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This is a list of papal elections since 1059. Since the promulgation of In Nomine Domini (1059), which limited suffrage to the College of Cardinals, there have been 112 papal elections or conclaves that have produced popes currently recognized by the Roman Catholic Church as legitimate. Prior to 1059, there was no fixed process for papal succession, and popes were often selected with substantial secular involvement, if not outright appointed.

A papal conclave is a papal election that follows a set of rules and procedures developed in Ubi Perculum (1274) and later papal bulls; observance of the conclave varied between 1276 and 1294, but since 1294 all papal elections have followed relatively similar conclave procedures.

Although the cardinals have historically gathered at a handful of other locations within Rome and beyond, only six elections since 1455 have been held outside the Apostolic Palace,[1] Twenty-eight papal elections have been held outside Rome, in: Terracina (1088), Cluny (1119), Velletri (1181), Verona (1185), Ferrara (Oct. 1187), Pisa (Dec. 1187), Perugia (1216, 1264–1265, 1285, 1292–1294, 1304–1305), Anagni (1243), Naples (1254, 1294), Viterbo (1261, 1268–1271, July 1276, Aug.–Sept. 1276, 1277, 1281–1282), Arezzo (Jan. 1276), Carpentras/Lyon (1314–1316), Avignon (1334, 1342, 1352, 1362, 1370), Konstanz (1417) and Venice (1799-1800).

Elections that elected papal claimants currently regarded by the Roman Catholic Church as antipopes are italicized.

1059–1100

File:San Pietro in Vincoli interior.jpg
Election Elected Pope Location Ref
Papal election, 1061 Pope Alexander II San Pietro in Vincoli (Rome) [2]
Papal election, 1073 Pope Gregory VII San Pietro in Vincoli (Rome) [3]
Papal election, 1086 Pope Victor III S. Lucia in Sepitisolio (Rome) [4]
Papal election, 1088 Pope Urban II SS. Pietro e Cesareo (Terracina) [5]
Papal election, 1099 Pope Paschal II Basilica di San Clemente (Rome) [5]

1100–1200

Dehio 212 Cluny

The 1119 papal election took place in Cluny Abbey as a result of the expulsion of Pope Gelasius II from Rome by Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor following the Investiture Controversy.

Election Elected Pope Location Ref
Papal election, 1118 Pope Gelasius II Benedictine monastery on Palatine Hill (Rome) [6]
Papal election, 1119 Pope Callixtus II Cluny Abbey (France) [7]
Papal election, 1124 Pope Honorius II San Pancrazio (Rome) [8]
Papal election, 1130 Pope Innocent II SS. Andrea e Gregorio in clivo scauri (Rome) [9]
Antipope Anacletus II San Marco (Rome)
Papal election, 1143 Pope Celestine II Lateran Basilica (Rome) [10]
Papal election, 1144 Pope Lucius II (Rome) [10]
Papal election, 1145 Pope Eugene III San Cesareo in Palatio (Rome) [10]
Papal election, 1153 Pope Anastasius IV (Rome) [10]
Papal election, 1154 Pope Adrian IV Old St. Peter's Basilica (Rome) [11]
Papal election, 1159 Pope Alexander III Old St. Peter's Basilica (Rome) [12]
Antipope Victor IV
Papal election, 1181 Pope Lucius III (Rome) [13]
Papal election, 1185 Pope Urban III (Verona) [13]
Papal election, October 1187 Pope Gregory VIII (Ferrara) [14]
Papal election, December 1187 Pope Clement III (Pisa) [15]
Papal election, 1191 Pope Celestine III (Rome) [15]
Papal election, 1198 Pope Innocent III Septizodium (Rome) [15]

1200–1300

Septiconium Luci Septimi Severi

Senator Matteo Rosso Orsini confined the cardinals to the Septizodium during the 1241 election.

Viterbo-Papal Palace

The Magistrates of Viterbo removed the roof of the Palazzo dei Papi di Viterbo during the 1268–1271 election and removed two cardinal electors from the Palace during the 1280–1281 election.

Election Elected Pope Location Ref
Papal election, 1216 Pope Honorius III Palazzo delle Canoniche (Perugia) [15]
Papal election, 1227 Pope Gregory IX Septizodium (Rome) [16]
Papal election, 1241 Pope Celestine IV Septizodium (Rome) [17]
Papal election, 1243 Pope Innocent IV (Anagni) [18]
Papal election, 1254 Pope Alexander IV (Naples) [19]
Papal election, 1261 Pope Urban IV Cathedral of San Lorenzo (Viterbo) [19]
Papal election, 1264–1265 Pope Clement IV Palazzo delle Canoniche (Perugia) [20]
Papal election, 1268–1271 Pope Gregory X Cathedral of San Lorenzo (Viterbo)
Palazzo dei Papi (Viterbo)
[21]
Papal conclave, January 1276 Pope Innocent V Ss. Donato e Pietro (Arezzo) [22]
Papal conclave, July 1276 Pope Adrian V Basilica of St. John Lateran [23][24]
Papal election, September 1276 Pope John XXI Palazzo dei Papi (Viterbo) [25]
Papal election, 1277 Pope Nicholas III Palazzo dei Papi (Viterbo) [25]
Papal election, 1280–1281 Pope Martin IV Palazzo dei Papi (Viterbo) [26]
Papal election, 1285 Pope Honorius IV Palazzo delle Canoniche (Perugia) [27]
Papal election, 1287–1288 Pope Nicholas IV Corte Savella, near Santa Sabina (Rome) [28]
Papal election, 1292–1294 Pope Celestine V Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore (Rome)
Santa Maria sopra Minerva (Rome)
Palazzo delle Canoniche (Perugia)
[29]
Papal conclave, 1294 Pope Boniface VIII Castel Nuovo (Naples) [30]

