Pharaoh of Egypt
Former Monarchy
Double crown
The Pschent combined the Red Crown of Lower Egypt and the White Crown of Upper Egypt.
A typical depiction of a pharaoh.
First monarch Narmer (a.k.a. Menes)
Last monarch Nectanebo II
(last native)[1]
Cleopatra and Caesarion
(last actual)
Style Five-name titulary
Official residence Varies by era
Appointer Divine right
Monarchy started c. 3100 BCE
Monarchy ended 343 BCE
(last native pharaoh)[1]
30 BC
(last Greek pharaohs)

This article contains a list of the pharaohs of Ancient Egypt, from the Early Dynastic Period before 3100 BCE through to the end of the Ptolemaic Dynasty, when Egypt became a province of Rome under Augustus Caesar in 30 BCE.

Note that the dates given are approximate. The list of pharaohs presented below is based on the conventional chronology of Ancient Egypt, mostly based on the Digital Egypt for Universities database developed by the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, but alternative dates taken from other authorities may be indicated separately.

Existing primary old lists of pharaohs

The texts of existing primary old lists of pharaohs are incomplete:

  • Palermo stone
  • Turin Royal Canon
  • Manetho's Aegyptiaca (History of Egypt)
  • Abydos King List
  • Karnak Tablet
  • South Saqqara Stone (discovered 1923, includes dyn. 6)
  • Saqqara Tablet (discovered 1861, includes dyn. 1-12)

Archibald Sayce gave comparative data on several of these lists in his book The Ancient Empires of the East (1884),[2] in addition to the lists found in Herodotus, Diodorus, Eratosthenes, and even a fanciful list found in "the Arabic writers". Yet another fanciful list that does not appear in Sayce, is found in the Book of Sothis that George Syncellus attributed to Manetho.

Legendary period

In the texts of the Palermo, Turin and Manetho king lists, there are different versions of names of eight god kings that ruled Egypt in the beginning.[3]

Turin King List Manetho
(Egyptian equivalent)
Ptah Hephaestus
Craftsmen & Creation
Ra Helios
- Sosis or Agathosdaimon (perhaps Sothis?)
Geb Chronos
Osiris Osiris Afterlife
Set Typhon
Horus Horus War
Thoth Knowledge
Ma'at Order

These god kings are followed by differing sets of semi-divine rulers.

Turin King List Length Manetho Length
Second dynasty of gods unknown Dynasty of Halfgods unknown
3 Achu-Dynasties unknown 30 Kings from Memphis 1790 years
Dynasty of Disciples of Horus unknown 10 Kings from This 350 years

Archaic period

The Archaic period includes the Early Dynastic Period, when Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt were ruled as separate kingdoms.

Early Dynastic: Lower Egypt

Lower Egypt, known as the Black People, consisted of the northern Nile and the Nile Delta. The following list may not be complete:

Name Comments Dates
Hsekiu[4] Only known from the Palermo stone  ?
Khayu[4] Only known from the Palermo stone  ?
Tiu[4] Only known from the Palermo stone  ?
Thesh[4] Only known from the Palermo stone  ?
Neheb[4] Only known from the Palermo stone  ?
Wazner[4] Only known from the Palermo stone c. 3100 BCE?
Mekh[4] Only known from the Palermo stone  ?

Early Dynastic: Upper Egypt

Upper Egypt, known as the Red Land, consisted of the southern Nile and the deserts. The following list may not be complete (there are many more of uncertain existence):

Name Comments Dates
Scorpion I Oldest tomb at Umm el-Qa'ab had scorpion insignia c. 3200 BCE?
Iry-Hor kingship uncertain c. 3150 BCE?
Ka[5][6] c. 3100 BCE
King Scorpion Potentially pronounced Serqet, but uncertain; possibly the same person as Narmer. c. 3100 BCE
Narmer The king who combined Upper and Lower Egypt.[7] c. 3100 BCE

First Dynasty

The First Dynasty ruled from approximately 3050 BCE to 2890 BCE, by some chronological schemes. (There are no precise or agreed-upon year dates for any of the Old or Middle Kingdom periods, and reign estimates differ widely from one Egyptologist to the next.)

Name Comments Dates
Narmer Believed to be the same person as Menes and to have unified Upper and Lower Egypt.
Hor-Aha c. 3050 BCE
Djer 41 years
Djet 23 years
Merneith Regent or Den
Den 14 to 20.1 years
Anedjib 10 years
Semerkhet 9 years
Qa'a 2916?–2890 BCE

Second Dynasty

The Second Dynasty ruled c. 2890 — 2686 BCE.

Name Comments Dates
Hotepsekhemwy[8] 38 years
Raneb[9] 39 years
Nynetjer[10] 40 years
Weneg[11] 8 years
Senedj[12] 20 years
Seth-Peribsen 17 years
Khasekhem(wy)[13][14]  ?–2686 BCE 17 to 18 years

Old Kingdom

The Old Kingdom is the period in the third millennium BCE when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilisational complexity and achievement (the first of three so-called "Kingdom" periods which mark the high points of civilization in the Nile Valley), spanning the period when Egypt was ruled by the Third Dynasty through the Sixth Dynasty (2686–2181 BCE). Many Egyptologists also include the Memphite Seventh and Eighth Dynasties in the Old Kingdom as a continuation of the administration centralised at Memphis. The Old Kingdom was followed by a period of disunity and relative cultural decline referred to by Egyptologists as the First Intermediate Period -- or, as the Egyptians called it, the "first illness."

The royal capital of Egypt during the Old Kingdom was located at Memphis, where Djoser established his court. The Old Kingdom is perhaps best known, however, for the large number of pyramids which were constructed at this time as pharaonic burial places. For this reason, the Old Kingdom is frequently referred to as "the Age of the Pyramids".

Third Dynasty

The Third Dynasty ruled from 2686 to 2613 BCE.

