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|Pharaoh of Egypt|
|The Pschent combined the Red Crown of Lower Egypt and the White Crown of Upper Egypt.|
|A typical depiction of a pharaoh.|
|First monarch||Narmer (a.k.a. Menes)|
|Last monarch|| Nectanebo II|
Cleopatra and Caesarion
|Official residence||Varies by era|
|Monarchy started||c. 3100 BCE|
|Monarchy ended|| 343 BCE|
(last native pharaoh)
(last Greek pharaohs)
This article contains a list of the pharaohs of Ancient Egypt, from the Early Dynastic Period before 3100 BCE through to the end of the Ptolemaic Dynasty, when Egypt became a province of Rome under Augustus Caesar in 30 BCE.
Note that the dates given are approximate. The list of pharaohs presented below is based on the conventional chronology of Ancient Egypt, mostly based on the Digital Egypt for Universities database developed by the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, but alternative dates taken from other authorities may be indicated separately.
Existing primary old lists of pharaohs
The texts of existing primary old lists of pharaohs are incomplete:
- Palermo stone
- Turin Royal Canon
- Manetho's Aegyptiaca (History of Egypt)
- Abydos King List
- Karnak Tablet
- South Saqqara Stone (discovered 1923, includes dyn. 6)
- Saqqara Tablet (discovered 1861, includes dyn. 1-12)
Archibald Sayce gave comparative data on several of these lists in his book The Ancient Empires of the East (1884), in addition to the lists found in Herodotus, Diodorus, Eratosthenes, and even a fanciful list found in "the Arabic writers". Yet another fanciful list that does not appear in Sayce, is found in the Book of Sothis that George Syncellus attributed to Manetho.
In the texts of the Palermo, Turin and Manetho king lists, there are different versions of names of eight god kings that ruled Egypt in the beginning.
|Turin King List|| Manetho|
|Craftsmen & Creation|
|-|| Sosis or Agathosdaimon (perhaps Sothis?)|
These god kings are followed by differing sets of semi-divine rulers.
|Turin King List||Length||Manetho||Length|
|Second dynasty of gods||unknown||Dynasty of Halfgods||unknown|
|3 Achu-Dynasties||unknown||30 Kings from Memphis||1790 years|
|Dynasty of Disciples of Horus||unknown||10 Kings from This||350 years|
Early Dynastic: Lower Egypt
Lower Egypt, known as the Black People, consisted of the northern Nile and the Nile Delta. The following list may not be complete:
|Hsekiu||Only known from the Palermo stone||?|
|Khayu||Only known from the Palermo stone||?|
|Tiu||Only known from the Palermo stone||?|
|Thesh||Only known from the Palermo stone||?|
|Neheb||Only known from the Palermo stone||?|
|Wazner||Only known from the Palermo stone||c. 3100 BCE?|
|Mekh||Only known from the Palermo stone||?|
Early Dynastic: Upper Egypt
Upper Egypt, known as the Red Land, consisted of the southern Nile and the deserts. The following list may not be complete (there are many more of uncertain existence):
|Scorpion I||Oldest tomb at Umm el-Qa'ab had scorpion insignia||c. 3200 BCE?|
|Iry-Hor||kingship uncertain||c. 3150 BCE?|
|Ka||—||c. 3100 BCE|
|King Scorpion||Potentially pronounced Serqet, but uncertain; possibly the same person as Narmer.||c. 3100 BCE|
|Narmer||The king who combined Upper and Lower Egypt.||c. 3100 BCE|
The First Dynasty ruled from approximately 3050 BCE to 2890 BCE, by some chronological schemes. (There are no precise or agreed-upon year dates for any of the Old or Middle Kingdom periods, and reign estimates differ widely from one Egyptologist to the next.)
|Narmer||Believed to be the same person as Menes and to have unified Upper and Lower Egypt.|
|Hor-Aha||—||c. 3050 BCE|
|Merneith||Regent or Den||—|
|Den||—||14 to 20.1 years|
The Second Dynasty ruled c. 2890 — 2686 BCE.
|Khasekhem(wy)||?–2686 BCE||17 to 18 years|
The Old Kingdom is the period in the third millennium BCE when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilisational complexity and achievement (the first of three so-called "Kingdom" periods which mark the high points of civilization in the Nile Valley), spanning the period when Egypt was ruled by the Third Dynasty through the Sixth Dynasty (2686–2181 BCE). Many Egyptologists also include the Memphite Seventh and Eighth Dynasties in the Old Kingdom as a continuation of the administration centralised at Memphis. The Old Kingdom was followed by a period of disunity and relative cultural decline referred to by Egyptologists as the First Intermediate Period -- or, as the Egyptians called it, the "first illness."
The royal capital of Egypt during the Old Kingdom was located at Memphis, where Djoser established his court. The Old Kingdom is perhaps best known, however, for the large number of pyramids which were constructed at this time as pharaonic burial places. For this reason, the Old Kingdom is frequently referred to as "the Age of the Pyramids".
