities. To do this, Aristotle established what is virtuous:

Every skill and every inquiry, and similarly, every action and choice of action, is thought to have some good as its object. This is why the good has rightly been defined as the object of all endeavor [...]
Everything is done with a goal, and that goal is "good".

Yet, if action A is done towards achieving goal B, then goal B also would have a goal, goal C, and goal C also would have a goal, and so would continue this pattern, until something stopped its infinite regression. Aristotle's solution is the Highest Good, which is desirable for its own sake, it is its own goal. The Highest Good is not desirable for the sake of achieving some other good, and all other ‘goods’ desirable for its sake. This involves achieving eudaemonia, usually translated as "happiness", "well-being", "flourishing", and "excellence".

What is the highest good in all matters of action? To the name, there is almost complete agreement; for uneducated and educated alike call it happiness, and make happiness identical with the good life and successful living. They disagree, however, about the meaning of happiness.

Cynicism

In the Hellenistic period, the Cynic philosophers said that the purpose of life is living a life of Virtue that agrees with Nature. Happiness depends upon being self-sufficient and master of one's mental attitude; suffering is consequence of false judgments of value, which cause negative emotions and a concomitant vicious character.

The Cynical life rejects conventional desires for wealth, power, health, and fame, by being free of the possessions acquired in pursuing the conventional.[60][61] As reasoning creatures, people could achieve happiness via rigorous training, by living in a way natural to human beings. The world equally belongs to everyone, so suffering is caused by false judgments of what is valuable and what is worthless per the customs and conventions of society.

Cyrenaicism

Cyrenaicism, founded by Aristippus of Cyrene, was an early Socratic school that emphasised only one side of Socrates's teachings — that happiness is one of the ends of moral action and that pleasure is the supreme good; thus a hedonistic world view, wherein bodily gratification is more intense than mental pleasure. Cyrenaics prefer immediate gratification to the long-term gain of delayed gratification; denial is unpleasant unhappiness.[62][63]

Epicureanism

Epicurus Louvre

Bust of Epicurus leaning against his disciple Metrodorus in the Louvre Museum.

To Epicurus, the greatest good is in seeking modest pleasures, to attain tranquility and freedom from fear (ataraxia) via knowledge, friendship, and virtuous, temperate living; bodily pain (aponia) is absent through one's knowledge of the workings of the world and of the limits of one's desires. Combined, freedom from pain and freedom from fear are happiness in its highest form. Epicurus' lauded enjoyment of simple pleasures is quasi-ascetic abstention from sex and the appetites:

When we say . . . that pleasure is the end and aim, we do not mean the pleasures of the prodigal or the pleasures of sensuality, as we are understood to do, by some, through ignorance, prejudice or wilful misrepresentation. By pleasure we mean the absence of pain in the body and of trouble in the soul. It is not by an unbroken succession of drinking bouts and of revelry, not by sexual lust, nor the enjoyment of fish, and other delicacies of a luxurious table, which produce a pleasant life; it is sober reasoning, searching out the grounds of every choice and avoidance, and banishing those beliefs through which the greatest tumults take possession of the soul.[64]

The Epicurean meaning of life rejects immortality and mysticism; there is a soul, but it is as mortal as the body. There is no afterlife, yet, one need not fear death, because "Death is nothing to us; for that which is dissolved, is without sensation, and that which lacks sensation is nothing to us."[65]

Stoicism

Stoicism teaches that living according to reason and virtue is to be in harmony with the universe's divine order, entailed by one's recognition of the universal logos (reason), an essential value of all people. The meaning of life is freedom from suffering through apatheia (Gr: απαθεια), that is, being objective, having "clear judgement", not indifference.

Stoicism's prime directives are virtue, reason, and natural law, abided to develop personal self-control and mental fortitude as means of overcoming destructive emotions. The Stoic does not seek to extinguish emotions, only to avoid emotional troubles, by developing clear judgement and inner calm through diligently practiced logic, reflection, and concentration.

The Stoic ethical foundation is that good lies in the state of the soul, itself, exemplified in wisdom and self-control, thus improving one's spiritual well-being: "Virtue consists in a will which is in agreement with Nature."[65] The principle applies to one's personal relations thus: "to be free from anger, envy, and jealousy".[65]

Enlightenment philosophy

The Enlightenment and the colonial era both changed the nature of European philosophy and exported it worldwide. Devotion and subservience to God were largely replaced by notions of inalienable natural rights and the potentialities of reason, and universal ideals of love and compassion gave way to civic notions of freedom, equality, and citizenship. The meaning of life changed as well, focussing less on humankind's relationship to God and more on the relationship between individuals and their society. This era is filled with theories that equate meaningful existence with the social order.

Classical liberalism

Classical liberalism is a set of ideas that arose in the 17th and 18th centuries, out of conflicts between a growing, wealthy, propertied class and the established aristocratic and religious orders that dominated Europe. Liberalism cast humans as beings with inalienable natural rights (including the right to retain the wealth generated by one's own work), and sought out means to balance rights across society. Broadly speaking, it considers individual liberty to be the most important goal,[66] because only through ensured liberty are the other inherent rights protected.

There are many forms and derivations of liberalism, but their central conceptions of the meaning of life trace back to three main ideas. Early thinkers such as John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Adam Smith saw humankind beginning in the state of nature, then finding meaning for existence through labour and property, and using social contracts to create an environment that supports those efforts.

Kantianism

Immanuel Kant (portrait)

Immanuel Kant is regarded as one of the most influential thinkers of the late Enlightenment.

Kantianism is a philosophy based on the ethical, epistemological, and metaphysical works of Immanuel Kant. Kant is known for his deontological theory where there is a single moral obligation, the "Categorical Imperative", derived from the concept of duty. Kantians believe all actions are performed in accordance with some underlying maxim or principle, and for actions to be ethical, they must adhere to the categorical imperative.

Simply put, the test is that one must universalize the maxim (imagine that all people acted in this way) and then see if it would still be possible to perform the maxim in the world. In Groundwork, Kant gives the example of a person who seeks to borrow money without intending to pay it back. This is a contradiction because if it were a universal action, no person would lend money anymore as he knows that he will never be paid back. The maxim of this action, says Kant, results in a contradiction in conceivability (and thus contradicts perfect duty).

Kant also denied that the consequences of an act in any way contribute to the moral worth of that act, his reasoning being that the physical world is outside one's full control and thus one cannot be held accountable for the events that occur in it.

19th century philosophy

Utilitarianism

Jeremy Bentham by Henry William Pickersgill detail

Jeremy Bentham

The origins of utilitarianism can be traced back as far as Epicurus, but, as a school of thought, it is credited to Jeremy Bentham,[67] who found that nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure, then, from that moral insight, deriving the Rule of Utility: that the good is whatever brings the greatest happiness to the greatest number of people. He defined the meaning of life as the "greatest happiness principle".

Jeremy Bentham's foremost proponent was James Mill, a significant philosopher in his day, and father of John Stuart Mill. The younger Mill was educated per Bentham's principles, including transcribing and summarising much of his father's work.[68]

Marxism

According to Marxism and communism, the meaning of life is to serve one another, in peace and with integrity as equal and just beings.

Nihilism

Nihilism rejects any authority's claims to knowledge and truth, and so explores the significance of existence without knowable truth. Rather than insisting that values are subjective, and might be warrantless, the nihilist says: "Nothing is of value", morals are valueless, they only serve as society's false ideals.

