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Longde (Dzogchen)

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Template:Wylie box Longde (Wylie: kLong-sde; Sanskrit: Abhyantaravarga) is the name of one of three scriptural divisions within Atiyoga, also known as Dzogchen or the Great Perfection which is itself the pinnacle of the ninefold division of practice according to the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism.

The name Longde is translated as 'Space Division' or 'Space Series' of Dzogchen and emphasises the emptiness (stong-pa) or spaciousness (klong) aspect of the Natural State.

Penor Rinpoche[1] states that due to the different approaches of various Dzogchen lineages, three sub-schools have developed of which longde is one. The other two divisions or schools are Semde (Mind Series) and Menngagde (Oral Instruction Series). Penor Rinpoche refers to Longde as the Centredness School and is attributed to Longde Dorje Zampa, Shrisimha and Vairotsana's lineage.


These three divisions were introduced by the Buddhist scholar Manjushrimitra. As Great Perfection texts, the texts of all three divisions are concerned with the basic primordial state; the nature of mind-itself (which is contrasted with normal conscious mind). They are related to the 'Three Statements' of Garab Dorje.

It is important to note that the three series do not represent different schools of Dzogchen practice as much as different approaches to the same goal, that being the basic, natural, and primordial state. As is common throughout much Buddhist literature, Tibetan Buddhism in particular, gradations in the faculties of practitioners are also ascribed to the three divisions, they being seen as appropriate for practitioners of low, middling, and high faculties, respectively.


"Samantabhadra’s Royal Tantra of All-Inclusive Vastness" (Sanskrit: Maha-avarnta-prasarani-raja-tantra-nama; Tib. Wylie: klongchen rab byams rgyal po’i rgyud ces bya ba bzhugs so) is renowned as the “king” of tantras belonging ot the Space Section.[2]

Distinguishing Features of the Space Division

The Space Division is related to Garab Dorje's second statement, removing doubts. It teaches methods of meditation that enable the practitioner to get beyond any doubts he or she may have concerning the natural state.

See also

  • Semde (Mind Division)
  • Menngagde (Secret or Oral Instructions Division)


  1. accessed: 1 February 2007
  2. Wellsprings of the Great Perfection by Erik Pema Kunsang. Rangjung Yeshe Publication Pg. 76

Texts of the Space Division

Tantras belonging to the Space Division include:

  1. Longchen Rabjam Gyalpo
  2. Kunto Zangpo Namkhache
  3. Rigpa Rangtsal Sharwa
  4. Dam-ngag Natshog Khorlo
  5. Phaglam Kodpa
  6. Dorje Sempa Namkha'i Thatang Nyampa
  7. Yeshe Sangwa Dronma
  8. Rinpoche Khorlo
  9. Yeshe Sangwa
  10. Yeshe Dzogpa
  11. Changchub Kyi Sems Kunla Jugpa Namtag Tonpa
  12. Changchug Kyi Sem Dorje Odthro




  • "The Practice of Dzogchen", Tulku Thondup, Harold Talbott editors, Snow Lion Publications, Ithaca NY, 1989. ISBN 1-55939-054-9

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