Name Image Comments Dates
Sanakhte ReliefFragmentOfPharaohSanakht-BritishMuseum-August21-08 2686-2668
Djoser[15][16] Djoser Had the Step Pyramid constructed by Imhotep[17] 2668–2649; Radiocarbon date start reign between 2691 and 2625[18]
Sekhemkhet[19] 2649–2643
Khaba 2643–2637
Qahedjet Qahedjet  ?
Huni[20] Huni-StatueHead BrooklynMuseum 2637–2613

Fourth Dynasty

The Fourth Dynasty ruled from 2613 to 2498 BCE and included the pharaohs who had the Great Pyramids built, Khufu (Cheops), Khafra (Chephren) and Menkaura (Mycerinus).

Nomen (Praenomen) Image Comments Dates
Sneferu Snofru Eg Mus Kairo 2002 Built the Bent Pyramid, which is a pyramid built at a normal angle at the bottom but drastically changes at the top. He also built the first "true" pyramid, known as the Red Pyramid. Some say that he was buried at the Red Pyramid, while others say that he was buried at the Bent Pyramid. Bones have been found at the Red Pyramid, but there is no evidence that this is Sneferu's body. 2613–2589
Khufu Khufu CEM Greek form: Cheops. Built the Great Pyramid of Giza. Note that Khufu is spoken of in early sources as being "third" of his family to rule, although there is no known record of a Pharaoh between Sneferu and Khufu. One supposition is that there might have been a very short reign of some elder brother of Khufu, whose inscriptions, name, and monuments have perished for one reason or another. 2589–2566
Djedefra (Radjedef) Djedefre-head Believed to have created the Great Sphinx of Giza as a monument for his deceased father. He also created a pyramid at Abu Rawash however this pyramid is no longer intact as it is believed the Romans recycled the materials it was made from. Before being demolished by the Romans, according to a documentary aired by the History Channel, the pyramid may actually have been the highest ever built (about 20 meters taller than the Great Pyramid of Giza although this is due to its elevated location rather than the size from base to tip). 2566–2558
Khafra Khafre statue Greek form:

Chephren His pyramid is the second largest in Giza. Built the Sphinx of Giza. || 2558–2532

Here some authorities insert Bikheris, following Manetho
Menkaura MenkauraAndQueen-CloseUpOfKingsFace MuseumOfFineArtsBoston Greek form: Mycerinus. His pyramid is the third and smallest in Giza. 2532–2503
Shepseskaf 100px Broke with the tradition of pyramid building and instead had the Mastabat el-Fara'un made for himself 2503–2498
Here some authorities insert Thampthis, following Manetho

Fifth Dynasty

The Fifth Dynasty ruled from 2498 to 2345 BCE.

Name Image Comments Dates
Userkaf Userkaf Buried in a pyramid in Saqqara 2498–2491
Sahure Egypt sahura and god Moved the royal necropolis to Abusir 2490–2477
Neferirkare Kakai Neferirkare 2477–2467
Shepseskare Isi Shepseskara 2467–2460
Neferefre Raneferef 2460–2425
Nyuserre Ini Niuserre BrooklynMuseum 2425–2422
Menkauhor Kaiu Menkauhor CG 40 2422–2414
Djedkare Isesi 2414–2375
Unas 2375–2345

Sixth Dynasty

The Sixth Dynasty ruled from 2345 to 2181 BCE.

Name Image Comments Dates
Teti Was possibly murdered by his successor. 2345–2333
Userkare Usurped the throne at the expense of Teti 2333–2332
Meryre Pepi I Kneeling statue of Pepy I 2332–2283
Merenre Nemtyemsaf I Hidden treasures 09 2283–2278
Neferkare Pepi II AnkhnesmeryreII-and-Son-PepiII-SideView BrooklynMuseum Possible unto 2224 which would explain the following 4 kings. 2278–2184
Neferka Only mentioned in the Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Reigned during Pepi II; was possibly his son or co-ruler. 2200–2199
Nefer Reign of 2 years, 1 month and a day according to Turin Canon 2197–2193
Aba Reigned for 4 years and 2 months. Reign dates do not follow Turin Canon. Highly unlikely. 2193–2176
Unknown king Unknown king attested here
Merenre Nemtyemsaf II


Uncertain pharaoh. 2184
Neitiqerty Siptah This king may have been confused in later years as a supposed female ruler Nitocris.[22] 2184–2181

First Intermediate Period

The First Intermediate Period (2181-2060 BCE) is the period between the end of the Old Kingdom and the advent of the Middle Kingdom.

The Old Kingdom rapidly collapsed after the death of Pepi II. He had reigned for 94 years, longer than any monarch in history, and died aged 100. The latter years of his reign were marked by inefficiency because of his advanced age.

The Union of the Two Kingdoms fell apart and regional leaders had to cope with the resulting famine.

Around 2160 BCE, a new line of pharaohs tried to reunite Lower Egypt from their capital in Herakleopolis Magna. In the meantime, a rival line based at Thebes was reuniting Upper Egypt and a clash between the two rival dynasties was inevitable.

Around 2055 BCE, a descendant of the pharaoh Intef III defeated the Herakleopolitan pharaohs, reunited the Two Lands, founded the Eleventh Dynasty and ruled as Mentuhotep II, the first pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom.

Seventh and Eighth Dynasties (combined)

The Seventh and Eighth Dynasties ruled from 2181 to 2160 BCE. (This table is based on the Abydos Table from the Temple of Seti I, taken from

Name Comments Dates
Neferkara I -
Netjerkare -
Menkare -
Neferkare II -
Neferkare III Nebi -
Djedkara Shemai -
Neferkare IV Khendu -
Some authorities place here Merenhor
Neferkamin Seneferka -
Nikara -
Neferkare V Tereru -
Neferkahor -
Neferkare VI Pepyseneb -
Neferkamin Anu -
Qakare Ibi Built the last pyramid at Saqqara 2169-2167
Neferkara II - 2167-2163
Neferkawhor Khuwihap - 2163-2161
Neferirkara - 2161-2160

Ninth Dynasty

The Ninth Dynasty[23] ruled from 2160 to2130 BCE. The Turin King List has eighteen kings reigning in the Ninth and Tenth Dynasties. Of these, twelve names are missing and four are partial.[23]

Name Comments Dates
Manetho states that Achthoes founded this dynasty. 2160– ?
-  ?
Neferkare III -  ?
Khety (Acthoes II) -  ?
Senenh— or Setut -  ?
-  ?
Mer[ibre Khety] -  ?
Shed— -  ?
H— -  ?

