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Madhyānta-vibhāga-kārikā (Distinguishing the Middle and the Extremes) is a key work in Yogācāra Buddhist philosophy, which was written by Maitreya-nātha. It consists of 112 verses which delineate the distinctions and relationship (vibhāga) between the middle view (madya) and extremes (anta); it contains five chapters: Attributes (laksana), Obscurations (āvarana), Reality (tattva), Cultivation of Antidotes (pratipaksa-bhāvanā) and the Supreme Way (yānānuttarya). Along with Chinese, Tibetan and Mongolian translations, the text survives in a single Sanskrit manuscript discovered in Tibet by the Indian Buddhologist and explorer, Mahapandit Rahul Sankrityayan. The Sanskrit version also included a commentary (bhāsya) by Vasubandhu. An important sub-commentary (tīkā) by Sthiramati also survives in Sanskrit as well as a Tibetan version.

In English Translation

The Madhyāntavibhāga-kārikā was translated into English in 2007 by the Dharmachakra Translation Committee.[1]


  1. Middle Beyond Extremes: Maitreya's Madhyantavibhaga with Commentaries by Khenpo Shenga and Ju Mipham by the Dharmachakra Translation Committee. Snow Lion Publications. Ithica: 2007. ISBN 1559392703

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