Friedrich Nietzsche characterized nihilism as emptying the world, and especially human existence, of meaning, purpose, comprehensible truth, and essential value; succinctly, nihilism is the process of "the devaluing of the highest values".[69] Seeing the nihilist as a natural result of the idea that God is dead, and insisting it was something to overcome, his questioning of the nihilist's life-negating values, returned meaning to the Earth.[70]

MARTIN John Great Day of His Wrath

The End of the World, by John Martin.

To Martin Heidegger, nihilism is the movement whereby "being" is forgotten, and is transformed into value, in other words, the reduction of being to exchange value.[69] Heidegger, in accordance with Nietzsche, saw in the so-called "death of God" a potential source for nihilism:

If God, as the supra-sensory ground and goal, of all reality, is dead; if the supra-sensory world of the Ideas has suffered the loss of its obligatory, and above it, its vitalizing and up-building power, then nothing more remains to which Man can cling, and by which he can orient himself.[71]

The existentialist Albert Camus asserts that the absurdity of the human condition is that people search for external values and meaning in a world which has none, and is indifferent to them. Camus writes of value-nihilists such as Meusrault,[72] but also of values in a nihilistic world, that people can instead strive to be "heroic nihilists", living with dignity in the face of absurdity, living with "secular saintliness", fraternal solidarity, and rebelling against and transcending the world's indifference.[73]

20th century philosophy

The current era has seen radical changes in conceptions of human nature. Modern science has effectively rewritten the relationship of humankind to the natural world, advances in medicine and technology have freed us from the limitations and ailments of previous eras, and philosophy —particularly following the linguistic turn— altered how the relationships people have with themselves and each other is conceived. Questions about the meaning of life have seen equally radical changes, from attempts to reevaluate human existence in biological and scientific terms (as in pragmatism and logical positivism), to efforts to meta-theorize about meaning-making as an activity (existentialism, secular humanism).

Pragmatism

Pragmatism, originated in the late-nineteenth-century U.S., to concern itself (mostly) with truth, positing that only in struggling with the environment do data, and derived theories, have meaning, and that consequences, like utility and practicality, also are components of truth. Moreover, pragmatism posits that anything useful and practical is not always true, arguing that what most contributes to the most human good in the long course is true. In practice, theoretical claims must be practically verifiable, i.e. one should be able to predict and test claims, and, that, ultimately, the needs of mankind should guide human intellectual inquiry.

Pragmatic philosophers suggest that the practical, useful understanding of life is more important than searching for an impractical abstract truth about life. William James argued that truth could be made, but not sought.[74][75] To a pragmatist, the meaning of life is discoverable only via experience.

Existentialism

The Scream

Edvard Munch's The Scream, a representation of existential angst.

Each man and each woman creates the essence (meaning) of his and her life; life is not determined by a supernatural god or an earthly authority, one is free. As such, one's ethical prime directives are action, freedom, and decision, thus, existentialism opposes rationalism and positivism. In seeking meaning to life, the existentialist looks to where people find meaning in life, in course of which using only reason as a source of meaning is insufficient; the insufficiency gives rise to the emotions of anxiety and dread, felt in facing one's radical freedom, and the concomitant awareness of death. To the existentialist, existence precedes essence; the (essence) of one's life arises only after one comes to existence.

Søren Kierkegaard coined the term "leap of faith", arguing that life is full of absurdity, and one must make his and her own values in an indifferent world. One can live meaningfully (free of despair and anxiety) in an unconditional commitment to something finite, and devotes that meaningful life to the commitment, despite the vulnerability inherent to doing so.[76]

Arthur Schopenhauer answered: "What is the meaning of life?" by determining that one's life reflects one's will, and that the will (life) is an aimless, irrational, and painful drive. Salvation, deliverance, and escape from suffering are in aesthetic contemplation, sympathy for others, and asceticism.[77][78]

For Friedrich Nietzsche, life is worth living only if there are goals inspiring one to live. Accordingly, he saw nihilism ("all that happens is meaningless") as without goals. He discredited asceticism, because it denies one's living in the world; denied that values are objective facts, that are rationally necessary, universally-binding commitments: Our evaluations are interpretations, and not reflections of the world, as it is, in itself, and, therefore, all ideations take place from a particular perspective.[70]

Absurdism

Albert Camus, the French Algerian philosopher who is often associated with existentialism but enthusiastically refused the term,[79] is famous for propounding his theory of the Absurd. According to absurdism, there is a fundamental disharmony that arises out of the co-presence of man and the universe. Man has a desire for order, meaning, and purpose in life, but the universe is indifferent and meaningless; the Absurd arises out of this conflict.

As beings looking for hope in a meaningless world, Camus says that humans have three ways of resolving the dilemma.

  • Suicide: The first solution to the dilemma is simply to end one's life. Camus rejects this choice as cowardly.
  • Religious belief in a transcendent world: Such a belief would posit the existence of a realm that is beyond the Absurd, and, as such, has meaning. Camus calls this solution “philosophical suicide” and rejects it because it amounts to the destruction of reason, which in his view is as fatal as suicide of the body.
  • Accept the Absurd: According to Camus, this is the only real solution. It is to accept and even embrace the absurdity of life and to continue living. The Absurd is a crucial characteristic of the human condition, and the only true way to deal with this is bold acceptance of it. Life, according to Camus, can “be lived all the better if it has no meaning.”[80]

Secular humanism

HumanismSymbol

The "Happy Human" symbol representing Secular Humanism.

Per secular humanism, the human race came to be by reproducing in a progression of unguided evolution as an integral part of nature, which is self-existing.[81][82] Knowledge does not come from supernatural sources, but from human observation, experimentation, and rational analysis (the scientific method): the nature of the universe is what people discern it to be.[81] Like-wise, "values and realities" are determined "by means of intelligent inquiry"[81] and "are derived from human need and interest as tested by experience", that is, by critical intelligence.[83][84] "As far as we know, the total personality is [a function] of the biological organism transacting in a social and cultural context."[82]

People determine human purpose, without supernatural influence; it is the human personality (general sense) that is the purpose of a human being's life; humanism seeks to develop and fulfill:[81] "Humanism affirms our ability, and responsibility, to lead ethical lives of personal fulfillment that aspire to the greater good of humanity".[83] Humanists promote enlightened self-interest and the common good for all people. The happiness of the individual person is inextricably linked to the well-being of humanity, as a whole, in part, because we are social animals, who find meaning in personal relations, and because cultural progress benefits everybody living in the culture.[82][83]

The philosophical sub-genres posthumanism and transhumanism (sometimes used synonymously) are extensions of humanistic values. One should seek the advancement of humanity and of all life to the greatest degree feasible, to reconcile Renaissance humanism with the twenty-first century's technoscientific culture, thus, every living creature has the right to determine its personal and social "meaning of life".[85]

From a humanistic-psychotherapeutic point of view, the question of the meaning of life could also be reinterpreted as "What is the meaning of my life?"[86] Instead of becoming bogged down in cosmic or religious question about overarching purpose, this approach suggests that the question is intensely personal. There are many therapeutic responses to this question, for example Viktor Frankl argues for "Dereflection", which largely translates as ceasing to endlessly reflect on the self, instead of engaging in life. On the whole, the therapeutic response is that the question of meaning of life evaporates if one is fully engaged in life. The question then morphs into more specific worries such as "What delusions am I under?", "What is blocking my ability to enjoy things?", "Why do I neglect loved-ones?". See also Existential Therapy, Irvin Yalom.