The Third Dynasty ruled from 2686 to 2613 BCE.
|Djoser||Had the Step Pyramid constructed by Imhotep||2668–2649; Radiocarbon date start reign between 2691 and 2625|
The Fourth Dynasty ruled from 2613 to 2498 BCE and included the pharaohs who had the Great Pyramids built, Khufu (Cheops), Khafra (Chephren) and Menkaura (Mycerinus).
|Sneferu||Built the Bent Pyramid, which is a pyramid built at a normal angle at the bottom but drastically changes at the top. He also built the first "true" pyramid, known as the Red Pyramid. Some say that he was buried at the Red Pyramid, while others say that he was buried at the Bent Pyramid. Bones have been found at the Red Pyramid, but there is no evidence that this is Sneferu's body.||2613–2589|
|Khufu||Greek form: Cheops. Built the Great Pyramid of Giza. Note that Khufu is spoken of in early sources as being "third" of his family to rule, although there is no known record of a Pharaoh between Sneferu and Khufu. One supposition is that there might have been a very short reign of some elder brother of Khufu, whose inscriptions, name, and monuments have perished for one reason or another.||2589–2566|
|Djedefra (Radjedef)||Believed to have created the Great Sphinx of Giza as a monument for his deceased father. He also created a pyramid at Abu Rawash however this pyramid is no longer intact as it is believed the Romans recycled the materials it was made from. Before being demolished by the Romans, according to a documentary aired by the History Channel, the pyramid may actually have been the highest ever built (about 20 meters taller than the Great Pyramid of Giza although this is due to its elevated location rather than the size from base to tip).||2566–2558|
|Khafra|| Greek form:
Chephren His pyramid is the second largest in Giza. Built the Sphinx of Giza. || 2558–2532
|—||–||Here some authorities insert Bikheris, following Manetho||—|
|Menkaura||Greek form: Mycerinus. His pyramid is the third and smallest in Giza.||2532–2503|
|Shepseskaf||100px||Broke with the tradition of pyramid building and instead had the Mastabat el-Fara'un made for himself||2503–2498|
|–||–||Here some authorities insert Thampthis, following Manetho||—|
The Fifth Dynasty ruled from 2498 to 2345 BCE.
|Userkaf||Buried in a pyramid in Saqqara||2498–2491|
|Sahure||Moved the royal necropolis to Abusir||2490–2477|
The Sixth Dynasty ruled from 2345 to 2181 BCE.
|Teti||Was possibly murdered by his successor.||2345–2333|
|Userkare||Usurped the throne at the expense of Teti||2333–2332|
|Meryre Pepi I||—||2332–2283|
|Merenre Nemtyemsaf I||—||2283–2278|
|Neferkare Pepi II||Possible unto 2224 which would explain the following 4 kings.||2278–2184|
|Neferka||Only mentioned in the Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Reigned during Pepi II; was possibly his son or co-ruler.||2200–2199|
|Nefer||Reign of 2 years, 1 month and a day according to Turin Canon||2197–2193|
|Aba||Reigned for 4 years and 2 months. Reign dates do not follow Turin Canon. Highly unlikely.||2193–2176|
|Unknown king||Unknown king attested here|
|Merenre Nemtyemsaf II||Uncertain pharaoh.||2184|
|Neitiqerty Siptah||This king may have been confused in later years as a supposed female ruler Nitocris.||2184–2181|
First Intermediate Period
The Old Kingdom rapidly collapsed after the death of Pepi II. He had reigned for 94 years, longer than any monarch in history, and died aged 100. The latter years of his reign were marked by inefficiency because of his advanced age.
The Union of the Two Kingdoms fell apart and regional leaders had to cope with the resulting famine.
Around 2160 BCE, a new line of pharaohs tried to reunite Lower Egypt from their capital in Herakleopolis Magna. In the meantime, a rival line based at Thebes was reuniting Upper Egypt and a clash between the two rival dynasties was inevitable.
Around 2055 BCE, a descendant of the pharaoh Intef III defeated the Herakleopolitan pharaohs, reunited the Two Lands, founded the Eleventh Dynasty and ruled as Mentuhotep II, the first pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom.
Seventh and Eighth Dynasties (combined)
The Seventh and Eighth Dynasties ruled from 2181 to 2160 BCE. (This table is based on the Abydos Table from the Temple of Seti I, taken from www.narmer.pl/main/abydos_en.html)
|Neferkare III Nebi||-|
|Neferkare IV Khendu||-|
|Some authorities place here Merenhor|
|Neferkare V Tereru||-|
|Neferkare VI Pepyseneb||-|
|Qakare Ibi||Built the last pyramid at Saqqara||2169-2167|
|—||Manetho states that Achthoes founded this dynasty.||2160– ?|
|Khety (Acthoes II)||-||?|
|Senenh— or Setut||-||?|
The Tenth Dynasty was a local group that held sway over Lower Egypt that ruled from 2130 to 2040 BCE.