1300–1400

Avignon, Palais des Papes depuis Tour Philippe le Bel by JM Rosier

The Palais des Papes, the site of most papal conclaves during the Avignon Papacy

Election Elected Pope Location Ref
Papal conclave, 1303 Pope Benedict XI Basilica of St. John Lateran (Rome) [31]
Papal conclave, 1304–1305 Pope Clement V Palazzo delle Canoniche (Perugia) [32]
Papal conclave, 1314–1316 Pope John XXII Apostolic palace in Carpentras
Dominican house in Lyon
[33]
Papal conclave, 1334 Pope Benedict XII Palais des Papes (Avignon) [34]
Papal conclave, 1342 Pope Clement VI Palais des Papes (Avignon) [35]
Papal conclave, 1352 Pope Innocent VI Palais des Papes (Avignon) [36]
Papal conclave, 1362 Pope Urban V Palais des Papes (Avignon) [37]
Papal conclave, 1370 Pope Gregory XI Palais des Papes (Avignon) [38]
Papal conclave, 1378 Pope Urban VI Old St. Peter's Basilica (Rome) [39]
Avignon papal conclave, 1378 Antipope Clement VII Fondi [39]
Papal conclave, 1389 Pope Boniface IX (Rome) [40]
Avignon papal conclave, 1394 Antipope Benedict XIII Palais des Papes (Avignon) [41]

1400–1500

MPano 07

The Konstanz Minster, the site of the Council of Constance, and the last site of a papal election outside Italy.

Election Elected Pope Location Ref
Papal conclave, 1404 Pope Innocent VII (Rome) [42]
Papal conclave, 1406 Pope Gregory XII (Rome) [43]
Council of Pisa (1409) Antipope Alexander V (Pisa) [44]
Pisan papal conclave, 1410 Antipope John XXIII San Petronio Basilica (Bologna) [45]
Council of Constance (1417) Pope Martin V Konstanz Minster (Konstanz) [46]
Avignon papal conclave, 1423 Antipope Clement VIII Peñíscola [47]
Papal conclave, 1431 Pope Eugene IV Santa Maria sopra Minerva (Rome) [48][49]
Council of Florence (1439) Antipope Felix V Basel Münster [50]
Papal conclave, 1447 Pope Nicholas V Santa Maria sopra Minerva (Rome) [51][49]
Papal conclave, 1455 Pope Callixtus III Apostolic Palace (Rome) [52][49]
Papal conclave, 1458 Pope Pius II Apostolic Palace (Rome) [53][1]
Papal conclave, 1464 Pope Paul II Apostolic Palace (Rome)
Capella Parva (voting)
Capella Magna (cardinals' cells)
[54][49]
Papal conclave, 1471 Pope Sixtus IV Apostolic Palace (Rome) [55]
Papal conclave, 1484 Pope Innocent VIII Apostolic Palace (Rome) [56]
Papal conclave, 1492 Pope Alexander VI Sistine Chapel (Rome) [57]

1500–1600

Chapelle sixtine2

The 1492 conclave was the first held in the Sistine Chapel of the Apostolic Palace, the site of all conclaves since 1878.

Election Elected Pope Location Ref
Papal conclave, September 1503 Pope Pius III Apostolic Palace (Rome) [58]
Papal conclave, October 1503 Pope Julius II Apostolic Palace (Rome) [59]
Papal conclave, 1513 Pope Leo X Sistine Chapel (Rome) [60][49]
Papal conclave, 1521–1522 Pope Adrian VI Apostolic Palace (Rome) [61]
Papal conclave, 1523 Pope Clement VII Apostolic Palace (Rome) [62]
Papal conclave, 1534 Pope Paul III Capella Parva (Rome) [63][49]
Papal conclave, 1549–1550 Pope Julius III Cappella Paolina (Rome) [64]
Papal conclave, April 1555 Pope Marcellus II Apostolic Palace (Rome) [65]
Papal conclave, May 1555 Pope Paul IV Apostolic Palace (Rome) [66]
Papal conclave, 1559 Pope Pius IV Capella Paolina (Rome) [67][49]
Papal conclave, 1565–1566 Pope Pius V Apostolic Palace (Rome) [68]
Papal conclave, 1572 Pope Gregory XIII Apostolic Palace (Rome) [69]
Papal conclave, 1585 Pope Sixtus V Apostolic Palace (Rome) [70]
Papal conclave, September 1590 Pope Urban VII Apostolic Palace (Rome) [71]
Papal conclave, Autumn 1590 Pope Gregory XIV Apostolic Palace (Rome) [72]
Papal conclave, 1591 Pope Innocent IX Apostolic Palace (Rome) [73]
Papal conclave, 1592 Pope Clement VIII Apostolic Palace (Rome) [74]

1600–1700

Watykan Plac sw Piora kolumnada Berniniego

All but six papal conclaves since 1455 have been held in the Apostolic Palace.

