The Lord's Prayer, also known as the Our Father or Pater noster, is perhaps the best-known prayer in Christianity. Two versions of it occur in the New Testament, one in the Gospel of Matthew 6:9–13 as part of the discourse on ostentation, a section of the Sermon on the Mount; and the other in the Gospel of Luke 11:2–4.
The context of the prayer in Matthew is as part of a discourse deploring people who pray grandiosely, simply for the purpose of being seen to pray; Matthew describes Jesus as instructing people to pray "after the manner" of this prayer. Taking into account the prayer's structure, flow of subject matter and emphases, one interpretation of the Lord's Prayer is as a guideline on how to pray rather than something to be learned and repeated by rote. There are other interpretations suggesting that the prayer was intended as a specific prayer to be used. The New Testament reports Jesus and the disciples praying on several occasions; but as it never describes them actually using this prayer, it is uncertain how important it was originally viewed as being.
In Christian scholarship, the prayer's absence from the Gospel of Mark (cf. the Prayer for forgiveness of 11:25–26), taken together with its presence in both Luke and Matthew, has caused scholars who accept the Q hypothesis (as opposed to Augustinian hypothesis) to conclude that it is a quotation from the Q document, especially because of the context in Luke's presentation of the prayer.
On Easter Day 2007 it was estimated that two billion Roman Catholic, Anglican, Protestant and Eastern Orthodox Christians read, recited, or sang the short prayer in hundreds of languages. Although many theological differences and various modes and manners of worship divide Christians, according to Fuller Seminary professor Clayton Schmit "there is a sense of solidarity in knowing that Christians around the globe are praying together…, and these words always unite us."
There are several different English translations of the Lord's Prayer. One of the first texts in English is the Northumbrian translation from around 650. The three best-known are
- The translation in the 1662 Anglican Book of Common Prayer (BCP) of the Church of England
- The slightly modernized form used in the Catholic mass and (along with the doxology) in the 1928 version of the Prayer Book of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America
- The 1988 translation of the ecumenical English Language Liturgical Consultation (ELLC),
These are given here along with the Greek text of Matthew 6:9-13 and the Latin text used in the Roman Catholic liturgy. The square brackets in three of the texts below indicate the doxology often added at the end of the prayer by Protestants and, in a slightly different form, by Eastern Orthodox. The Anglican Book of Common Prayer adds it in some services but not in all. Older English translations of the Bible, based on late Byzantine Greek manuscripts, included it, but it is excluded in critical editions of the New Testament, such as that of the United Bible Societies. It is absent in the oldest manuscripts and is not considered to be part of the original text of Matthew 6:9–13. The Catholic Church has never attached it to the Lord's Prayer, although it has included the same doxology in the Roman Rite liturgy of the Mass since 1969.
Original text in Greek
Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
Other English translations are also used.
Though Matthew 6:12 uses the term debts, the older English versions of the Lord's Prayer uses the term trespasses, while ecumenical versions often use the term sins. The latter choice may be due to Luke 11:4, which uses the word sins, while the former may be due to Matthew 6:12 (immediately after the text of the prayer), where Jesus speaks of trespasses. As early as the third century, Origen of Alexandria used the word trespasses (παραπτώματα) in the prayer. Though the Latin form that was traditionally used in Western Europe has debita (debts), most English-speaking Christians (except Presbyterians and others of the Reformed tradition), use trespasses. The Established Presbyterian Church of Scotland as well as the Congregational denomination follow the version found in Matthew 6 in the Authorized Version (known also as the King James Version), which in the prayer uses the words "debts" and "debtors".
The doxology, "For thine is the kingdom, the power, and the glory, forever and ever", with which some conclude the prayer, is not found in the earliest manuscripts of the Gospel of Matthew, from which the prayer is taken. It was added in Eastern Christianity at an early stage. In the form "For the kingdom, the power, and the glory are yours, now and for ever", it is included in the Roman Rite Mass as revised in 1970, but is not attached directly to the Lord's Prayer, from which it is separated by a prayer called the embolism spoken or sung by the priest (in the 1975 ICEL English translation: "Deliver us, Lord, from every evil, and grant us peace in our day. In your mercy keep us free from sin and protect us from all anxiety as we wait in joyful hope for the coming of our Savior, Jesus Christ.") that elaborates on the final petition, "Deliver us from evil."