|Wankare (Acthoes III)||—||?|
The Eleventh Dynasty was a local group with roots in Upper Egypt that ruled from 2134 to 1991 BCE.
|Mentuhotep I Tepy-a||—|
|Sehertawy Intef I||—||2134–2117|
|Wahankh Intef II||—||2117–2069|
|Nakhtnebtepnefer Intef III||—||2069–2060|
The Middle Kingdom (2060-1802 BCE) is the period from the end of the First Intermediate Period to the beginning of the Second Intermediate Period. In addition to the Twelfth Dynasty, some scholars include the Eleventh, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties in the Middle Kingdom. The Middle Kingdom can be noted for the expansion of trade outside of the kingdom that occurred during this time. This opening of trade eventually led to the downfall of the Middle Kingdom, induced by an invasion from the Hyksos.
Eleventh Dynasty continued
The second part of the Eleventh Dynasty is considered to be part of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt.
|Nebhetepre Mentuhotep II|| ||Gained all Egypt 2040, Middle Kingdom begins.||2060–2010|
|Sankhkare Mentuhotep III||Commanded the first expedition to Punt of the Middle Kingdom||2010–1998|
|Nebtawyre Mentuhotep IV||—||—||1997–1991|
The Twelfth Dynasty ruled from 1991 to 1802 BCE, and is considered by later Egyptians to have been their greatest dynasty.
|Sehetepibre Amenemhat I||Seized power after overthrowing Mentuhotep IV. Died assassinated.||1991–1962|
| Kheperkare Senusret I
 (Sesostris I)
|Built the white chapel||1971–1926|
|Nubkaure Amenemhat II||—||1929–1895|
| Khakheperre Senusret II
 (Sesostris II)
| Khakaure Senusret III
 (Sesostris III)
|Most powerful of the Middle Kingdom pharaohs.||1878–1860|
|Nimaatre Amenemhat III||—||1860–1815|
|Maakherure Amenemhat IV||Had a co-regency lasting at least 1 year based on an inscription at Konosso.||1815–1807|
|Sobekkare Sobekneferu||—||A rare female ruler.||1807–1802|
Second Intermediate Period
The Second Intermediate Period (1802-1550 BCE) is a period of disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom, and the start of the New Kingdom. It is best known as when the Hyksos, whose reign comprised the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Dynasties, made their appearance in Egypt.
The Thirteenth Dynasty was much weaker than the Twelfth Dynasty, and was unable to hold onto the long land of Egypt. The provincial ruling family in Xois, located in the marshes of the western Delta, broke away from the central authority to form the Fourteenth Dynasty.
The Hyksos made their first appearance during the reign of Sobekhotep IV, and around 1720 BCE took control of the town of Avaris (the modern Tell el-Dab'a/Khata'na). The Hyksos, led by Salitis, the founder of the Fifteenth Dynasty, overran Egypt during the reign of Dedumose I.
Around the time Memphis fell to the Hyksos, the native Egyptian ruling house in Thebes declared its independence and set itself up as the Seventeenth Dynasty. This dynasty eventually drove the Hyksos back into Asia
The Thirteenth Dynasty (following the Turin King List) ruled from 1802 to around 1649 BCE and lasted 153 or 154 Yrs according to Manetho. This table should be contrasted with Known kings of the 13th Dynasty
|Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep or Wegaf||Founded the 13th Dynasty. His reign is attested by several Nile Records and Papyri.||1802–1799 4 years.|
|Sekhemkare||Amenemhat V Senebef, brother of Sekhemre Khutawy. 3 Yrs.||—|
|Khaankhre Sobekhotep I||—||?|
|Renseneb||4 months||c. 1775|
|Awybre Hor I?||Famous for his Ka statue||c. 1775?|
|Sedjefakare||A well known king attested on numerous stelas and other documents.||c. 5 to 7 years.|
|Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep||Compare Wegaf||c. 1767|
|Khendjer||Minimum 4 years and 3 months||c. 1765|
|Sekhemresewadjtawy Sobekhotep III||4 years and 2 months||c. 1755|
|Khasekhemre Neferhotep I||11 years||1751–1740|
|Khaneferre Sobekhotep IV||10 or 11 years||1740–1730|
|Khahotepre Sobekhotep V||—||c. 1730|
|Wahibre Ibiau||10 years and 8 months||c. 1725–1714|
|Merneferre Ay||23 years and 8 months||c. 1714–1691|
|Merhotepre Ini||2 years and 2 months||?|
The position of the following kings is uncertain:
|Dedumose I||—||c. 1654|
The Fourteenth Dynasty was a local group from the eastern Delta, based at Xois, that ruled from around 1705 to around 1690 BCE.