Logical positivism

Logical positivists ask: What is the meaning of life? and What is the meaning in asking?[87][88] If there are no objective values, then, is life meaningless?[89] Ludwig Wittgenstein and the logical positivists said: "Expressed in language, the question is meaningless"; because, in life the statement the "meaning of x", usually denotes the consequences of x, or the significance of x, or what is notable about x, et cetera, thus, when the meaning of life concept equals "x", in the statement the "meaning of x", the statement becomes recursive, and, therefore, nonsensical, or it might refer to the fact that biological life is essential to having a meaning in life.

The things (people, events) in the life of a person can have meaning (importance) as parts of a whole, but a discrete meaning of (the) life, itself, aside from those things, cannot be discerned. A person's life has meaning (for himself, others) as the life events resulting from his achievements, legacy, family, et cetera, but, to say that life, itself, has meaning, is a misuse of language, since any note of significance, or of consequence, is relevant only in life (to the living), so rendering the statement erroneous. Bertrand Russell wrote that although he found that his distaste for torture was not like his distaste for broccoli, he found no satisfactory, empirical method of proving this:[65]

When we try to be definite, as to what we mean when we say that this or that is "the Good," we find ourselves involved in very great difficulties. Bentham's creed, that pleasure is the Good, roused furious opposition, and was said to be a pig's philosophy. Neither he nor his opponents could advance any argument. In a scientific question, evidence can be adduced on both sides, and, in the end, one side is seen to have the better case — or, if this does not happen, the question is left undecided. But in a question, as to whether this, or that, is the ultimate Good, there is no evidence, either way; each disputant can only appeal to his own emotions, and employ such rhetorical devices as shall rouse similar emotions in others . . . Questions as to "values" — that is to say, as to what is good or bad on its own account, independently of its effects — lie outside the domain of science, as the defenders of religion emphatically assert. I think that, in this, they are right, but, I draw the further conclusion, which they do not draw, that questions as to "values" lie wholly outside the domain of knowledge. That is to say, when we assert that this, or that, has "value", we are giving expression to our own emotions, not to a fact, which would still be true if our personal feelings were different.[90]

Postmodernism

Postmodernist thought - broadly speaking - sees human nature as constructed by language, or by structures and institutions of human society. Unlike other forms of philosophy, postmodernism rarely seeks out a priori or innate meanings in human existence, but instead focuses on analyzing or critiquing given meanings in order to rationalize or reconstruct them. Anything resembling a 'meaning of life', in postmodernist terms, can only be understood within a social and linguistic framework, and must be pursued as an escape from the power structures that are already embedded in all forms of speech and interaction. As a rule, postmodernists see awareness of the constraints of language as necessary to escaping those constraints, but different theorists take different views on the nature of this process: from radical reconstruction of meaning by individuals (as in deconstructionism) to theories in which individuals are primarily extensions of language and society, without real autonomy (as in poststructuralism). In general, postmodernism seeks meaning by looking at the underlying structures that create or impose meaning, rather than the epiphenomenal appearances of the world.

Instinctivism

According to Instinctivism, the ultimate meaning of life is to seek the fufillment of the human instincts. Instinctists believes that all actions in life are results of instincts and in particular reproductive needs. Instintivism demonstrates how the existence of human individual being the result of reproduction instinctly lead human to achieve the reproduction goal in a cycle. Instintism emphasizes that when people think critically, they shall realize the ultimate goal for every actions they do is to attract the opposite sex. Instintivism's central idea can be followed in this way:

As it is accepted that people are taught to learn in school. Why study hard? To receive good grades. Why receive good grades? To be able to go to college. Why go to college? To have a good occupation. Why a good occupation? To have wealth. Why wealth? To buy nice cars; To buy nice house; To buy nice products. Why all the nice things to make one look good? Ultimately to attract the opposite sex, to fufill the basic need of reproduction and the continuence of the human race.
Common arguments used by instictivismists that all of humanities action can be explained by our goal of procreation are the following: Why are people so opposed to homosexual marriage? Because homosexual couples can not reproduce. Why do people love each other? Because love leads to sexual intercourse, which contributes to the population of the human species. Why do mothers love babies before they are even born? Because it contributes to the maintenance and increase of the population of the human species. Why are so many people against abortion? Because it is a deterrent to procreation. Why are there so many doctors and so much medicine? To maintain the population of the human species. Why is murder such a big crime? Because it decreases the population of the human species.

Naturalistic pantheism

According to naturalistic pantheism, the meaning of life is to care for and look after nature and the environment.

Religious perspectives

The religious perspectives on the meaning of life are those ideologies which explain life in terms of an implicit purpose not defined by humans.

Western and Middle Eastern religions

ReligionSymbolAbr

Symbols of the three main Abrahamic religions – Judaism, Christianity, and Islam

Zoroastrianism

Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy named after its prophet Zoroaster, which influenced the beliefs of Judaism and its descendant religions. Zoroastrians believe in a universe created by a transcendental God, Ahura Mazda, to whom all worship is ultimately directed. Azhura Mazda's creation is asha, truth and order, and it is in conflict with its antithesis, druj, falsehood and disorder. (See also Zoroastrian eschatology).

Since humanity possesses free will, people must be responsible for their moral choices. By using free will, people must take active role to play in the universal conflict, with good thoughts, good words and good deeds to ensure happiness and to keep chaos at bay.

Judaism

Judaism's most important feature is the worshiping of a single, omniscient, omnipotent, omnibenevolent, transcendent God, who created the universe and governs it. Per traditional Judaism, God established a covenant with the Jewish people, at Mount Sinai, revealing his laws and commandments in the Torah. In Rabbinic Judaism, the Torah comprises the written Pentateuch (Torah) and the oral law tradition (later transcribed as sacred writing).

In the Judaic world view, the meaning of life is to serve the one true God and to prepare for the world to come.[91][92] The "Olam Haba"[93] thought is about elevating oneself spiritually, connecting to God in preparing for "Olam Haba"; Jewish thought is to use "Olam Hazeh" (this world) to elevate oneself. [94]

Christianity

Das Jüngste Gericht (Memling)

Hans Memling's The Last Judgment, which depicts St Michael the Archangel weighing souls and driving the Damned towards Hell.

Though Christianity has its roots in Judaism, and shares much of the latter faith's ontology, its central beliefs derive from the teachings of Jesus Christ, as presented in the New Testament. Life's purpose in Christianity is to seek divine salvation through the grace of God and intercession of Christ. (cf. Gospel of John 11:26) The New Testament speaks of God wanting to have a relationship with humans both in this life and the life to come, which can happen only if one's sins are forgiven (John 3:16-21), (2 Peter 3:9).