All these versions are based on the text in Matthew, rather than Luke, of the prayer given by Jesus:
Template:SectOR Subheadings use 1662 Book of Common Prayer (BCP) (see above)
"Our Father, which art in Heaven"Edit
Together, the first two words—Our Father—are a title used elsewhere in the New Testament, as well as in Jewish literature, to refer to God. It also implies the close personal nature of the relationship between God and those praying, like a father and child, as taught by Jesus in each of the four gospels. Nontrinitarians may take this line to refer to the positioning of God as the father of all things including Jesus who is normally positioned as the son.
"Hallowed be thy Name"Edit
Having opened, the prayer begins in the same manner as the Kaddish, hallowing the name of God, and then going on to express hope that God's will and kingdom will happen. In Judaism the name of God is of extreme importance, and honouring the name central to piety. Names were seen not simply as labels, but as true reflections of the nature and identity of what they referred to. So, the prayer that God's name be hallowed was seen as equivalent to hallowing God himself. "Hallowed be" is in the passive voice and so does not indicate who is to do the hallowing. One interpretation is that it is a call for all believers to honour God's name. Those who see the prayer as primarily eschatological understand the prayer to be an expression of desire for the end times, when God's name, in the view of those saying the prayer, will be universally honoured.
"Thy kingdom come"Edit
The request for God's kingdom to come is usually interpreted as a reference to the belief, common at the time, that a Messiah figure would bring about a Kingdom of God. Traditionally the coming of God's Kingdom is seen as a divine gift to be prayed for, not a human achievement. This idea is frequently challenged by groups who believe that the Kingdom will come by the hands of those faithful to work for a better world. It is believed by these individuals that Jesus' commands to feeding the hungry and clothing the needy is the Kingdom he was referring to.
"Thy will be done, in earth as it is in heaven"Edit
The prayer follows with an expression of hope for God's will to be done. Some see the expression of hope as an addendum to assert a request for earth to be under direct and manifest divine command. Others see it as a call on people to submit to God and his teachings. In the Gospels, these requests have the added clarification in earth, as it is in heaven, an ambiguous phrase in Greek which can either be a simile (i.e., make earth like heaven), or a couple (i.e., both in heaven and earth), though simile is the most significant common interpretation.
"Give us this day our daily bread"Edit
The more personal requests break from the similarity to the Kaddish. The first concerns daily bread. The meaning of the word normally translated as daily, ἐπιούσιος epiousios, is obscure. The word is almost a hapax legomenon, occurring only in Luke and Matthew's versions of the Lord's Prayer. (It was once mistakenly thought to be found also in an Egyptian accounting book.). Daily bread appears to be a reference to the way God provided manna to the Israelites each day while they were in the wilderness, as in Exodus 16:15–21. Since they could not keep any manna overnight, they had to depend on God to provide anew each morning. Etymologically epiousios seems to be related to the Greek words epi, meaning on,over,at,against and ousia, meaning substance. It is translated as supersubstantialem in the Vulgate (Matthew 6:11) and accordingly as supersubstantial in the Douay-Rheims Bible (Matthew 6:11). Early writers connected this to Eucharistic transubstantiation. Some modern Protestant scholars tend to reject this connection on the presumption that Eucharistic practise and the doctrine of transubstantiation both developed later than Matthew was written. Epiousios can also be understood as existence, i.e., bread that was fundamental to survival (as in the Syriac Peshitta, where the line is translated "give us the bread of which we have need today."). In the era, bread was the most important food for survival. However, scholars of linguistics consider this rendering unlikely since it would violate standard rules of word formation. Koine Greek had several far more common terms for the same idea. Some interpret epiousios as meaning for tomorrow, as in the wording used by the Gospel of the Nazoraeans for the prayer. The common translation as "daily" is conveniently close in meaning to the other two possibilities as well. Those Christians who read the Lord's Prayer as eschatological view epiousios as referring to the second coming — reading for tomorrow (and bread) in a metaphorical sense. Most scholars disagree, particularly since Jesus is portrayed throughout Luke and Matthew as caring for everyday needs for his followers, particularly in the bread-related miracles that are recounted.