Tenth Dynasty

The Tenth Dynasty was a local group that held sway over Lower Egypt that ruled from 2130 to 2040 BCE.

Name Comments Dates
Meryhathor 2130– ?
Neferkare IV  ?
Wankare (Acthoes III)  ?
Merykare  ? –2040

Eleventh Dynasty

The Eleventh Dynasty was a local group with roots in Upper Egypt that ruled from 2134 to 1991 BCE.

Name Comments Dates
Mentuhotep I Tepy-a
Sehertawy Intef I 2134–2117
Wahankh Intef II 2117–2069
Nakhtnebtepnefer Intef III 2069–2060

Middle Kingdom

The Middle Kingdom (2060-1802 BCE) is the period from the end of the First Intermediate Period to the beginning of the Second Intermediate Period. In addition to the Twelfth Dynasty, some scholars include the Eleventh, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties in the Middle Kingdom. The Middle Kingdom can be noted for the expansion of trade outside of the kingdom that occurred during this time. This opening of trade eventually led to the downfall of the Middle Kingdom, induced by an invasion from the Hyksos.

Eleventh Dynasty continued

The second part of the Eleventh Dynasty is considered to be part of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt.

Name Image Comments Dates
Nebhetepre Mentuhotep II


Mentuhotep Closeup
Gained all Egypt 2040, Middle Kingdom begins. 2060–2010
Sankhkare Mentuhotep III


Mentuhotep-OsirideStatue-CloseUp MuseumOfFineArtsBoston Commanded the first expedition to Punt of the Middle Kingdom 2010–1998
Nebtawyre Mentuhotep IV



Twelfth Dynasty

The Twelfth Dynasty ruled from 1991 to 1802 BCE, and is considered by later Egyptians to have been their greatest dynasty.

Name Image Comments Dates
Sehetepibre Amenemhat I


Amenhet Seized power after overthrowing Mentuhotep IV. Died assassinated. 1991–1962
Kheperkare Senusret I

[29] (Sesostris I)

Ägyptisches Museum Leipzig 104 Built the white chapel 1971–1926
Nubkaure Amenemhat II


Ägyptisches Museum Berlin 022 1929–1895
Khakheperre Senusret II

[31] (Sesostris II)

Khakaure Senusret III

[32] (Sesostris III)

GD-EG-Louxor-116 Most powerful of the Middle Kingdom pharaohs. 1878–1860
Nimaatre Amenemhat III


Amenemhet III, basalto, seconda metà del XIX sec. ac. 02 1860–1815
Maakherure Amenemhat IV


AmmenemesIV(Front)-BritishMuseum-August19-08 Had a co-regency lasting at least 1 year based on an inscription at Konosso. 1815–1807
Sobekkare Sobekneferu


A rare female ruler. 1807–1802

Second Intermediate Period

The Second Intermediate Period (1802-1550 BCE) is a period of disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom, and the start of the New Kingdom. It is best known as when the Hyksos, whose reign comprised the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Dynasties, made their appearance in Egypt.

The Thirteenth Dynasty was much weaker than the Twelfth Dynasty, and was unable to hold onto the long land of Egypt. The provincial ruling family in Xois, located in the marshes of the western Delta, broke away from the central authority to form the Fourteenth Dynasty.

The Hyksos made their first appearance during the reign of Sobekhotep IV, and around 1720 BCE took control of the town of Avaris (the modern Tell el-Dab'a/Khata'na). The Hyksos, led by Salitis, the founder of the Fifteenth Dynasty, overran Egypt during the reign of Dedumose I.

Around the time Memphis fell to the Hyksos, the native Egyptian ruling house in Thebes declared its independence and set itself up as the Seventeenth Dynasty. This dynasty eventually drove the Hyksos back into Asia

Thirteenth Dynasty

The Thirteenth Dynasty (following the Turin King List) ruled from 1802 to around 1649 BCE and lasted 153 or 154 Yrs according to Manetho. This table should be contrasted with Known kings of the 13th Dynasty

Name Comments Dates
Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep or Wegaf Founded the 13th Dynasty. His reign is attested by several Nile Records and Papyri. 1802–1799 4 years.
Sekhemkare Amenemhat V Senebef, brother of Sekhemre Khutawy. 3 Yrs.
Amenemhat 1795–1792
Sehetepre  ? –1790
Iufni  ?
Seankhibre  ?
Semenkare  ?
Sehetepre  ?
Sewadjkare  ?
Nedjemibre 7 months  ?
Khaankhre Sobekhotep I  ?
Renseneb 4 months c. 1775
Awybre Hor I? Famous for his Ka statue c. 1775?
Sedjefakare A well known king attested on numerous stelas and other documents. c. 5 to 7 years.
Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep Compare Wegaf c. 1767
Khendjer Minimum 4 years and 3 months c. 1765
Imyremeshaw  ?
Antef V  ?
Sekhemresewadjtawy Sobekhotep III 4 years and 2 months c. 1755
Khasekhemre Neferhotep I 11 years 1751–1740
Khaneferre Sobekhotep IV 10 or 11 years 1740–1730
Khahotepre Sobekhotep V c. 1730
Wahibre Ibiau 10 years and 8 months c. 1725–1714
Merneferre Ay 23 years and 8 months c. 1714–1691
Merhotepre Ini 2 years and 2 months  ?
Sankhenre Sewadjtu  ?
Mersekhemre Ini  ?
Sewadjkare Hori  ?