In the Christian view, humankind was made in the image of God and perfect, but the Fall of Man caused the progeny of the first Parents to inherit Original Sin. The sacrifice of Christ's passion, death and resurrection provide the means for transcending that impure state (Romans 6:23). The means for doing so varies between different groups of Christians, but all rely on belief in Jesus, his work on the cross and his resurrection as the fundamental starting point for a relationship with God. Under the Christian view, people are justified by belief in the propitiatory sacrifice of Jesus' death on the cross. The Gospel maintains that through this belief, the barrier that sin has created between man and God is destroyed, and allows God to change people and instill in them a new heart after His own will, and the ability to do it. This is what the term 'reborn' or 'saved' almost always refers to. This places Christianity in stark contrast to other religions which claim that believers are justified with God through adherence to guidelines or law given to us by God.

In the Westminster Shorter Catechism, the first question is: What is the chief end of Man?, that is, What is Man's main purpose?. The answer is: Man's chief end is to glorify God, and enjoy him forever. God requires one to obey the revealed moral law saying: love the Lord our God with all our heart, with all our soul, with all our strength, and with all our mind; and our neighbour as ourselves.[95] The Baltimore Catechism answers the question "Why did God make you?" by saying "God made me to know Him, to love Him, and to serve Him in this world, and to be happy with Him forever in heaven."[96]

The Apostle Paul also answers this question in his speech on the Areopagus in Athens: "From one man he made every nation of men, that they should inhabit the whole earth; and he determined the times set for them and the exact places where they should live. God did this so that men would seek him and perhaps reach out for him and find him, though he is not far from each one of us."[97]

Islam

In Islam, Man's ultimate life objective is to serve Allah (the Arabic equivalent for "God") by abiding by the Divine guidelines revealed in the Qur'an and the Tradition of the Prophet. Earthly life is merely a test, determining one's afterlife, either in Jannat (paradise) or in Jahannum (Hell).

For the pleasure of Allah, via the Qur'an, all Muslims must believe in God, his revelations, his angels, his messengers, and in the "Day of Judgment".[98] Qur'an describes the purpose of creation as follows: "Blessed be he in whose hand is the kingdom, he is powerful over all things,who created death and life that he might examine which of you is best in deeds, and he is the almighty, the forgiving" (Qur'an67:1-2)and "'I only created jinn and man to worship Me" (Qur'an 51:56). Worship testifies to the oneness of God in his lordship, his names, and his attributes. Terrenal life is a test; how one acts (behaves) determines whether one's soul goes to Jannat (Heaven) or to Jahannam (Hell).

The Five Pillars of Islam are duties incumbent to every Muslim; they are: Shahadah (profession of faith); Salah (ritual prayer); Zakah (charity); Sawm (fasting during Ramadan), and Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca).[99] They derive from the Hadith works, notably of Sahih Al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim.

Beliefs differ among the Kalam. The Sunni concept of pre-destination is divine decree;[100] like-wise, the Shi'a concept of pre-destination is divine justice; in the esoteric view of the Sufis, the universe exists only for God's pleasure; Creation is a grand game, wherein Allah is the greatest prize.[101][101]

Bahá'í Faith

The Bahá'í Faith emphasizes the unity of humanity.[102] To Bahá'ís, the purpose of life is focused on spiritual growth and service to humanity. Human beings are viewed as intrinsically spiritual beings. People's lives in this material world provide extended opportunities to grow, to develop divine qualities and virtues, and the prophets were sent by God to facilitate this.[103][104]

South Asian religions

Hindu philosophies

Golden Aum

A golden Aum written in Devanagari. The Aum is sacred in Hindu, Jain and Buddhist religions.

Hinduism is a religious category including many beliefs and traditions. Since Hinduism was the way of expressed meaningful living for quite a long time immemorial, when there was no need for naming this as a separate religion, Hindu doctrines are supplementary and complementary in nature, generally non-exclusive, suggestive and tolerant in content.[105] Most believe that the ātman (spirit, soul) — the person's true self — is eternal.[106] In part, this stems from Hindu beliefs that spiritual development occurs across many lifetimes, and goals should match the state of development of the individual. There are four possible aims to human life, known as the purusharthas (ordered from least to greatest): Kāma (wish, desire, love and sensual pleasure), Artha (wealth, prosperity, glory), Dharma (righteousness, duty, morality, virtue, ethics, encompassing notions such as ahimsa (non-violence) and satya (truth)) and Moksha (liberation, i.e. liberation from Saṃsāra, the cycle of reincarnation).[107][108][109]

In all schools of Hinduism, the meaning of life is tied up in the concepts of karma (causal action), samsara (the cycle of birth and rebirth), and moksha (liberation). Existence is conceived as the progression of the atman (similar to the western concept of a soul) across numerous lifetimes, and its ultimate progression towards liberation from karma. Particular goals for life are generally subsumed under broader yogas (practices) or dharma (correct living) which are intended to create more favorable reincarnations, though they are generally positive acts in this life as well. Traditional schools of Hinduism often worship Devas which are manifestations of Ishvara (a personal or chosen God); these Devas are taken as ideal forms to be identified with, as a form of spiritual improvement.

Advaita and Dvaita Hinduism

Later schools reinterpreted the vedas to focus on Brahman, "The One Without a Second",[110] as a central God-like figure.

In monist Advaita Vedanta, atman is ultimately indistinguishable from brahman, and the goal of life is to know or realize that one's atman (soul) is identical to Brahman.[111] To the Upanishads, whoever becomes fully aware of the ātman, as one's core of self, realises identity with Brahman, and, thereby, achieves Moksha (liberation, freedom).[106][112][113]

Dualist Dvaita Vedanta and other bhakti schools have a dualist interpretation. Brahman is seen as a supreme being with a personality and manifest qualities. The ātman depends upon brahman for its existence; the meaning of life is achieving Moksha through love of God and upon his grace.[112]

Vaishnavism

Another branch of Hinduism is Vaishnavism, where Vishnu is the principal deity. Not all schools of Vaishnavism teach a meaning to life, but Gaudiya Vaishnavism, for example, teaches Achintya Bheda Abheda meaning worship of a separate and single true God while at the same time acknowledging the essential oneness of all souls.

Jainism

File:Jain hand.svg

Jainism is a religion originating in ancient India, its ethical system promotes self-discipline above all else. Through following the ascetic teachings of Jina, a human achieves enlightenment (perfect knowledge). Jainism divides the universe into living and non-living beings. Only when the non-living become attached to the living does suffering result. Therefore, happiness is the result of self-conquest and freedom from external objects. The meaning of life may then be said to be to use the physical body to achieve self-realization and bliss.[114]

Jains believe that every human is responsible for his or her actions and all living beings have an eternal soul, jīva. Jains believe all souls are equal because they all possess the potential of being liberated and attaining Moksha. The Jain view of karma is that every action, every word, every thought produces, besides its visible, an invisible, transcendental effect on the soul.