"And forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive them that trespass against us"Edit
After the request for bread, Matthew and Luke diverge slightly. Matthew continues with a request for debts to be forgiven in the same manner as people forgive those who have debts against them. Luke, on the other hand, makes a similar request about sins being forgiven in the manner of debts being forgiven between people. The word "debts" (ὀφειλήματα) does not necessarily mean financial obligations as shown by the use of the verbal form of the same word (ὀφείλετε) in passages such as Romans 13:8. In Aramaic the word for debt is also used to mean sin. This difference between Luke's and Matthew's wording could be explained by the original form of the prayer having been in Aramaic. The generally accepted interpretation is thus that the request is for forgiveness of sin, not of supposed loans granted by God. Asking for forgiveness from God was a staple of Jewish prayers. It was also considered proper for individuals to be forgiving of others, so the sentiment expressed in the prayer would have been a common one of the time.
Anthony C. Deane, Canon of Worcester Cathedral, suggested that the choice of the word "ὀφειλήματα" (debts), rather than "ἁμαρτίας" (sins), indicated a reference to failures to use opportunities of doing good. He linked this with the parable of the sheep and the goats (also in Matthew's Gospel), in which the grounds for condemnation are not wrong-doing in the ordinary sense but failure to do right, missing opportunities for showing love to others (Matthew 25:31-46).
"As we forgive...". Divergence between Matthew's "debts" and Luke's "trespasses" is relatively trivial compared to the impact of the second half of this statement. Jesus taught that the forgiveness of our sin/debt (by God) is contingent on how we forgive others. In case this is not clear enough Matthew reiterates (Matthew 6:14-15). Later, Matthew elaborates with Jesus's parable of the unforgiving servant (Matthew 18:23-35). In this parable, forgiveness from the king (God) is conditional on the servant's forgiveness of a small debt owed to him. The primary focus of this verse is forgiveness.
"And lead us not into temptation"Edit
Interpretations of the penultimate petition of the prayer — not to be led by God into peirasmos — vary considerably. The range of meanings of the Greek word "πειρασμός" (peirasmos) is illustrated in The New Testament Greek Lexicon. In different contexts it can mean temptation, testing, trial, experiment. Traditionally it has been translated "temptation" and, in spite of the statement in James 1:12-15 that God tests/tempts nobody, some see the petition in the Lord's Prayer as implying that God leads people to sin. There are generally two arguments for interpreting the word as meaning here a "test of character". First, it may be an eschatological appeal against unfavourable Last Judgment, though nowhere in literature of the time, not even in the New Testament, is the term peirasmos connected to such an event. The other argument is that it acts as a plea against hard tests described elsewhere in scripture, such as those of Job. It can also be read as: "LORD, do not let us be led (by ourselves, by others, by Satan) into temptations". Since it follows shortly after a plea for daily bread (i.e. material sustenance), it can be seen as referring to not being caught up in the material pleasures given. A similar phrase appears in Matthew 26:41 and Luke 22:40 in connection with the prayer of Jesus in Gethsemane.
- Heaven is compared to an exceeding high mountain. Rev 21: 10. It is so high, that Satan’s fiery darts cannot reach up to it. - Thomas Watson - The Lord's Prayer
"But deliver us from evil"Edit
Translations and scholars are divided over whether the evil mentioned in the final petition refers to evil in general or the devil in particular. The original Greek, as well as the Latin version, could be either of neuter (evil in general) or masculine (the evil one) gender. In earlier parts of the Sermon on the Mount, in which Matthew's version of the prayer appears, the term is used to refer to general evil. Later parts of Matthew refer to the devil when discussing similar issues. However, the devil is never referred to as the evil one in any Aramaic sources. While John Calvin accepted the vagueness of the term's meaning, he considered that there is little real difference between the two interpretations, and that therefore the question is of no real consequence. Similar phrases are found in John 17:15 and 2 Thessalonians 3:3
"For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever and ever. Amen"Edit
The doxology of the prayer is not contained in Luke's version, nor is it present in the earliest manuscripts of Matthew, representative of the Alexandrian text, but is present in the manuscripts representative of the Byzantine text. The first known use of the doxology, in a less lengthy form ("for yours is the power and the glory forever"), as a conclusion for the Lord's Prayer (in a version slightly different from that of Matthew) is in the Didache, 8:2. There are at least ten different versions of the doxology in early manuscripts of Matthew before it seems to have standardised. Jewish prayers at the time had doxological endings. The doxology may have been originally appended to the Lord's Prayer for use during congregational worship. If so, it could be based on 1 Chronicles 29:11. Most scholars do not consider it part of the original text of Matthew, and modern translations do not include it, mentioning it only in footnotes. Latin Rite Roman Catholics, as well as some Lutherans, do not use it when reciting the Lord's Prayer, but it has been included as an independent item, not as part of the Lord's Prayer, in the 1970 revision of the Mass. It is attached to the version of the Lord's Prayer used by Eastern Christianity (including Byzantine Rite Eastern Catholic Churches) and by most Protestants. A minority, generally fundamentalists, posit that the doxology was so important that early manuscripts of Matthew neglected it due to its obviousness, though several other quite obvious things are mentioned in the Gospels.