The position of the following pharaohs are uncertain:
The Turin King List provides an additional 25 names, some fragmentary, and no dates. None are attested to elsewhere, and all are of very dubious provenance.
|Apepi||-||40 years or more|
The Sixteenth Dynasty was a local native kingdom from Thebes who ruled Egypt for between 80 and 100 years, according to Kim Ryholt.
|—||Name of the first king is lost here in the Turin King List, and cannot be recovered||-|
|Djehuti (Sekhemresementawy)||–||3 years|
|Sobekhotep VIII (Sekhemreseusertawy)||–||16 years|
|Neferhotep III (Sekhemresankhtawy)||–||1 year|
|Mentuhotep VI (Sankhenre)||–||1 year|
|Nebiryraw I (Sewadjenre)||–||26 years|
|—||The names of five kings are lost here in the Turin King List, and cannot be recovered. Their identity is uncertain||-|
Some sources include as many as six more names –
The Seventeenth Dynasty was based in Upper Egypt and ruled from 1650 to 1550 BCE:
|Sekhemrewahkhaw Rahotep||-||-||c. 1620 BCE|
|Sekhemre Wadjkhaw Sobekemsaf I||Reigned at least 7 years||-|
|Sekhemre Shedtawy Sobekemsaf||-||-||-|
|Nubkheperre Intef||Reigned more than 3 years||-|
|Senakhtenre Ahmose||-||-||c. 1558|
|Seqenenre Tao||-||Died in battle against the Hyksos.||c. 1558 - c. 1554|
|Kamose||Died in battle against the Hyksos.||c. 1554 - c. 1549|
The New Kingdom (1550-1077 BC) is the period covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth dynasty of Egypt, from the 16th century BCE to the 11th century BCE, between the Second Intermediate Period, and the Third Intermediate Period.
Through military dominance abroad, the New Kingdom saw Egypt's greatest territorial extent. It expanded far into Nubia in the south, and held wide territories in the Near East. Egyptian armies fought with Hittite armies for control of modern-day Syria.
Two of the best known pharaohs of the New Kingdom are Akhenaten, also known as Amenhotep IV, whose exclusive worship of the Aten is often interpreted as the first instance of monotheism, and Ramesses II, who attempted to recover the territories in modern Israel/Palestine, Lebanon and Syria that had been held in the Eighteenth Dynasty. His reconquest led to the Battle of Qadesh, where he led the Egyptian armies against the army of the Hittite king Muwatalli II.
The Eighteenth Dynasty ruled from c. 1550 to 1292 BCE:
|Nebpehtire Ahmose I, Ahmosis I||Successor to Kamose, above.||c.1550-1525 BCE; Radiocarbon date range for the start of his reign is 1570-1544 BCE, the mean point of which is 1557 BCE|
|Djeserkare Amenhotep I||-||1541-1520|
|Aakheperkare Thutmose I||-||1520-1492|
|Aakheperenre Thutmose II||-||1492-1479|
|Menkheperre Thutmose III||Often called the "Napoleon of Egypt." Dominated early in his reign by his stepmother Hatshepsut; after she died, he began expanding Egyptian rule into the Levant.||1479-1425|
|Maatkare Hatshepsut||The second known female ruler, though quite possibly the seventh (the reigns of five other women are likely, but disputed). Recent evidence suggests she died of bone cancer.||1473-1458|
|Aakheperrure Amenhotep II||-||1425-1400|
|Menkheperure Thutmose IV||-||1400-1390|
|Nebmaatre Amenhotep III The Magnificent King||His name means Lord of the truth is Ra. He ruled Egypt at the peak of her glory, his mortuary temple was the largest ever built, but was destroyed by Rameses II to build his own temple. Recent DNA testing proved he was the Grandfather of Tutankhamun||1390-1352|
|Neferkheperure-waenre Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten||Founder of brief period of a solar-centered religion (Atenism). His original name means "Amun is pleased."||1352-1334|
|Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare||Co-regent and successor of Akhenaten. The identity of this individual is uncertain and disputed. Usually believed to be either a son or son-in-law of Akhenaten but sometimes identified as Akhenaten's wife Nefertiti. Other scholars distinguish two individuals between Akhenaten and Tutankhamun, namely Smenkhkare, who is then seen as male, and a female ruler, who is then most often identified as Akhenaten's eldest daughter Meritaten||1334-1333|
|Nebkheperure Tutankhaten/Tutankhamun||Commonly believed to be the son of Akhenaten, probably reinstated the polytheistic religion and the name change reflects the change in primary deity from Aten to Amun. He is also known as the boy king.||1333-1324|