Jainism includes strict adherence to ahimsa (or ahinsā), a form of nonviolence that goes far beyond vegetarianism. Jains refuse food obtained with unnecessary cruelty. Many practice a lifestyle similar to veganism due to the violence of modern dairy farms, and others exclude root vegetables from their diets in order to preserve the lives of the plants from which they eat.[115]

Buddhism

Early Buddhism

Buddhism is a nondual doctrine, in which subject, object, and action are all seen as illusory. Buddhists believe that life is inherent with suffering or frustration. Which does not mean that there is no pleasure in life, but this pleasure does not cause everlasting happiness. The suffering is caused by attachment to objects material or non-material which in turn causes one to be born again and again in the cycle of existence. The Buddhist sutras and tantras do not speak about "the meaning of life" or "the purpose of life", but about the potential of human life to end suffering through detaching oneself from cravings and conceptual attachments. Suffering can be overcome through human activity, simply by removing the cause of suffering. Attaining and perfecting dispassion is a process of many levels that ultimately results in the state of Nirvana. Nirvana means freedom from both suffering and rebirth.[116]

Dharma Wheel

The eight-spoked Dharmacakra

Theravada Buddhism is generally considered to be close to the early Buddhist practice. It promotes the concept of Vibhajjavada (Pali), literally "Teaching of Analysis", which says that insight must come from the aspirant's experience, critical investigation, and reasoning instead of by blind faith. However, the Theravadin tradition also emphasizes heeding the advice of the wise, considering such advice and evaluation of one's own experiences to be the two tests by which practices should be judged. The Theravadin goal is liberation (or freedom) from suffering, according to the Four Noble Truths. This is attained in the achievement of Nirvana, or Unbinding which also ends the repeated cycle of birth, old age, sickness and death.

Mahayana Buddhism

Mahayana Buddhist schools de-emphasize the traditional view (still practiced in Theravada) of the release from individual Suffering (Dukkha) and attainment of Awakening (Nirvana). In Mahayana, the Buddha is seen as an eternal, immutable, inconceivable, omnipresent being. The fundamental principles of Mahayana doctrine are based around the possibility of universal liberation from suffering for all beings, and the existence of the transcendent Buddha-nature, which is the eternal Buddha essence present, but hidden and unrecognised, in all living beings.

Philosophical schools of Mahayana Buddhism, such as Chan/Zen and the vajrayana Tibetan and Shingon schools, explicitly teach that boddhisattvas should refrain from full liberation, allowing themselves to be reincarnated into the world until all beings achieve enlightenment. Devotional schools such as Pure Land buddhism seek the aid of celestial buddhas - individuals who have spent lifetimes accumulating positive karma, and use that accumulation to aid all.

Sikhism

Khanda

The Khanda, an important symbol of Sikhism.

The monotheistic Sikh religion was founded by Guru Nanak Dev, the term "sikh" means student, which denotes that followers will lead their lives forever learning. This system of religious philosophy and expression has been traditionally known as the Gurmat (literally the counsel of the gurus) or the Sikh Dharma. The followers of Sikhism are ordained to follow the teachings of the ten Sikh gurus, or enlightened leaders, as well as the holy scripture entitled the Gurū Granth Sāhib, which includes selected works of many philosophers from diverse socio-economic and religious backgrounds.

The Sikh Gurus tell us that salvation can be obtained by following various spiritual paths, so Sikhs do not have a monopoly on salvation: "The Lord dwells in every heart, and every heart has its own way to reach Him."[117] Sikhs believe that all people are equally important before God.[118] Sikhs balance their moral and spiritual values with the quest for knowledge, and they aim to promote a life of peace and equality but also of positive action.[119]

A key distinctive feature of Sikhism is a non-anthropomorphic concept of God, to the extent that one can interpret God as the Universe itself (pantheism). Sikhism thus sees life as an opportunity to understand this God as well as to discover the divinity which lies in each individual. While a full understanding of God is beyond human beings,[120] Nanak described God as not wholly unknowable, and stressed that God must be seen from "the inward eye", or the "heart", of a human being: devotees must meditate to progress towards enlightenment. Nanak emphasized the revelation through meditation, as its rigorous application permits the existence of communication between God and human beings.[120]

Far Eastern religions

Shinto

Shinto torii vermillion

Shinto torii, a traditional Japanese gate

Shinto is the native religion of Japan. Shinto means "the path of the kami", but more specifically, it can be taken to mean "the divine crossroad where the kami chooses his way". The 'divine' crossroad signifies that all the universe is divine spirit. This foundation of free will, choosing one's way, means that life is a creative process.

Shinto wants life to live, not to die. Shinto sees death as pollution and regards life as the realm where the divine spirit seeks to purify itself by rightful self-development. Shinto wants individual human life to be prolonged forever on earth as a victory of the divine spirit in preserving its objective personality in its highest forms. The presence of evil in the world, as conceived by Shinto, does not stultify the divine nature by imposing on divinity responsibility for being able to relieve human suffering while refusing to do so. The sufferings of life are the sufferings of the divine spirit in search of progress in the objective world.[121]

Taoism

Yin yang

Taijitu symbolizes the unity of opposites between yin and yang.

The Taoists' cosmogony emphasizes the need for all sentient beings and all man to return to the primordial or to rejoin with the Oneness of the Universe by way of self cultivation and self realization. All adherents should understand and be in tune with the ultimate truth.

They believe all things were originally from Taiji and Tao, and the meaning in life for the adherents is to realise the temporal nature of the existence. "Only introspection can then help us to find our innermost reasons for living...the simple answer is here within ourselves."[122]

Confucianism

Confucianism recognizes human nature in accordance with the need for discipline and education. Because mankind is driven by both positive and negative influences, Confucianists see a goal in achieving the good nature through strong relationships and reasoning as well as minimizing the negative energy. This emphasis on normal living is seen in the Confucianist scholar Tu Wei-Ming's quote, "we can realize the ultimate meaning of life in ordinary human existence."[123]

New religions

There are many new religious movements in East Asia, and some with millions of followers: Chondogyo, Tenrikyo, Cao Đài, and Seicho-No-Ie. New religions typically have unique explanations for the meaning of life. For example, in Tenrikyo, one is expected to live a Joyous Life by participating in practices that create happiness for oneself and others.

In popular culture

The mystery of life and its meaning is an often recurring subject in popular culture, featured in entertainment media and various forms of art.

Allisvanity

Charles Allan Gilbert's All is Vanity depicts a young woman gazing at her reflection in a mirror, but all is positioned in such a way as to make the image of a skull appear.

In Douglas Adams' popular comedy book series The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, the Answer to the Ultimate Question of Life, the Universe, and Everything has the numeric solution of 42, which was derived over seven and a half million years by a giant supercomputer called Deep Thought. After much confusion from the descendants of his creators, Deep Thought explains that the problem is that they do not know the Ultimate Question, and they would have to build an even more powerful computer to determine what that is. This computer is revealed to be Earth, which, after 10 million years of calculating, is destroyed to make way for a galactic bypass five minutes before it finishes calculations.[5][7][11][124] In Life, the Universe and Everything, it is confirmed that 42 is indeed the Ultimate Answer, and that it is impossible for both the Ultimate Answer and the Ultimate Question to be known about in the same universe, as they will cancel each other out and take the universe with them, to be replaced by something even more bizarre, (one character, Prak, suggests that this may have already happened).[125] Subsequently, in the hopes that his subconscious holds the question, Arthur Dent guesses at a question, coming up with "What do you get when you multiply six by nine?", probably an incorrect guess, as the arrival of the Golgafrinchans on prehistoric Earth would have disrupted the computation process.[126] However, Dent, Fenchurch, and a dying Marvin did see God's final message to his creation: "We apologise for the inconvenience".[127]