Use as a language comparison tool Edit
Since the publication of the Mithridates books, translations of the prayer have often been used for a quick comparison of languages, primarily because most earlier philologists were Christians, and very often priests. Due to missionary activity, one of the first texts to be translated between many languages has historically been the Bible, and so to early scholars the most readily available text in any particular language would most likely be a partial or total translation of the Bible. For example, the only extant text in Gothic, a language crucial in the history of Indo-European languages, is Codex Argenteus, the incomplete Bible translated by Wulfila.
This tradition has been opposed recently from both the angle of religious neutrality and of practicality: the forms used in the Lord's Prayer (many commands) are not very representative of common discourse. Philologists and language enthusiasts have proposed other texts such as the Babel text (also part of the Bible) or the story of the North Wind and the Sun. In Soviet language sciences the complete works of Lenin were often used for comparison, as they were translated to most languages in the 20th century.
The Latin version of this prayer has had cultural and historical importance for most regions where English is spoken. The text used in the liturgy (Mass, Liturgy of the Hours, etc.) differs slightly from that found in the Vulgate and probably pre-dates it.
The doxology associated with the Lord's Prayer is found in four Vetus Latina manuscripts, only two of which give it in its entirety. The other surviving manuscripts of the Vetus Latina Gospels do not have the doxology. The Vulgate translation also does not include it, thus agreeing with critical editions of the Greek text.
In the Latin Rite liturgies, this doxology is never attached to the Lord's Prayer. Its only use in the Roman Rite liturgy is in the Mass as revised after the Second Vatican Council. It is there placed not immediately after the Lord's Prayer, but instead after the priest's prayer, Libera nos, quaesumus..., elaborating on the final petition, Libera nos a malo (Deliver us from evil).
The Lord's Prayer survives in the Aramaic language in the form given to it in the Syriac Peshitta version of the New Testament. The dialect of Syriac in which it is written is not the dialect that would have been spoken by Jesus of Nazareth or his followers. Therefore, claims that the Peshitta Lord's Prayer is "the original" are incorrect: it too is translated from the Greek text of Matthew 6:9-13.
A very large number of "translations" of the "Aramaic Lord's Prayer" that stem from various mystic traditions and have little or no relation to the actual meaning of the Aramaic text are circulating on the Internet. Many of them expound various New Age themes and interpret the prayer far beyond what scholars and linguists believe is possible or honest.
Relation to Jewish prayerEdit
There are similarities between the Lord's Prayer and both Biblical and post-Biblical material in Jewish prayer especially Kiddushin 81a (Babylonian). "Hallowed be thy name" is reflected in the Kaddish. "Lead us not into sin" is echoed in the "morning blessings" of Jewish prayer. A blessing said by some Jewish communities after the evening Shema includes a phrase quite similar to the opening of the Lord's Prayer: "Our God in heaven, hallow thy name, and establish thy kingdom forever, and rule over us for ever and ever. Amen." There are parallels also in 1 Chronicles 29:10-18.
Rabbi Aron Mendes Chumaceiro has said that nearly all the elements of the prayer have counterparts in the Jewish Bible and Deuterocanonical books: the first part in Isaiah 63:15-16 ("Look down from heaven and see, from your holy and beautiful habitation ... For you are our Father ...") and Ezekiel 36:23 ("I will vindicate the holiness of my great name ...") and 38:23 ("I will show my greatness and my holiness and make myself known in the eyes of many nations ..."), the second part in Obadiah 1:21 ("Saviours shall go up to Mount Zion to rule Mount Esau, and the kingdom shall be the LORD's") and 1 Samuel 3:18 ("... It is the LORD. Let him do what seems good to him"), the third part in Proverbs 30:8 ("... feed me with the food that is needful for me"), the fourth part in Sirach 28:2 ("Forgive your neighbour the wrong he has done, and then your sins will be pardoned when you pray"). "Deliver us from evil" can be compared with Psalm 119:133 ("... let no iniquity get dominion over me.").Chumaceiro says that, because the idea of God leading a human into temptation contradicts the righteousness and love of God, "Lead us not into temptation" has no counterpart in the Old Testament, which nonetheless presents God as testing Abraham (Genesis 22:1) and as inciting David to do what David later acknowledged to be wrong (2 Samuel 24:1-10).