The position of the following kings is uncertain:

Name Comments Dates
Dedumose I c. 1654
Dedumose II  ?
Senebmiu  ?
Mentuhotep V  ?
Senaaib  ?

Fourteenth Dynasty

The Fourteenth Dynasty was a local group from the eastern Delta, based at Xois, that ruled from around 1705 to around 1690 BCE.

Name Comments Dates
Nehesy - c. 1705
Khakherewre ? -  ?
Nebefawre - c. 1704
Sehebre ? -  ?
Merdjefare - c. 1699
Sewadjkare ? -  ?
Nebdjefare - c. 1694
Webenre ? -  ?
-  ?
Djefare? -  ?
Webenre - c. 1690

The position of the following pharaohs are uncertain:

Name Comments Dates
Yakubher[36]  ?

The Turin King List provides an additional 25 names, some fragmentary, and no dates. None are attested to elsewhere, and all are of very dubious provenance.

Fifteenth Dynasty

The Fifteenth Dynasty arose from among the Hyksos people who emerged out of the Fertile Crescent to establish a short-lived governance over much of the Nile region, and ruled from 1674 to 1535 BCE.

Name Comments Dates
Sakir-Har -  ?
Khyan - 30-40 years
Apepi - 40 years or more
Khamudi - 1555-1544

Sixteenth Dynasty

The Sixteenth Dynasty was a local native kingdom from Thebes who ruled Egypt for between 80 and 100 years, according to Kim Ryholt.

Name Comments Dates
Name of the first king is lost here in the Turin King List, and cannot be recovered -
Djehuti (Sekhemresementawy) 3 years
Sobekhotep VIII (Sekhemreseusertawy) 16 years
Neferhotep III (Sekhemresankhtawy) 1 year
Mentuhotep VI (Sankhenre) 1 year
Nebiryraw I (Sewadjenre) 26 years
Nebiriau II
Bebiankh(Seuserenre) 12 years
(Sekhemre Shedwast)
The names of five kings are lost here in the Turin King List, and cannot be recovered. Their identity is uncertain -

Some sources include as many as six more names –

Seventeenth Dynasty

The Seventeenth Dynasty was based in Upper Egypt and ruled from 1650 to 1550 BCE:

Name Image Comments Dates
Sekhemrewahkhaw Rahotep - - c. 1620 BCE
Sekhemre Wadjkhaw Sobekemsaf I RedGraniteStatueOfSobkemsafI(Detail)-BritishMuseum-August19-08 Reigned at least 7 years -
Sekhemre Shedtawy Sobekemsaf - - -
Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef Louvre 122006 050 - -
Nubkheperre Intef WoodenCoffinOfIntef-BritishMuseum-August21-08 Reigned more than 3 years -
Sekhemre-Heruhirmaat Intef Louvre 122006 051 - -
Senakhtenre Ahmose - - c. 1558
Seqenenre Tao - Died in battle against the Hyksos. c. 1558 - c. 1554
Kamose Sarcophage-Kamose Died in battle against the Hyksos. c. 1554 - c. 1549

New Kingdom

The New Kingdom (1550-1077 BC) is the period covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth dynasty of Egypt, from the 16th century BCE to the 11th century BCE, between the Second Intermediate Period, and the Third Intermediate Period.

Through military dominance abroad, the New Kingdom saw Egypt's greatest territorial extent. It expanded far into Nubia in the south, and held wide territories in the Near East. Egyptian armies fought with Hittite armies for control of modern-day Syria.

Two of the best known pharaohs of the New Kingdom are Akhenaten, also known as Amenhotep IV, whose exclusive worship of the Aten is often interpreted as the first instance of monotheism, and Ramesses II, who attempted to recover the territories in modern Israel/Palestine, Lebanon and Syria that had been held in the Eighteenth Dynasty. His reconquest led to the Battle of Qadesh, where he led the Egyptian armies against the army of the Hittite king Muwatalli II.

Eighteenth Dynasty

The Eighteenth Dynasty ruled from c. 1550 to 1292 BCE:

Name Image Comments Dates
Nebpehtire Ahmose I, Ahmosis I AhmoseI-StatueHead MetropolitanMuseum Successor to Kamose, above. c.1550-1525 BCE; Radiocarbon date range for the start of his reign is 1570-1544 BCE, the mean point of which is 1557 BCE[37]
Djeserkare Amenhotep I AmenhotepI-StatueHead MuseumOfFineArtsBoston - 1541-1520
Aakheperkare Thutmose I ColossalSandstoneHeadOfThutmoseI-BritishMuseum-August19-08 - 1520-1492
Aakheperenre Thutmose II Luxor, hieroglyphs on an obelisk inside the Temple of Hatshepsut, Egypt, Oct 2004 - 1492-1479
Menkheperre Thutmose III TuthmosisIII Often called the "Napoleon of Egypt." Dominated early in his reign by his stepmother Hatshepsut; after she died, he began expanding Egyptian rule into the Levant. 1479-1425
Maatkare Hatshepsut Hatshepsut The second known female ruler, though quite possibly the seventh (the reigns of five other women are likely, but disputed). Recent evidence suggests she died of bone cancer.[38] 1473-1458
Aakheperrure Amenhotep II AmenhotepII-StatueHead BrooklynMuseum - 1425-1400
Menkheperure Thutmose IV ThoutmôsisIVLouvre - 1400-1390
Nebmaatre Amenhotep III The Magnificent King Amenhotep iii british museum His name means Lord of the truth is Ra. He ruled Egypt at the peak of her glory, his mortuary temple was the largest ever built, but was destroyed by Rameses II to build his own temple. Recent DNA testing proved he was the Grandfather of Tutankhamun 1390-1352
Neferkheperure-waenre Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten GD-EG-Caire-Musée061 Founder of brief period of a solar-centered religion (Atenism). His original name means "Amun is pleased." 1352-1334
Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare Spaziergang im Garten Amarna Berlin Co-regent and successor of Akhenaten. The identity of this individual is uncertain and disputed. Usually believed to be either a son or son-in-law of Akhenaten but sometimes identified as Akhenaten's wife Nefertiti. Other scholars distinguish two individuals between Akhenaten and Tutankhamun, namely Smenkhkare, who is then seen as male, and a female ruler, who is then most often identified as Akhenaten's eldest daughter Meritaten 1334-1333
Nebkheperure Tutankhaten/Tutankhamun Tuthankhamun Egyptian Museum Commonly believed to be the son of Akhenaten, probably reinstated the polytheistic religion and the name change reflects the change in primary deity from Aten to Amun. He is also known as the boy king. 1333-1324
Kheperkheperure Ay PortraitStudyOfAy - 1324-1320
Djeserkheperure-setpenre Horemheb GD-EG-Louxor-106 Former General and advisor to Tutankhamun. Obliterated images of the Amarna queens and kings (all except Amenhotep III and Tiye). 1320-1292