HamletSkullHCSealous

Hamlet with Yorick's skull

In Monty Python's The Meaning of Life, there are several allusions to the meaning of life. In "Part VI B: The Meaning of Life" a cleaning lady explains "Life's a game, you sometimes win or lose" and later a waiter describes his personal philosophy "The world is a beautiful place. You must go into it, and love everyone, not hate people. You must try and make everyone happy, and bring peace and contentment everywhere you go."[128] At the end of the film, we can see Michael Palin being handed an envelope, he opens it, and provides the viewers with 'the meaning of life': "Well, it's nothing very special. Uh, try to be nice to people, avoid eating fat, read a good book every now and then, get some walking in, and try to live together in peace and harmony with people of all creeds and nations."[128][129][130]

In The Simpsons episode "Homer the Heretic", a representation of God agrees to tell Homer what the meaning of life is, but the show's credits begin to roll just as he starts to say what it is. Earlier in the episode, Homer founds his own religion, in which he tries to worship God in his own way, later pointing out to Moe that it has no hell and no kneeling. However, Homer quickly abandons his self-indulgent personal religion after his house almost burns down, taking the fire as a sign of divine retribution, and exclaiming "O Spiteful One, show me who to smite, and he shall be smoten." Ned assures Homer that the fire was not God's vengeance and Lovejoy explains that God was "working in the hearts of your friends and neighbors when they came to your aid."[131]

At the end of The Matrix Revolutions, Smith concludes that "the purpose of life is to end" and is determined to move that purpose along.[132][page needed] The Matrix series also presents the idea of "living in a simulated reality" and the associated question whether such an existence should be considered meaningless, in a way that may be compared to Plato's allegory of the cave and how certain belief systems view reality, like Buddhism or Gnosticism.[133][page needed]