|Djeserkheperure-setpenre Horemheb||Former General and advisor to Tutankhamun. Obliterated images of the Amarna queens and kings (all except Amenhotep III and Tiye).||1320-1292|
The Nineteenth Dynasty ruled from 1292 to 1186 BCE and includes one of the greatest pharaohs: Rameses II the Great:
|Menpehtire Ramesses I||-||1292-1290|
|Menmaatre Seti I||-||1290-1279|
|Usermaatre-setpenre Ramesses II the Great||The ruler usually associated with Moses; he reached a stalemate with the Hittites at the Battle of Kadesh in 1275 BCE, after which a peace treaty was signed in 1258 BCE||1279-1213|
|Banenre Merenptah||A stele describing campaigns in Libya and Canaan contains the only extant reference to "Israel" in Ancient Egyptian records.||1213-1203|
|Userkheperure Seti II||-||1203-1197|
|Sekhaenre/Akhenre Merenptah Siptah||-||1197-1191|
|Satre-merenamun Tausret||A rare female ruler also known as Tawosret in some places, she was probably the wife of Seti II.||1191-1190|
The Twentieth Dynasty ruled from 1190 to 1077 BCE:
|Usermaatre-meryamun Ramesses III||Fought the Sea Peoples in 1175 BCE||1186-1155|
|User/Heqamaatre-setpenamun Ramesses IV||-||1155-1149|
|Usermaatre-sekheperenre Ramesses V||-||1149-1145|
|Nebmaatre-meryamun Ramesses VI||-||1145-1137|
|Usermaatre-setpenre-meryamun Ramesses VII||-||1137-1130|
|Usermaatre-akhenamun Ramesses VIII||-||1130-1129|
|Neferkare-setpenre Ramesses IX||-||1129-1111|
|Khepermaatre-setpenptah Ramesses X||-||1111-1107|
|Menmaatre-setpenptah Ramesses XI||Ended rule sharing power with High Priest of Amun Herihor ruling in the south and Smendes I ruling in the north, a period known as wehem mesut.||1107-1077|
Third Intermediate Period
The Third Intermediate Period (1077-732 BCE) marked the end of the New Kingdom after the collapse of the Egyptian empire. A number of dynasties of Libyan origin ruled, giving this period its alternative name of the Libyan Period.
The Twenty-First Dynasty was based at Tanis and was a relatively weak group. Theoretically, they were rulers of all Egypt, but in practice their influence was limited to Lower Egypt. They ruled from 1069 to 943 BCE
|Hedjkheperre-setpenre Nesbanebdjed||Also known as Smendes I||1077-1051|
|Neferkare Heqawaset Amenemnisu||-||1051-1047|
|Aakheperre Pasebakhenniut I (Psusennes I)||-||1047-1001|
|Aakheperre Setepenre Osorkon (Osorkon the Elder)||- * ( Osochor )||992-986|
|Titkheperure Pasebakhenniut II (Psusennes II)||-||967-943|
The pharaohs of the Twenty-Second Dynasty were Libyans, ruling from around 943 to 720 BCE:
The Twenty-Third Dynasty was a local group, again of Libyan origin, based at Herakleopolis and Thebes that ruled from 837 to c.735 BCE:
|Hedjkheperre-setpenre Takelot II||Previously thought to be a 22nd Dynasty pharaoh, he is now known to be the founder of the 23rd||837-813|
|Usermaatre-setepenamun Pedubast||A rebel—seized Thebes from Takelot II||826-801|
|Usermaatre-setepenamun Iuput I||-||812-811|
|Usermaatre Shoshenq VI||Successor to Pedubast||801-795|
|Usermaatre-setepenamun Osorkon III||Son of Takelot II- recovered Thebes, then proclaimed himself king||795-767|
|Usermaatre-setpenamun Takelot III||-||773-765|
Not recognised as a dynasty as such, the Libu were yet another group of western nomads (Libyans) who occupied the western Delta from 805 to 732 BCE.
The Twenty-fourth Dynasty was a short-lived rival dynasty located in the western Delta (Sais), with only two Pharaoh ruling from 732 to 720 BCE.
|Wahkare Bakenrenef (Bocchoris)||-||725-720|
The Late Period runs from 732 BCE to Egypt becoming a province of Rome in 30 BCE, and includes periods of rule by Nubians, Persians, and Macedonians.
Nubians invaded Egypt in 732 BCE and took the throne of Egypt, establishing the Twenty-fifth Dynasty which ruled until 656 BCE.
|Usermaatre Piye||King of Nubia; conquered Egypt in 20th year; full reign at least 24 years, possibly 30+ years||747-716 according to Peter Clayton|
|Neferkare Shabaka||-||716-702 according to Peter Clayton|
|Djedkaure Shebitku||-||702-690 according to Peter Clayton|
|Bakare Tantamani||lost control of Upper Egypt in 656 BC when Psamtik I extended his authority into Thebes in that year.||664-653|
They were ultimately driven back into Nubia, where they established a kingdom at Napata (656-590), and, later, at Meroë (590 BCE-4th century. CE).