Nineteenth Dynasty

The Nineteenth Dynasty ruled from 1292 to 1186 BCE and includes one of the greatest pharaohs: Rameses II the Great:

Name Image Comments Dates
Menpehtire Ramesses I


StatueHeadOfParamessu-TitledFrontalView-RamessesI MuseumOfFineArtsBoston - 1292-1290
Menmaatre Seti I Abydos sethi - 1290-1279
Usermaatre-setpenre Ramesses II the Great RamsesIIEgypt The ruler usually associated with Moses; he reached a stalemate with the Hittites at the Battle of Kadesh in 1275 BCE, after which a peace treaty was signed in 1258 BCE 1279-1213
Banenre Merenptah[40] Merenptah Louxor-HeadAndShoulders-BackgroundKnockedOut A stele describing campaigns in Libya and Canaan contains the only extant reference to "Israel" in Ancient Egyptian records. 1213-1203
Menmire-setpenre Amenmesse Amenmesse-StatueHead MetropolitanMuseum - 1203-1200
Userkheperure Seti II[41] Turin statue of Seti II - 1203-1197
Sekhaenre/Akhenre Merenptah Siptah[42] Siptah - 1197-1191
Satre-merenamun Tausret Twosret A rare female ruler also known as Tawosret in some places, she was probably the wife of Seti II.[43] 1191-1190

Twentieth Dynasty

The Twentieth Dynasty ruled from 1190 to 1077 BCE:

Name Image Comments Dates
Userkhaure Setnakht - 1190-1186
Usermaatre-meryamun Ramesses III RamessesIII-KhonsuTemple-Karnak Fought the Sea Peoples in 1175 BCE 1186-1155
User/Heqamaatre-setpenamun Ramesses IV RamessesIV-SmitingHisEnemiesOnAnOstracon MuseumOfFineArtsBoston - 1155-1149
Usermaatre-sekheperenre Ramesses V - 1149-1145
Nebmaatre-meryamun Ramesses VI Egypte louvre 129 ramses6 - 1145-1137
Usermaatre-setpenre-meryamun Ramesses VII Ramses VII deities - 1137-1130
Usermaatre-akhenamun Ramesses VIII Ostracon04-RamessidePeriod MetropolitanMuseum - 1130-1129
Neferkare-setpenre Ramesses IX RamessesIX-Relief MetropolitanMuseum - 1129-1111
Khepermaatre-setpenptah Ramesses X[44] Ostracon02-RamessidePeriod MetropolitanMuseum - 1111-1107
Menmaatre-setpenptah Ramesses XI[45] Ostracon03-RamessidePeriod MetropolitanMuseum Ended rule sharing power with High Priest of Amun Herihor ruling in the south and Smendes I ruling in the north, a period known as wehem mesut.[46] 1107-1077

Third Intermediate Period

The Third Intermediate Period (1077-732 BCE) marked the end of the New Kingdom after the collapse of the Egyptian empire. A number of dynasties of Libyan origin ruled, giving this period its alternative name of the Libyan Period.

Twenty-First Dynasty

The Twenty-First Dynasty was based at Tanis and was a relatively weak group. Theoretically, they were rulers of all Egypt, but in practice their influence was limited to Lower Egypt. They ruled from 1069 to 943 BCE

Name Image Comments Dates
Hedjkheperre-setpenre Nesbanebdjed[47] Also known as Smendes I 1077-1051
Neferkare Heqawaset Amenemnisu - 1051-1047
Aakheperre Pasebakhenniut I (Psusennes I) Golden Mask of Psusennes I - 1047-1001
Usermaatre Amenemope Mask of Amenemope1 - 1001-992
Aakheperre Setepenre Osorkon (Osorkon the Elder) - * ( Osochor ) 992-986
Netjerikheperre-setpenamun Siamun-meryamun Siamun’s royal cartouche on a lintel - 986-967
Titkheperure Pasebakhenniut II (Psusennes II) - 967-943

Twenty-Second Dynasty

The pharaohs of the Twenty-Second Dynasty were Libyans, ruling from around 943 to 720 BCE:

Name Image Comments Dates
Hedjkheperre-setepenre Shoshenq I Karnak Sheshonq I 943-922
Sekhemkheperre Osorkon I Louvre-Egyptien-09 - 922-887
Heqakheperre Shoshenq II Sheshonq II mask2004 - 887-885
Takelot I Takelot I a - 885-872
Hedjkheperre Harsiese Sarcophage Harsiesis A rebel, at Thebes 880-860
Usermaatre-setepenamun Osorkon II Egypte louvre 066 - 872-837
Usermaatre-setepenre Shoshenq III Shoshenq III tomb - 837-798
Shoshenq IV - 798-785
Usermaatre-setepenre Pami Louvre 122006 015 - 785-778
Aakheperre Shoshenq V Louvre 122006 014 - 778-740
Aakheperre-setepenamun Osorkon IV Louvre egide tete lionne - 740-720