Latter-day Saint viewEdit
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints does not use the Lord's Prayer in worship. It is believed that Jesus gave it as a inspired example for correct prayer and not as a set text to be repeated like a "vain repetition".
The Book of Mormon includes a version of the Lord's Prayer in an account of Jesus' sermon to a people in Central America shortly after his Resurrection. The English phraseology strongly resembles the text of Matthew in the King James Version of the New Testament. It includes the doxological ending, generally considered by Biblical scholars to be a later interpolation to Matthew from The Didache of the Twelve Apostles. In fact, the Book of Mormon account records that Jesus taught the entire Sermon on the Mount, with several slight differences to the version contained in Matthew.
See also Edit
- Bus Driver's Prayer, a UK parody
- Catechism of the Catholic Church on The Lord's Prayer 
- Lord's Prayer with Spiritual Interpretation by Mary Baker Eddy
- Christian Worship
- Didache early book of rituals which mentions saying the prayer 3 times daily
- Discourse on ostentation, a portion of the Sermon on the Mount
- Epiousios, for the meaning of the phrase usually rendered as "our daily bread"
- Lord's Prayer in Eucharistic theology
- Pierres de Lecq
- Prayer in Christianity
- Power of Christian prayer
- Prayer in the New Testament
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Kang, K. Connie. "Across the globe, Christians are united by Lord's Prayer." Los Angeles Times, in Houston Chronicle, p. A13, April 8, 2007
- ↑ This Latin text differs from that in the Vulgate in that it has "cotidianum" instead of "supersubstantialem" as a translation of "ἐπιούσιον".
- ↑ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2759
- ↑ The Byzantine doxology is never joined immediately to the Lord's Prayer in the Latin liturgy or the Latin Bible. In the Roman Missal this doxology appears (separated from the Lord's Prayer by the embolism) in the form "quia tuum est regnum, et potestas, et gloria, in saecula"; others have translated it into Latin as "quia tuum est regnum; et potentia et gloria; per omnia saecula or in saecula saeculorum."
- ↑ Catechism of the Catholic Church
- ↑ The Book of Common Prayer (1928)
- ↑ The Communion
- ↑ Praying Together
- ↑ It is absent from manuscripts א, B, D, 0170, f1, ℓ547, itmss
- ↑ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2760
- ↑ "Just as God's name is holy in itself and yet we pray that it may be holy among us, so also his kingdom comes of itself without our prayer, and yet we pray that it may come to us, that is, that it may prevail among us and with us, so that we may be a part of those among whom his name is hallowed and his kingdom flourishes" (Martin Luther, Large Catechism, Book of Concord, p.446, Kolb/Wengert).
- ↑ Nijman, M.,Worp, K.A. ΕΠΙΟΥΣΙΟΣ in a Documentary Papyrus?, Novum Testamentum, Volume 41, Number 3 / July, 1999, pp. 231-234.
- ↑ In his Commentary on Matthew, Jerome, citing the Gospel of the Hebrews, but referring in fact to the similar Gospel of the Nazoraeans, writes that "in the so-called Gospel of the Hebrews for supersubstantial bread one finds MAHAR, which translates as of tomorrow. Therefore the meaning would be give us today our bread of tomorrow, i.e. our future bread". In the original Latin, "In Evangelio quod appellatur secundum Hebraeos, pro supersubstantiali pane, reperi MAHAR (מחר), quod dicitur crastinum; ut sit sensus: Panem nostrum crastinum, id est, futurum da nobis hodie."
- ↑ In A Rabbinic Commentary on the New Testament (1987), pp.119-121, ISBN 978-0-881250-89-3, Samuel Tobias Lachs points out that bread "sufficient for our tomorrow" (de maherenu) in Hebrew letters differs by only one letter from bread "sufficient for our needs" (de mahserenu) and is probably a transcription error caused by the loss of the single letter (sameq).