The Twenty-sixth Dynasty ruled from around 672 to 525 BCE.
|Menkheperre Nekau I (Necho I)||-||672 – 664 BCE|
|Wahibre Psamtik I (Psammetichus I)||-||664 – 610 BCE|
|Wehemibre Necho II (Necho II)||-||610 – 595 BCE|
|Neferibre Psamtik II (Psammetichus II)||-||595 – 589 BCE|
|Haaibre Wahibre (Apries)||-||589 – 570 BCE|
|Khnemibre Ahmose II (Amasis)||-||570 – 526 BCE|
|Ankhkaenre Psamtik III (Psammetichus III)||-||526 – 525 BCE|
Egypt was conquered by the Persian Empire in 525 BCE and annexed by the Persians until 404 BCE. The Achaemenid shahs were acknowledged as pharaohs in this era, forming a "Twenty-seventh" Dynasty:
|Metsuire Cambyses (Cambyses II)||Defeated Psamtik III at the Battle of Pelusium at 525 BC||525 – 521 BCE|
|Smerdis (Bardiya)||Son of Cyrus the Great||522 – 521 BCE|
|Setutre Darius I the Great||-||521 – 486 BCE|
|Xerxes I the Great||-||486 – 465 BCE|
|Artabanus the Hyrcanian||-||465 – 464 BCE|
|Artaxerxes I Longhand||-||464 – 424 BCE|
|Xerxes II||claimant||424 – 423 BCE|
|Sogdianus||claimant||424 – 423 BCE|
|Darius II||424 – 404 BCE|
The Twenty-eighth Dynasty lasted only six years, from 404 to 398 BCE, with one Pharaoh:
|Amyrtaeus||Descendant of the Saite pharaohs of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty; led a successful revolt against the Persians.||404 – 398 BCE|
The Twenty-ninth Dynasty ruled from 398 to 380 BCE:
|Baenre Nefaarud I||Also known as Nepherites||398 – 393 BCE|
|Khenemmaatre Hakor (Achoris)||-||393 – 380 BCE|
|Nefaarud II||-||380 BCE|
The Thirtieth Dynasty ruled from 380 until Egypt once more came under Persian rule in 343 BCE:
|Kheperkare Nekhtnebef (Nectanebo I)||Also known as Nekhtnebef||380 – 362 BCE|
|Irimaatenre Djedher (Teos)||-||362 – 360 BCE|
|Senedjemibre Nakhthorhebyt (Nectanebo II)||Last native ruler of ancient Egypt||360 – 343 BC|
Egypt again came under the control of the Achaemenid Persians. After the practice of Manetho, the Persian rulers from 343 to 332 BCE are occasionally designated as the Thirty-first Dynasty:
|Artaxerxes III||Egypt came under Persian rule for the second time||343–338 BCE|
|Artaxerxes IV Arses||Only reigned in Lower Egypt||338–336 BCE|
|Khababash||Leader of a Nubian revolt in Upper Egypt|| 338
|Darius III||Upper Egypt returned to Persian control in 335 BCE|| 336
The Macedonians under Alexander the Great ushered in the Hellenistic period with his conquest of Persia and Egypt. The Argeads ruled from 332 to 309 BCE:
|Setepenre-meryamun Alexander III (Alexander the Great)||Macedon conquered Persia and Egypt||332–323 BCE|
|Philip III Arrhidaeus||Feeble-minded half-brother of Alexander III the Great||323–317 BCE|
|Haaibre Alexander IV||Son of Alexander III the Great and Roxana||317–309 BCE|
The second Hellenistic dynasty, the Ptolemies ruled Egypt from 305 BCE until Egypt became a province of Rome in 30 BCE (whenever two dates overlap, that means there was a co-regency). The most famous member of this dynasty was Cleopatra VII, who in modern times is known simply as Cleopatra, and who had affairs with Mark Antony and Julius Caesar.
|Ptolemy I Soter (Setepenre-meryamun Ptolemy)||Abdicated in 285 BCE; died in 283 BCE||305–285 BCE|
|Berenice I||Wife of Ptolemy I||?-285 BCE|
|Ptolemy II Philadelphos (Weserkare-meryamun Ptolemy)||-||288–246 BCE|
|Arsinoe I||Wife of Ptolemy II||284/81-ca. 274 BCE|
|Arsinoe II||Wife of Ptolemy II||277-270 BCE|
|Ptolemy III Euergetes I||-||246–222 BCE|
|Berenice II||Wife of Ptolemy III||244/3-222 BCE|
|Ptolemy IV Philopator||-||222–204 BCE|
|Arsinoe III||Wife of Ptolemy IV||220-204 BCE|
|Hugronaphor||Revolutionary Pharaoh in the South||205-199 BCE|
|Ankhmakis||Revolutionary Pharaoh in the South||199-185 BCE|
|Ptolemy V Epiphanes||Upper Egypt in revolt 207–186 BCE||204–180 BCE|
|Cleopatra I||Wife of Ptolemy V, co-regent with Ptolemy VI during his minority||193-176 BCE|
|Ptolemy VI Philometor||Died 145 BCE||180–164 BCE|
|Cleopatra II||Wife of Ptolemy VI||173-164 BCE|
|Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II||Proclaimed king by Alexandrians in 170 BCE; ruled jointly with Ptolemy VI Philometor and Cleopatra II from 169 to 164 BCE. Died 116 BCE||171–163 BCE|