Twenty-Third Dynasty

The Twenty-Third Dynasty was a local group, again of Libyan origin, based at Herakleopolis and Thebes that ruled from 837 to c.735 BCE:

Name Image Comments Dates
Hedjkheperre-setpenre Takelot II Previously thought to be a 22nd Dynasty pharaoh, he is now known to be the founder of the 23rd 837-813
Usermaatre-setepenamun Pedubast A rebel—seized Thebes from Takelot II 826-801
Usermaatre-setepenamun Iuput I - 812-811
Usermaatre Shoshenq VI Successor to Pedubast 801-795
Usermaatre-setepenamun Osorkon III Son of Takelot II- recovered Thebes, then proclaimed himself king 795-767
Usermaatre-setpenamun Takelot III Karnak Takelot III - 773-765
Usermaatre-setpenamun Rudamun Egypte louvre 054 - 765-762

The Libu

Not recognised as a dynasty as such, the Libu were yet another group of western nomads (Libyans) who occupied the western Delta from 805 to 732 BCE.

Name Image Comments Dates
Inamunnifnebu - 805-795
 ? - 795-780
Niumateped - 780-755
Titaru - 763-755
Ker - 755-750
Rudamon - 750-745
Ankhor - 745-736
Tefnakht - 736-732

Twenty-Fourth Dynasty

The Twenty-fourth Dynasty was a short-lived rival dynasty located in the western Delta (Sais), with only two Pharaoh ruling from 732 to 720 BCE.

Name Image Comments Dates
Shepsesre Tefnakhte - 732-725
Wahkare Bakenrenef (Bocchoris) - 725-720

Late period

The Late Period runs from 732 BCE to Egypt becoming a province of Rome in 30 BCE, and includes periods of rule by Nubians, Persians, and Macedonians.

Twenty-fifth Dynasty

Nubians invaded Egypt in 732 BCE and took the throne of Egypt, establishing the Twenty-fifth Dynasty which ruled until 656 BCE.

Name Image Comments Dates
Usermaatre Piye King of Nubia; conquered Egypt in 20th year; full reign at least 24 years, possibly 30+ years 747-716 according to Peter Clayton
Neferkare Shabaka Shabaqo-DonationStela MetropolitanMuseum - 716-702 according to Peter Clayton
Djedkaure Shebitku Shebitqo-DonationStela MetropolitanMuseum - 702-690 according to Peter Clayton
Khuinefertemre Taharqa SphinxOfTaharqa - 690-664
Bakare Tantamani Nubian head lost control of Upper Egypt in 656 BC when Psamtik I extended his authority into Thebes in that year. 664-653

They were ultimately driven back into Nubia, where they established a kingdom at Napata (656-590), and, later, at Meroë (590 BCE-4th century. CE).

Twenty-sixth Dynasty

The Twenty-sixth Dynasty ruled from around 672 to 525 BCE.[48]

Name Image Comment Dates
Menkheperre Nekau I (Necho I) - 672 – 664 BCE
Wahibre Psamtik I (Psammetichus I) Psammetique Ier TPabasa - 664 – 610 BCE
Wehemibre Necho II (Necho II) Necho-KnellingStatue BrooklynMuseum - 610 – 595 BCE
Neferibre Psamtik II (Psammetichus II) Sphinx Psammetique II 1104 - 595 – 589 BCE
Haaibre Wahibre (Apries) Apries-FragmentaryStatueHead02 MetropolitanMuseum - 589 – 570 BCE
Khnemibre Ahmose II (Amasis) Farao Amasis - 570 – 526 BCE
Ankhkaenre Psamtik III (Psammetichus III) Karnak Psammetique III - 526 – 525 BCE

Twenty-seventh Dynasty

Egypt was conquered by the Persian Empire in 525 BCE and annexed by the Persians until 404 BCE. The Achaemenid shahs were acknowledged as pharaohs in this era, forming a "Twenty-seventh" Dynasty:

Name Image Comments Dates
Metsuire Cambyses (Cambyses II) Cambyses II Defeated Psamtik III at the Battle of Pelusium at 525 BC 525 – 521 BCE
Smerdis (Bardiya) Son of Cyrus the Great 522 – 521 BCE
Setutre Darius I the Great Darius - 521 – 486 BCE
Xerxes I the Great Xerxes I - 486 – 465 BCE
Artabanus the Hyrcanian - 465 – 464 BCE
Artaxerxes I Longhand Tomb ascribed to Xerxes I - 464 – 424 BCE
Xerxes II claimant 424 – 423 BCE
Sogdianus claimant 424 – 423 BCE
Darius II Tomb of Darius II 424 – 404 BCE

Twenty-eighth Dynasty

The Twenty-eighth Dynasty lasted only six years, from 404 to 398 BCE, with one Pharaoh:

Name Image Comments Dates
Amyrtaeus Descendant of the Saite pharaohs of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty; led a successful revolt against the Persians. 404 – 398 BCE

Twenty-ninth Dynasty

The Twenty-ninth Dynasty ruled from 398 to 380 BCE:

Name Image Comments Dates
Baenre Nefaarud I Louvre 032007 15 Also known as Nepherites 398 – 393 BCE
Psammuthes Psammuthis-ReliefFragmentBearingNames MetropolitanMuseum - 393 BCE
Khenemmaatre Hakor (Achoris) Achoris-StatueTorso MuseumOfFineArtsBoston - 393 – 380 BCE
Nefaarud II - 380 BCE

Thirtieth Dynasty

The Thirtieth Dynasty ruled from 380 until Egypt once more came under Persian rule in 343 BCE:

Name Image Comments Dates
Kheperkare Nekhtnebef (Nectanebo I) NectaneboI Also known as Nekhtnebef 380 – 362 BCE
Irimaatenre Djedher (Teos) Louvres-antiquites-egyptiennes-p1010996 - 362 – 360 BCE
Senedjemibre Nakhthorhebyt (Nectanebo II) NectaneboII-StatueHead MuseumOfFineArtsBoston Last native ruler of ancient Egypt[49] 360 – 343 BC