- ↑ Historian Livio Catullo Stecchini speculated that epiousios can be understood as a metrological term meaning a "full measure" of grain, but his pseudoscientific explanation remains controversial. A History of Measures
- ↑ See: Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, edited by Kittel and Friedrich, Abridged in One Volumne by Goeoffrey W. Bromiley; William B. Eeerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, Mich; 1985; Pages 746-750: Gives use of ὸφείλω opheilo (to owe, be under obligation), ὸφειλή opheile (debt, obligation) and two (2) other word forms as used in the New Testament and outside the New Testament, including use in Judaism
- ↑ A Study of the Lord's Prayer, Chapter VI
- ↑ Psalm 26:2 and 139:23 are respectful challenges for a test to prove the writer's innocence and integrity.
- ↑ Clontz, T.E. and J., "The Comprehensive New Testament", Cornerstone Publications (2008), pp. 451-452, ISBN 978-0-977873-71-5
- ↑ Clontz, p. 452
- ↑ Clontz, p. 8
- ↑ The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles, commonly called the Didache, in Christian Classics Ethereal Library
- ↑ It is unclear on what grounds they consider the doxology more important and obvious than, say, "Deliver us from evil."
- ↑ Two examples are Mithridates de differentis linguis, Conrad Gessner, 1555; and Mithridates oder allgemeine Sprachenkunde mit dem Vater Unser als Sprachprobe in bey nahe fünf hundert Sprachen und Mundarten, Johann Christoph Adelung & Johann Severin Vater, 1806-1817, Berlín, Vossische Buchlandlung, 4 volumes. Facsimile edition, Hildesheim-Nueva York, Georg Olms Verlag, 1970.
- ↑ Casey, Maurice. (1998). The Aramaic Sources of Mark's Gospel. Cambridge University Press. p. 4.
- ↑ O Father-Mother Birther of the Cosmos? - An investigation of so called "translations" of the Lord's Prayer in Aramaic.
- ↑ Clontz, p. 451
- ↑ Clontz, pp. 8, 451
- ↑ "Verdediging is geen aanval" pp. 121-122
- ↑ Russell M. Nelson, 「Lessons from the Lord's Prayers,」 Ensign), May 2009, 46–49
- ↑ 3 Nephi 13:9-13 in The Book of Mormon: Another Testament of Jesus Christ, 1989
- ↑ Matthew 6:9-13 The Holy Bible, 1611
- ↑ The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings, chapter 27, by Bart D. Ehrman, Oxford University Press, 2000
- Albright, W.F. and C.S. Mann. "Matthew." The Anchor Bible Series. New York: Doubleday & Company, 1971.
- Augsburger, Myron. Matthew. Waco, Texas: Word Books, 1982.
- Barclay, William. The Gospel of Matthew: Volume 1 Chapters 1–10. Edinburgh: Saint Andrew Press, 1975.
- Beare, Francis Wright. The Gospel According to Matthew. Oxford: B. Blackwell, 1981.
- Clontz, T.E. and J., "The Comprehensive New Testament with complete textual variant mapping and references for the Dead Sea Scrolls, Philo, Josephus, Nag Hammadi Library, Pseudepigrapha, Apocrypha, Plato, Egyptian Book of the Dead, Talmud, Old Testament, Patristic Writings, Dhammapada, Tacitus, Epic of Gilgamesh", Cornerstone Publications, 2008, ISBN 978-0-977873-71-5
- Filson, Floyd V. A Commentary on the Gospel According to St. Matthew. London: A. & C. Black, 1960.
- Fowler, Harold. The Gospel of Matthew: Volume One. Joplin: College Press, 1968
- France, R.T. The Gospel According to Matthew: an Introduction and Commentary. Leicester: Inter-Varsity, 1985.
- Hendriksen, William. The Gospel of Matthew. Edinburgh: Banner of Truth Trust, 1976
- Hill, David. The Gospel of Matthew. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1981
- "Lilies in the Field." A Dictionary of Biblical Tradition in English Literature. David Lyle Jeffrey, general editor. Grand Rapids: W.B. Eerdmans, 1992.
- Lewis, Jack P. The Gospel According to Matthew. Austin, Texas: R.B. Sweet, 1976..
- Luz, Ulrich. Matthew 1–7: A Commentary. trans. Wilhlem C. Linss. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1989.
- Morris, Leon. The Gospel According to Matthew. Grand Rapids: W.B. Eerdmans, 1992.
- Schweizer, Eduard. The Good News According to Matthew. Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1975
- Underhill, Evelyn, Abba. A meditation on the Lord's Prayer (1940); reprint 2003.
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