See also

Origin and nature of life and reality

Value of life

Purpose of life

Miscellaneous

References

  1. Jonathan Westphal (1998). Philosophical Propositions: An Introduction to Philosophy. Routledge. ISBN 0415170532. 
  2. Robert Nozick (1981). Philosophical Explanations. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674664795. 
  3. Albert Jewell (2003). Ageing, Spirituality and Well-Being. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. ISBN 184310167X. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Question of the Month: What Is The Meaning Of Life?". Philosophy Now. Issue 59. http://www.philosophynow.org/issue59/59question.htm. Retrieved 2007-07-26. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 Glenn Yeffeth (2005). The Anthology at the End of the Universe: Leading Science Fiction Authors on Douglas Adams' The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy. BenBella Books, Inc. ISBN 1932100563. 
  6. David Seaman (2005). The Real Meaning of Life. New World Library. ISBN 1577315146. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Julian Baggini (September 2004). What's It All About? Philosophy and the Meaning of Life. USA: Granta Books. ISBN 1862076618. 
  8. Ronald F. Thiemann; William Carl Placher (1998). Why Are We Here?: Everyday Questions and the Christian Life. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 1563382369. 
  9. Dennis Marcellino (1996). Why Are We Here?: The Scientific Answer to this Age-old Question (that you don't need to be a scientist to understand). Lighthouse Pub. ISBN 0945272103. 
  10. F. Homer Curtiss (2003). Why Are We Here. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 0766138992. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 William B. Badke (2005). The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Meaning of Everything. Kregel Publications. ISBN 0825420695. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 Hsuan Hua (2003). Words of Wisdom: Beginning Buddhism. Dharma Realm Buddhist Association. ISBN 0881393029. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 Paul Davies (March 2000). The Fifth Miracle: The Search for the Origin and Meaning of Life. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-86309-X. http://www.simonsays.com/content/book.cfm?tab=1&pid=410133. Retrieved 2007-07-26. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 Charles Christiansen; Carolyn Manville Baum; Julie Bass-Haugen (2005). Occupational Therapy: Performance, Participation, and Well-Being. SLACK Incorporated. ISBN 1556425309. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 Evan Harris Walker (2000). The Physics of Consciousness: The Quantum Mind and the Meaning of Life. Perseus Books. ISBN 0738204366. 
  16. Rick Warren (2002). The Purpose Driven Life: What on Earth Am I Here For?. Zondervan. ISBN 0310255252. 
  17. 17.0 17.1 Jiddu Krishnamurti (2001). What Are You Doing With Your Life?. Krishnamurti Foundation of America. ISBN 188800424X. 
  18. Puolimatka, Tapio; Airaksinen, Timo (2002). "Education and the Meaning of Life" (PDF). Philosophy of Education. University of Helsinki. http://www.ed.uiuc.edu/EPS/PES-Yearbook/2001/tapio%2001.pdf. Retrieved 2007-07-26. 
  19. Stan Van Hooft (2004). Life, Death, and Subjectivity: Moral Sources in Bioethics. Rodopi. ISBN 9042019123. 
  20. Russ Shafer-Landau; Terence Cuneo (2007). Foundations of Ethics: An Anthology. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 1405129514. 
  21. E. Diener, J.J. Sapyta, E. Suh (1998). "Subjective Well-Being Is Essential to Well-Being." Psychological Inquiry, Lawrence Earlbaum
  22. Csíkszentmihályi, Mihály (1990). Flow: The Balls of Optimal Experience. New York: Harper and Row. ISBN 0-06-092043-2.
  23. Peterson, Christopher; Seligman, Martin (2004). Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-516701-5.
  24. Seligman, M.E.P. (2002). Authentic Happiness: Using the New Positive Psychology to Realize Your Potential for Lasting Fulfillment. New York: Free Press. ISBN 0-7432-2297-0 (Paperback edition, 2004, Free Press, ISBN 0-7432-2298-9)
  25. Charles Darwin (1859). On the Origin of Species.
  26. Richard Dawkins (1976). The Selfish Gene. Oxford University Press. ISBN 019857519X. 
  27. Richard Dawkins (1995). River out of Eden. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-06990-8. 
  28. Astrobiology Magazine: Defining Life
  29. Defining Life, Explaining Emergence
  30. Schrödinger, Erwin (1944). What is Life?. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-42708-8. 
  31. Margulis, Lynn; Sagan, Dorion (1995). What is Life?. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22021-8. 
  32. Lovelock, James (2000). Gaia – a New Look at Life on Earth. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-286218-9. 
  33. Avery, John (2003). Information Theory and Evolution. World Scientific. ISBN 9812383999. 
  34. Davison, Paul G.. "How to Define Life". The University of North Alabama. http://www2.una.edu/pdavis/BI%20101/Overview%20Fall%202004.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  35. Witzany, G. (2007). The Logos of the Bios 2. Bio-Communication. Helsinki, Umweb.
  36. Helge Kragh (1996). Cosmology and Controversy. Princeton University Press. ISBN 069100546X. 
  37. 37.0 37.1 Nikos Prantzos; Stephen Lyle (2000). Our Cosmic Future: Humanity's Fate in the Universe. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 052177098X. 
  38. Rem B. Edwards (2001). What Caused the Big Bang?. Rodopi. ISBN 9042014075. 
  39. Harvey Whitehouse (2001). The Debated Mind: Evolutionary Psychology Versus Ethnography. Berg Publishers. ISBN 1859734278. 
  40. 40.0 40.1 Jeffrey Alan Gray (2004). Consciousness: Creeping Up on the Hard Problem. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198520905. 
  41. Paul M. Churchland (1989). A Neurocomputational Perspective: The Nature of Mind and the Structure of Science. MIT Press. ISBN 0262531062. 
  42. Daniel Clement Dennett (1991). Consciousness Explained. Little, Brown and Co.. ISBN 0316180661. 
  43. 43.0 43.1 John D. Barrow; Paul C. W. Davies; Charles L. Harper (2004). Science and Ultimate Reality: Quantum Theory, Cosmology and Complexity. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 052183113X. 
  44. Jean Millay; Ruth-Inge Heinze (1999). Multidimensional Mind: Remote Viewing in Hyperspace. North Atlantic Books. ISBN 1556433069. 
  45. J. McFadden (2002) "Synchronous Firing and Its Influence on the Brain's Electromagnetic Field: Evidence for an Electromagnetic Field Theory of Consciousness". Journal of Consciousness Studies 9 (4) pp. 23-50.
  46. R. Buccheri; V. Di Gesù; Metod Saniga (2000). Studies on the Structure of Time: From Physics to Psycho(patho)logy. Springer. ISBN 030646439X. 
  47. 47.0 47.1 David Bohm; Basil J. Hiley (1993). The Undivided Universe: An Ontological Interpretation of Quantum Theory. Routledge. ISBN 0415065887. 
  48. 48.0 48.1 Alexandra Bruce (2005). Beyond the Bleep: The Definitive Unauthorized Guide to What the Bleep Do We Know!?. The Disinformation Company. ISBN 1932857222. 
  49. Benjamin Libet; Anthony Freeman; Keith Sutherland (1999). The Volitional Brain: Towards a Neuroscience of Free Will. Imprint Academic. ISBN 0907845118. 
  50. Mae-Wan Ho (1998). The Rainbow and the Worm: The Physics of Organisms. World Scientific. pp. 218–231. ISBN 9810234279. 
  51. Radin, Dean (1997). The Conscious Universe: The Scientific Truth of Psychic Phenomena. HarperSanFrancisco. ISBN 0062515020. 
  52. Dunne, Brenda; Jahn, Robert G. (2003). "Does psi exist? Replicable evidence for an anomalous process of information transfer" ([dead link]Scholar search). Journal of Scientific Exploration 17 (2): 207–241. http://www.scientificexploration.org/jse/abstracts/v17n2a1.php. Retrieved 2007-07-31. 
  53. Dunne, Brenda J.; Jahn, Robert G. (1985). "On the quantum mechanics of consciousness, with application to anomalous phenomena". Foundations of Physics 16 (8): 721–772. doi:10.1007/BF00735378. http://www.springerlink.com/content/vtrr87tg356154r7/. Retrieved 2007-07-31. 
  54. Alcock, James E.; Jahn, Robert G. (2003). "Give the Null Hypothesis a Chance" (PDF). Journal of Consciousness Studies 10 (6-7): 29–50. http://www.imprint.co.uk/pdf/Alcock-editorial.pdf. Retrieved 2007-07-30. 
  55. Hyman, Ray (1995). "Evaluation of the program on anomalous mental phenomena". The Journal of Parapsychology 59 (1). http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2320/is_n4_v59/ai_18445600. Retrieved 2007-07-30. 
  56. Akers, C. (1986). Methodological Criticisms of Parapsychology, Advances in Parapsychological Research 4. PesquisaPSI. http://www.pesquisapsi.com/books/advances4/7_Methodological_Criticisms.html. Retrieved 2007-07-30. 
  57. Child, I.L. (1987). Criticism in Experimental Parapsychology, Advances in Parapsychological Research 5. PesquisaPSI. http://www.pesquisapsi.com/books/advances5/6_Criticism_in_Experimental.html. Retrieved 2007-07-30. 
  58. Wiseman, Richard; Smith, Matthew, et al. (1996). "Exploring possible sender-to-experimenter acoustic leakage in the PRL autoganzfeld experiments - Psychophysical Research Laboratories". The Journal of Parapsychology. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2320/is_n2_v60/ai_18960809. Retrieved 2007-07-30. 
  59. Lobach, E.; Bierman, D. (2004). "The Invisible Gaze: Three Attempts to Replicate Sheldrake's Staring Effects" (PDF). Proceedings of the 47th PA Convention. pp. 77–90. http://www.parapsych.org/papers/07.pdf. Retrieved 2007-07-30. 
  60. Kidd, I., "Cynicism," in The Concise Encyclopedia of Western Philosophy. (ed. J. O. Urmson and Jonathan Rée), Routledge. (2005)