Thirty-first Dynasty

Egypt again came under the control of the Achaemenid Persians. After the practice of Manetho, the Persian rulers from 343 to 332 BCE are occasionally designated as the Thirty-first Dynasty:

Name Image Comments Dates
Artaxerxes III Inscription Pesepolis British Museum Egypt came under Persian rule for the second time 343–338 BCE
Artaxerxes IV Arses Only reigned in Lower Egypt 338–336 BCE
Khababash Leader of a Nubian revolt in Upper Egypt 338

–335 BCE

Darius III Meister der Alexanderschlacht 003 Upper Egypt returned to Persian control in 335 BCE 336

–332 BCE

Argead Dynasty

The Macedonians under Alexander the Great ushered in the Hellenistic period with his conquest of Persia and Egypt. The Argeads ruled from 332 to 309 BCE:

Name Image Comments Dates
Setepenre-meryamun Alexander III (Alexander the Great) BattleofIssus333BC-mosaic-detail1 Macedon conquered Persia and Egypt 332–323 BCE
Philip III Arrhidaeus Feeble-minded half-brother of Alexander III the Great 323–317 BCE
Haaibre Alexander IV Son of Alexander III the Great and Roxana 317–309 BCE

Ptolemaic Dynasty

The second Hellenistic dynasty, the Ptolemies ruled Egypt from 305 BCE until Egypt became a province of Rome in 30 BCE (whenever two dates overlap, that means there was a co-regency). The most famous member of this dynasty was Cleopatra VII, who in modern times is known simply as Cleopatra, and who had affairs with Mark Antony and Julius Caesar.

Name Image Comments Dates
Ptolemy I Soter (Setepenre-meryamun Ptolemy) Ptolemy I Soter Louvre Ma849 Abdicated in 285 BCE; died in 283 BCE 305–285 BCE
Berenice I Berenice I Wife of Ptolemy I  ?-285 BCE
Ptolemy II Philadelphos (Weserkare-meryamun Ptolemy) Oktadrachmon Ptolemaios II Arsinoe II - 288–246 BCE
Arsinoe I Arsinoe I Dekadrachme Wife of Ptolemy II 284/81-ca. 274 BCE
Arsinoe II Oktadrachmon Ptolemaios II Arsinoe II Wife of Ptolemy II 277-270 BCE
Ptolemy III Euergetes I Octadrachm Ptolemy III BM CMBMC103 - 246–222 BCE
Berenice II BerenikeIIOnACoinOfPtolemyIII Wife of Ptolemy III 244/3-222 BCE
Ptolemy IV Philopator Octadrachm Ptolemy IV BM CMBMC33 - 222–204 BCE
Arsinoe III Oktadrachmon Arsinoe III Wife of Ptolemy IV 220-204 BCE
Hugronaphor Revolutionary Pharaoh in the South 205-199 BCE
Ankhmakis Revolutionary Pharaoh in the South 199-185 BCE
Ptolemy V Epiphanes Tetradrachm Ptolemy V Upper Egypt in revolt 207–186 BCE 204–180 BCE
Cleopatra I Wife of Ptolemy V, co-regent with Ptolemy VI during his minority 193-176 BCE
Ptolemy VI Philometor PtolemyVIPhilometor Died 145 BCE 180–164 BCE
Cleopatra II Lagid queen Isis Ma3546 Wife of Ptolemy VI 173-164 BCE
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Ptolemy VIII - silver didrachma - líc Proclaimed king by Alexandrians in 170 BCE; ruled jointly with Ptolemy VI Philometor and Cleopatra II from 169 to 164 BCE. Died 116 BCE 171–163 BCE
Ptolemy VI Philometor PtolemyVIPhilometor Egypt under the control of Ptolemy VIII 164 BCE–163 BCE; Ptolemy VI restored 163 BCE 163-145 BCE
Cleopatra II Lagid queen Isis Ma3546 Married Ptolemy VIII; led revolt against him in 131 BCE and became sole ruler of Egypt. 163-127 BCE
Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator Proclaimed co-ruler by father; later ruled under regency of his mother Cleopatra II 145-144 BCE
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Ptolemy VIII - silver didrachma - líc Restored 145-131 BCE
Cleopatra III Cleopatra II and III Kom Ombo Temple Second wife of Ptolemy VIII 142-131 BCE
Ptolemy Memphitis Proclaimed King by Cleopatra II; soon killed by Ptolemy VIII 131 BCE
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Ptolemy VIII - silver didrachma - líc Restored 127-116 BCE
Cleopatra III Cleopatra II and III Kom Ombo Temple Restored with Ptolemy VIII; later co-regent with Ptolemy IX and X. 127-107 BCE
Cleopatra II Lagid queen Isis Ma3546 Reconciled with Ptolemy VIII; co-ruled with Cleopatra III and Ptolemy until 116. 124-116 BCE
Ptolemy IX Soter II Ptolemy IX. Soter II - tetradrachma Died 80 BCE 116–110 BCE
Cleopatra IV Shortly married to Ptolemy IX, but was pushed out by Cleopatra III 116-115 BCE
Ptolemy X Alexander I Ptolemy X Alexander I Louvre Ma970 Died 88 BCE 110–109 BCE
Berenice III Forced to marry Ptolemy XI; murdered on his orders 19 days later 81-80 BCE
Ptolemy XI Alexander II Young son of Ptolemy X Alexander; installed by Sulla; ruled for 80 days before being lynched by citizens for killing Berenice III 80 BCE
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos (Auletes) PtolSmash 212 Son of Ptolemy IX; died 51 BCE 80– 58 BCE
Cleopatra V Tryphaena Wife of Ptolemy XII, mother of Berenice IV 79 -68 BCE
Cleopatra VI Daughter of Ptolemy XII 58 - 57 BCE
Berenice IV Daughter of Ptolemy XII; forced to marry Seleucus Kybiosaktes, but has him strangled. Joint rule with Cleopatra VI until 57 BCE. 58–55 BCE
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos PtolSmash 212 Restored; reigned briefly with his daughter Cleopatra VII before his death 55–51 BCE
Cleopatra VII Kleopatra-VII.-Altes-Museum-Berlin1 Jointly with her father Ptolemy XII, her brother Ptolemy XIII, her brother-husband Ptolemy XIV, and her son Ptolemy XV; also known simply as Cleopatra 51–30 BCE
Ptolemy XIII Brother of Cleopatra VII 51–47 BCE
Arsinoe IV In opposition to Cleopatra VII 48-47 BCE
Ptolemy XIV Ptolemy XIV Younger brother of Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XIII 47–44 BCE
Ptolemy XV Denderah3 Cleopatra Cesarion Infant son of Cleopatra VII; aged 3 when proclaimed co-ruler with Cleopatra. Last known ruler of ancient Egypt when Rome took over. 44-30 BCE