|Ptolemy VI Philometor||Egypt under the control of Ptolemy VIII 164 BCE–163 BCE; Ptolemy VI restored 163 BCE||163-145 BCE|
|Cleopatra II||Married Ptolemy VIII; led revolt against him in 131 BCE and became sole ruler of Egypt.||163-127 BCE|
|Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator||Proclaimed co-ruler by father; later ruled under regency of his mother Cleopatra II||145-144 BCE|
|Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II||Restored||145-131 BCE|
|Cleopatra III||Second wife of Ptolemy VIII||142-131 BCE|
|Ptolemy Memphitis||Proclaimed King by Cleopatra II; soon killed by Ptolemy VIII||131 BCE|
|Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II||Restored||127-116 BCE|
|Cleopatra III||Restored with Ptolemy VIII; later co-regent with Ptolemy IX and X.||127-107 BCE|
|Cleopatra II||Reconciled with Ptolemy VIII; co-ruled with Cleopatra III and Ptolemy until 116.||124-116 BCE|
|Ptolemy IX Soter II||Died 80 BCE||116–110 BCE|
|Cleopatra IV||Shortly married to Ptolemy IX, but was pushed out by Cleopatra III||116-115 BCE|
|Ptolemy X Alexander I||Died 88 BCE||110–109 BCE|
|Berenice III||Forced to marry Ptolemy XI; murdered on his orders 19 days later||81-80 BCE|
|Ptolemy XI Alexander II||Young son of Ptolemy X Alexander; installed by Sulla; ruled for 80 days before being lynched by citizens for killing Berenice III||80 BCE|
|Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos (Auletes)||Son of Ptolemy IX; died 51 BCE||80– 58 BCE|
|Cleopatra V Tryphaena||Wife of Ptolemy XII, mother of Berenice IV||79 -68 BCE|
|Cleopatra VI||100px||Daughter of Ptolemy XII||58 - 57 BCE|
|Berenice IV||Daughter of Ptolemy XII; forced to marry Seleucus Kybiosaktes, but has him strangled. Joint rule with Cleopatra VI until 57 BCE.||58–55 BCE|
|Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos||Restored; reigned briefly with his daughter Cleopatra VII before his death||55–51 BCE|
|Cleopatra VII||Jointly with her father Ptolemy XII, her brother Ptolemy XIII, her brother-husband Ptolemy XIV, and her son Ptolemy XV; also known simply as Cleopatra||51–30 BCE|
|Ptolemy XIII||Brother of Cleopatra VII||51–47 BCE|
|Arsinoe IV||In opposition to Cleopatra VII||48-47 BCE|
|Ptolemy XIV||Younger brother of Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XIII||47–44 BCE|
|Ptolemy XV||Infant son of Cleopatra VII; aged 3 when proclaimed co-ruler with Cleopatra. Last known ruler of ancient Egypt when Rome took over.||44-30 BCE|
Cleopatra VII had affairs with Roman Dictator Julius Caesar and Roman General Marc Antony, but it was not until after her suicide (after Marc Antony was defeated by Octavian, who would later be Emperor Augustus) that Egypt became a province of Rome in 30 BCE. Subsequent Roman Emperors were accorded the title of Pharaoh, although exclusively while in Egypt. One Egyptian king-list lists the Roman Emperors as Pharaohs up to and including Decius who died in 251 CE.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Clayton 1995, p. 217. "Although paying lip-service to the old ideas and religion, in varying degrees, pharaonic Egypt had in effect died with the last native pharaoh, Nectanebo II in 343 BC"
- ↑ Dynastic Tables: Kings of Egypt
- ↑ Problems with Manetho's "Reign of the Gods" Page with different versions of god king lists
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 Breasted (1909) p.36
- ↑ Rice (1999) p.86
- ↑ Wilkinson (1999) pp.57f.
- ↑ Shaw (2000) p.196
- ↑ Wilkinson (1999) pp. 83-84
- ↑ Wilkinson (1999) p. 84
- ↑ Wilkinson (1999) p. 79
- ↑ Wilkinson (1999) pp 87-88
- ↑ Pascal Vernus, Jean Yoyotte, The Book of the Pharaohs, Cornell University Press 2003, p.27
- ↑  King Khasekhem
- ↑  King Khasekhemwy
- ↑ Toby Wilkinson, Early Dynastic Egypt, Routledge, 1999, pp.83 & 95
- ↑ Toby Wilkinson, Royal Annals of Ancient Egypt, pp.79 & 258
- ↑ Verner (2001)
- ↑ Christopher Bronk Ramsey et al., Radiocarbon-Based Chronology for Dynastic Egypt, [i]Science[/i] 18 June 2010: Vol. 328. no. 5985, pp. 1554 - 1557
- ↑ Clayton (1994) p.32
- ↑ Clayton (1994) p.42
- ↑ Dodson & Hilton (2004) p.73
- ↑ Ryholt & Bardrum (2000) pp.87–100.