  61. Long, A. A., "The Socratic Tradition: Diogenes, Crates, and Hellenistic Ethics," in The Cynics: The Cynic Movement in Antiquity and Its Legacy. (ed. Branham and Goulet-Cazé), University of California Press, (1996).
  62. "Cyrenaics." Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The University of Tennessee At Martin. 4 Nov. 2007 <http://www.iep.utm.edu/>.
  63. "The Cyrenaics and the Origin of Hedonism." Hedonism.org. BLTC. 4 Nov. 2007 <http://www.hedonism.org>.
  64. Epicurus, "Letter to Menoeceus", contained in Diogenes Laertius, Lives of Eminent Philosophers, Book X
  65. 65.0 65.1 65.2 65.3 Bertrand Russell (1946). A History of Western Philosophy, New York: Simon and Schuster; London: George Allen and Unwin
  66. A: "'Liberalism' is defined as a social ethic that advocates liberty, and equality in general." – C. A. J. (Tony) Coady Distributive Justice, A Companion to Contemporary Political Philosophy, editors Goodin, Robert E. and Pettit, Philip. Blackwell Publishing, 1995, p.440. B: "Liberty is not a means to a higher political end. It is itself the highest political end." – Lord Acton
  67. Rosen, Frederick (2003). Classical Utilitarianism from Hume to Mill. Routledge, pg. 28. ISBN 0415220947 "It was Hume and Bentham who then reasserted most strongly the Epicurean doctrine concerning utility as the basis of justice."
  68. Mill, John Stuart. 'On Liberty', ed. Himmelfarb. Penguin Classics, 1974, Ed.'s introduction, p.11.
  69. 69.0 69.1 Jérôme Bindé (2004). The Future Of Values: 21st-Century Talks. Berghahn Books. ISBN 1571814426. 
  70. 70.0 70.1 Bernard Reginster (2006). The Affirmation of Life: Nietzsche on Overcoming Nihilism. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674021991. 
  71. Heidegger, "The Word of Nietzsche," 61.
  72. Camus (1946) L'Etranger
  73. Camus (1955) The Myth of Sisyphus
  74. William James (1909). The Meaning of Truth. Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-138-6. 
  75. Walter Robert Corti (1976). The Philosophy of William James. Meiner Verlag. ISBN 3787303529. 
  76. Amy Laura Hall (2002). Kierkegaard and the Treachery of Love. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521893119. 
  77. Dale Jacquette (1996). Schopenhauer, Philosophy, and the Arts. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521473888. 
  78. Durno Murray (1999). Nietzsche's Affirmative Morality. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3110166011. 
  79. Solomon, Robert C. (2001). From Rationalism to Existentialism: The Existentialists and Their Nineteenth Century Backgrounds. Rowman and Littlefield. p. 245. ISBN 074251241X. 
  80. Albert Camus at the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy Accessed May 25th, 2009
  81. 81.0 81.1 81.2 81.3 "Humanist Manifesto I] [http://www.americanhumanist.org/about/manifesto1.html url=http://www.americanhumanist.org/about/manifesto1.html". American Humanist Association. 1933. 
  82. 82.0 82.1 82.2 "Humanist Manifesto II work=American Humanist Association". 1973. http://www.americanhumanist.org/about/manifesto2.html. Retrieved 2007-08-01. 
  83. 83.0 83.1 83.2 "Humanist Manifesto III work=American Humanist Association". 2003. http://www.americanhumanist.org/3/HumandItsAspirations.php. Retrieved 2007-08-01. 
  84. "A Secular Humanist Declaration work=Council for Democratic and Secular Humanism (now the Council for Secular Humanism)". 1980. http://www.secularhumanism.org/index.php?section=main&page=declaration. Retrieved 2007-08-01. 
  85. Nick Bostrom (2005). "Transhumanist Values". Oxford University. http://www.nickbostrom.com/ethics/values.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  86. Irvin Yalom, Existential Psychotherapy, 1980
  87. Richard Taylor (January 1970). Good and Evil. Macmillan Publishing Company. pp. "The Meaning of Life" (Chapter 5). ISBN 0026166909. 
  88. Wohlgennant, Rudolph. (1981). "Has the Question about the Meaning of Life any Meaning?" (Chapter 4). In E. Morscher, ed., Philosophie als Wissenschaft.
  89. McNaughton, David (August 1988). Moral Vision: An Introduction to Ethics. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. pp. "Moral Freedom and the Meaning of Life" (Section 1.5). ISBN 0631159452. 
  90. Bertrand Russell (1961). Science and Ethics
  91. Dan Cohn-Sherbok (2003). Judaism: History, Belief, and Practice. Routledge. ISBN 0415236614. 
  92. Abraham Joshua Heschel (2005). Heavenly Torah: As Refracted Through the Generations. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 0826408028. 
  93. Wilfred Shuchat (2006). The Garden of Eden & the Struggle to Be Human: According to the Midrash Rabbah. Devora Publishing. ISBN 1932687319. 
  94. Randolph L. Braham (1983). Contemporary Views on the Holocaust. Springer. ISBN 089838141X. 
  95. "The Westminster Shorter Catechism". http://www.creeds.net/reformed/Westminster/shorter_catechism.html. Retrieved 2008-03-21. 
  96. "The Baltimore Catechism". http://www.sacred-texts.com/chr/balt/balt1.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-12. 
  97. Bible, Acts 17:26-27, NKJV
  98. Qur'an 2:4, Qur'an 2:285, Qur'an 4:136
  99. "Pillars of Islam". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 
  100. Sahih Muslim 1:1
  101. 101.0 101.1 Abdullah Yusuf Ali (2000). The Holy Qur'an. Wordsworth Editions. ISBN 1853267821. 
  102. "Bahaism." The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, Houghton Mifflin Company, 2007, http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/bahaism 
  103. Smith, P. (1999). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford, UK: Oneworld Publications. pp. 325–328. ISBN 1851681841. 
  104. For a more detailed Bahá'í perspective, see "The Purpose of Life" Bahá'í Topics An Information Resource of the Bahá'í International Community, http://info.bahai.org/article-1-4-0-6.html 
  105. Simon Weightman (1998), "Hinduism", in Hinnells, John (Ed.), The new Penguin handbook of living religions, Penguin books, ISBN 0-140-51480-5
  106. 106.0 106.1 Monier Monier-Williams (1974), Brahmanism and Hinduism: Or, Religious Thought and Life in India, as Based on the Veda and Other Sacred Books of the Hindus, Adamant Media Corporation, ISBN 1421265311, <http://books.google.com/books?id=U5IBXA4UpT0C&dq=isbn:1421265311>. Retrieved on 2007-07-08
  107. For dharma, artha, and kama as "brahmanic householder values" see: Flood (1996), p. 17.
  108. For the Dharma Śāstras as discussing the "four main goals of life" (dharma, artha, kāma, and moksha) see: Hopkins, p. 78.
  109. For definition of the term पुरुष-अर्थ (puruṣa-artha) as "any of the four principal objects of human life, i.e. धर्म, अर्थ, काम, and मोक्ष" see: Apte, p. 626, middle column, compound #1.
  110. Bhaskarananda, Swami (1994), written at Seattle, WA, The Essentials of Hinduism: a comprehensive overview of the world's oldest religion, Viveka Press, ISBN 1-884852-02-5
  111. Vivekananda, Swami (1987), written at Calcutta, Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda, Advaita Ashrama, ISBN 81-85301-75-1
  112. 112.0 112.1 Werner, Karel (1994), "Hinduism", written at Richmond, Surrey, in Hinnells, John (Ed.), A Popular Dictionary of Hinduism, Curzon Press, ISBN 0-7007-0279-2
  113. See also the Vedic statement "ayam ātmā brahma" (This Atman is Brahman)
  114. Shah, Natubhai. Jainism: The World of Conquerors. Sussex Academic Press, 1998.
  115. "Viren, Jain" (PDF). RE Today. http://www.retoday.org.uk/pdfs/dre/viren.pdf. Retrieved 2007-06-14. 
  116. "The Four Noble Truths". Thebigview.com. http://www.thebigview.com/buddhism/fourtruths.html. Retrieved 2009-11-06. 
  117. Daljeet Singh (1971). Guru Tegh Bahadur. Language Dept., Punjab. 
  118. Jon Mayled (2002). Modern World Religions: Sikhism. Harcourt Heinemann. ISBN 0435336266. 
  119. The Sikh Coalition
  120. 120.0 120.1 Parrinder, Geoffrey (1971). World Religions: From Ancient History to the Present. United States: Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited. ISBN 0-87196-129-6. 
  121. J. W. T. Mason (2002). The Meaning of Shinto. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 1412245516. 
  122. Ming-Dao Deng (1990). Scholar Warrior: An Introduction to the Tao in Everyday Life. HarperCollins. 
  123. Tu, Wei-Ming. Confucian Thought: Selfhood as Creative Transformation. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1985.
  124. Douglas Adams (1979). The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy. London: Pan Books. ISBN 0-330-25864-8. 
  125. Douglas Adams (1982). Life, the Universe and Everything. London: Pan. ISBN 0-330-26738-8. 
  126. Douglas Adams (1 January 1980). The Restaurant at the End of the Universe. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-39181-0. 
  127. Douglas Adams (1985). So Long, and Thanks for All the Fish. London: Pan. ISBN 0-330-28700-1. 
  128. 128.0 128.1 Monty Python's Completely Useless Web Site: Monty Python's The Meaning Of Life: Complete Script
  129. Terry Burnham (2005). Mean Markets and Lizard Brains: How to Profit from the New Science of Irrationality. John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0471716952. 
  130. Yolanda Fernandez (2002). In Their Shoes: Examining the Issue of Empathy and Its Place in the Treatment of Offenders. Wood 'N' Barnes Publishing. ISBN 1885473486. 
  131. Mark I. Pinsky (2001). The Gospel According To The Simpsons: The Spiritual Life Of The World's Most Animated Family. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 0664224199. 
  132. Matt Lawrence (2004). Like a Splinter in Your Mind: The Philosophy Behind the Matrix Trilogy. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 1405125241. 
  133. Christopher Grau (2005). Philosophers Explore the Matrix. Oxford University Press.

External links

General

Scientific

Philosophical

Spiritual


Also on Fandom

Random Wiki