Cleopatra VII had affairs with Roman Dictator Julius Caesar and Roman General Marc Antony, but it was not until after her suicide (after Marc Antony was defeated by Octavian, who would later be Emperor Augustus) that Egypt became a province of Rome in 30 BCE. Subsequent Roman Emperors were accorded the title of Pharaoh, although exclusively while in Egypt. One Egyptian king-list lists the Roman Emperors as Pharaohs up to and including Decius who died in 251 CE.


  1. 1.0 1.1 Clayton 1995, p. 217. "Although paying lip-service to the old ideas and religion, in varying degrees, pharaonic Egypt had in effect died with the last native pharaoh, Nectanebo II in 343 BC"
  2. Dynastic Tables: Kings of Egypt
  3. Problems with Manetho's "Reign of the Gods" Page with different versions of god king lists
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 Breasted (1909) p.36
  5. Rice (1999) p.86
  6. Wilkinson (1999) pp.57f.
  7. Shaw (2000) p.196
  8. Wilkinson (1999) pp. 83-84
  9. Wilkinson (1999) p. 84
  10. Wilkinson (1999) p. 79
  11. Wilkinson (1999) pp 87-88
  12. Pascal Vernus, Jean Yoyotte, The Book of the Pharaohs, Cornell University Press 2003, p.27
  13. [1] King Khasekhem
  14. [2] King Khasekhemwy
  15. Toby Wilkinson, Early Dynastic Egypt, Routledge, 1999, pp.83 & 95
  16. Toby Wilkinson, Royal Annals of Ancient Egypt, pp.79 & 258
  17. Verner (2001)
  18. Christopher Bronk Ramsey et al., Radiocarbon-Based Chronology for Dynastic Egypt, [i]Science[/i] 18 June 2010: Vol. 328. no. 5985, pp. 1554 - 1557
  19. Clayton (1994) p.32
  20. Clayton (1994) p.42
  21. Dodson & Hilton (2004) p.73
  22. Ryholt & Bardrum (2000) pp.87–100.
  23. 23.0 23.1 Turin Kinglist, Columns IV,18 to V,10, Ancient Egypt dot org. Accessed 10 February 2010.
  24. Labib Habachi: King Nebhepetre Menthuhotep: his monuments, place in history, deification and unusual representations in form of gods. Annales du Service des Antiquités de l'Égypte 19 (1963), p. 16-52
  25. Grajetzki (2006) pp. 23-25
  26. Grajetzki (2006) pp. 25-26
  27. [3] Amenemhat I
  28. Grajetzki (2006) pp.28-35
  29. Murnane (1977) p.2
  30. Murnane (1977) p.7
  31. Murnane (1977) p.9
  32. Josef Wegner, The Nature and Chronology of the Senwosret III–Amenemhat III Regnal Succession: Some Considerations based on new evidence from the Mortuary Temple of Senwosret III at Abydos, JNES 55, Vol.4, (1996), pp.251
  33. Grajetzki (2006) pp.56-61
  34. "Amenemhat IV Maakherure (1807/06-1798/97 BCE)". Digital Egypt for Universities. 
  35. Grajetzk (2006) pp.61-63
  36. 36.0 36.1 Kings of the 2nd Intermediate Period
  37. Christopher Bronk Ramsey et al., Radiocarbon-Based Chronology for Dynastic Egypt, Science 18 June 2010: Vol. 328. no. 5985, pp. 1554-1557.
  38. Tooth clinches identification of Egyptian queen
  39. "Ramesses I Menpehtire". Digital Egypt. University College London. 2001. Retrieved 2007-09-29. 
  40. "King Merenptah". Digital Egypt. University College London. 2001. Retrieved 2007-09-29. 
  41. "Sety II". Digital Egypt. University College London. 2001. Retrieved 2007-10-27. 
  42. "Siptah Sekhaenre/Akhenre". Digital Egypt. University College London. 2001. Retrieved 2007-10-27. 
  43. "Tausret". 
  44. Grimal (1992) p.291
  45. "Ramesses XI Menmaatre-setpenptah". Retrieved 2007-10-28. 
  46. Shaw (ed), Ian (2000). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 309. 
  47. Cerny p.645
  48. "Late Period Kings". Retrieved 2007-10-27. 
  49. "Nakhthorhebyt". Digital Egypt for Universities. Retrieved March 1, 2011. 


  • J. H. Breasted, History of Egypt from the Earliest Time to the Persian Conquest, 1909
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  • Clayton, Peter A. (1995). Chronicle of the Pharaohs: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt. The Chronicles Series (Reprinted ed.). London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-05074-3. 
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  • Sir Alan Gardiner Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs, Third Edition, Revised. London: Oxford University Press, 1964. Excursus A, pp. 71–76.
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External links

This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original article was at List of pharaohs. The list of authors can be seen in the page history.