- ↑ 23.0 23.1 Turin Kinglist, Columns IV,18 to V,10, Ancient Egypt dot org. Accessed 10 February 2010.
- ↑ Labib Habachi: King Nebhepetre Menthuhotep: his monuments, place in history, deification and unusual representations in form of gods. Annales du Service des Antiquités de l'Égypte 19 (1963), p. 16-52
- ↑ Grajetzki (2006) pp. 23-25
- ↑ Grajetzki (2006) pp. 25-26
- ↑  Amenemhat I
- ↑ Grajetzki (2006) pp.28-35
- ↑ Murnane (1977) p.2
- ↑ Murnane (1977) p.7
- ↑ Murnane (1977) p.9
- ↑ Josef Wegner, The Nature and Chronology of the Senwosret III–Amenemhat III Regnal Succession: Some Considerations based on new evidence from the Mortuary Temple of Senwosret III at Abydos, JNES 55, Vol.4, (1996), pp.251
- ↑ Grajetzki (2006) pp.56-61
- ↑ "Amenemhat IV Maakherure (1807/06-1798/97 BCE)". Digital Egypt for Universities. http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/chronology/amenemhatIV.html.
- ↑ Grajetzk (2006) pp.61-63
- ↑ 36.0 36.1 Kings of the 2nd Intermediate Period
- ↑ Christopher Bronk Ramsey et al., Radiocarbon-Based Chronology for Dynastic Egypt, Science 18 June 2010: Vol. 328. no. 5985, pp. 1554-1557.
- ↑ Tooth clinches identification of Egyptian queen
- ↑ "Ramesses I Menpehtire". Digital Egypt. University College London. 2001. http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/chronology/ramsesi.html. Retrieved 2007-09-29.
- ↑ "King Merenptah". Digital Egypt. University College London. 2001. http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/chronology/merenptah.html. Retrieved 2007-09-29.
- ↑ "Sety II". Digital Egypt. University College London. 2001. http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/chronology/setyii.html. Retrieved 2007-10-27.
- ↑ "Siptah Sekhaenre/Akhenre". Digital Egypt. University College London. 2001. http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/chronology/siptah.html. Retrieved 2007-10-27.
- ↑ "Tausret". http://www.phouka.com/pharaoh/pharaoh/dynasties/dyn19/08tausret.html.
- ↑ Grimal (1992) p.291
- ↑ "Ramesses XI Menmaatre-setpenptah". http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/chronology/ramsesxi.html. Retrieved 2007-10-28.
- ↑ Shaw (ed), Ian (2000). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 309.
- ↑ Cerny p.645
- ↑ "Late Period Kings". http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/chronology/lateperiodkings.html. Retrieved 2007-10-27.
- ↑ "Nakhthorhebyt". Digital Egypt for Universities. http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/chronology/nakhthorbyt.html. Retrieved March 1, 2011.
- J. H. Breasted, History of Egypt from the Earliest Time to the Persian Conquest, 1909
- J. Cerny, 'Egypt from the Death of Ramesses III to the End of the Twenty-First Dynasty' in The Middle East and the Aegean Region c.1380-1000 BC, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-08691-4
- Clayton, Peter A. (1995). Chronicle of the Pharaohs: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt. The Chronicles Series (Reprinted ed.). London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-05074-3.
- Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. 2004. ISBN 0-500-05128-3
- Sir Alan Gardiner Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs, Third Edition, Revised. London: Oxford University Press, 1964. Excursus A, pp. 71–76.
- Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, (Blackwell Books: 1992)
- Murnane, William J. Ancient Egyptian Coregencies, Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization. No. 40. The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 1977
- Michael Rice, Who's Who in Ancient Egypt, Routledge 1999
- Ryholt, Kim & Steven Bardrum. 2000. "The Late Old Kingdom in the Turin King-list and the Identity of Nitocris." Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 127
- Shaw, Ian. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt., Oxford University Press, 2000.
- Toby A. H. Wilkinson, Early Dynastic Egypt, Routledge 1999, ISBN 0-415-18633-1
- Verner, Miroslav, The Pyramids - Their Archaeology and History, Atlantic Books, 2001, ISBN 1-84354-171-8
- Egypt, History & Civilisation By Dr. R Ventura. Published by Osiris, PO Box 107 Cairo.
- Egyptian Royal Genealogy
- Manetho and the King Lists Review of different primary king lists
- Problems with Manetho's "Reign of the Gods" Page with different versions of god king lists
- Chronology Table - 0 Dynasty&History Period, by Dariusz Sitek Multi-pages of list of pharaohs in different king lists, without the god kings, in Egyptian hieroglyphs and English
- Egyptian Journey 2003: History: King Lists Hyperlink texts of the Manetho, Abydos & Turin king lists, without the god-kings
- Digital Egypt for Universities
- List of all female Pharaohs
|This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original article was at List of pharaohs. The list of authors can be seen in the page history.|