Election Elected Pope Location Ref
Papal conclave, March 1605 Pope Leo XI Apostolic Palace (Rome) [75]
Papal conclave, May 1605 Pope Paul V Apostolic Palace (Rome) [76]
Papal conclave, 1621 Pope Gregory XV Apostolic Palace (Rome) [77]
Papal conclave, 1623 Pope Urban VIII Apostolic Palace (Rome) [78]
Papal conclave, 1644 Pope Innocent X Apostolic Palace (Rome) [79]
Papal conclave, 1655 Pope Alexander VII Apostolic Palace (Rome) [80]
Papal conclave, 1667 Pope Clement IX Apostolic Palace (Rome) [81]
Papal conclave, 1669–1670 Pope Clement X Apostolic Palace (Rome) [82]
Papal conclave, 1676 Pope Innocent XI Apostolic Palace (Rome) [83]
Papal conclave, 1689 Pope Alexander VIII Apostolic Palace (Rome) [84]
Papal conclave, 1691 Pope Innocent XII Apostolic Palace (Rome) [85]

1700–1800

Vue depuis Chiesa di San Giorgio Maggiore 4

The papal conclave, 1799–1800 was held in San Giorgio Monastery in Venice, the last papal election site outside of Rome

Election Elected Pope Location Ref
Papal conclave, 1700 Pope Clement XI Apostolic Palace (Rome) [86]
Papal conclave, 1721 Pope Innocent XIII Apostolic Palace (Rome) [87]
Papal conclave, 1724 Pope Benedict XIII Apostolic Palace (Rome) [88]
Papal conclave, 1730 Pope Clement XII Apostolic Palace (Rome) [89]
Papal conclave, 1740 Pope Benedict XIV Apostolic Palace (Rome) [90]
Papal conclave, 1758 Pope Clement XIII Apostolic Palace (Rome) [91]
Papal conclave, 1769 Pope Clement XIV Apostolic Palace (Rome) [92]
Papal conclave, 1774–1775 Pope Pius VI Apostolic Palace (Rome) [93]
Papal conclave, 1799–1800 Pope Pius VII San Giorgio Monastery (Venice) [94]

Since 1800

RomaPalazzoQuirinale

The Quirinal Palace was the site of the four conclaves prior to the seizure of Rome by the forces of the Italian unification.

Election Elected Pope Location Ref
Papal conclave, 1823 Pope Leo XII Quirinal Palace (Rome) [95]
Papal conclave, 1829 Pope Pius VIII Quirinal Palace (Rome) [96]
Papal conclave, 1830–1831 Pope Gregory XVI Quirinal Palace (Rome) [97]
Papal conclave, 1846 Pope Pius IX Quirinal Palace (Rome) [98]
Papal conclave, 1878 Pope Leo XIII Sistine Chapel (Rome) [99]
Papal conclave, 1903 Pope Pius X Sistine Chapel (Rome) [100]
Papal conclave, 1914 Pope Benedict XV Sistine Chapel (Rome) [101]
Papal conclave, 1922 Pope Pius XI Sistine Chapel (Rome) [102]
Papal conclave, 1939 Pope Pius XII Sistine Chapel (Vatican City) [103]
Papal conclave, 1958 Pope John XXIII Sistine Chapel (Vatican City) [104]
Papal conclave, 1963 Pope Paul VI Sistine Chapel (Vatican City) [105]
Papal conclave, August 1978 Pope John Paul I Sistine Chapel (Vatican City) [106]
Papal conclave, October 1978 Pope John Paul II Sistine Chapel (Vatican City) [107]
Papal conclave, 2005 Pope Benedict XVI Sistine Chapel (Vatican City) [108]
[109]
[110]

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Plus II's election was the second to take place in the Vatican palace, which has been the site for all but six conclaves since then." Baumgartner, Frederic J. (2003). ""I Will Observe Absolute and Perpetual Secrecy:" The Historical Background of the Rigid Secrecy Found in Papal Elections". Catholic Historical Review. Vol. 89, Issue 2. pp. 165–181.
  2. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 19-24.
  3. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 24-25.
  4. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 25-26.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Baumgartner, 2003, p. 26.
  6. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 26-27.
  7. Baumgartner, 2003, p. 27-28.
  8. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 28-29.
  9. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 29-31.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 Baumgartner, 2003, p. 31.
  11. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 31-32.
  12. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 32-33.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Baumgartner, 2003, p. 33.
  14. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 33-34.
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 Baumgartner, 2003, p. 34.
  16. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 34-35.
  17. Baumgartner, 2003, p. 35.
  18. Baumgartner, 2003, p. 35-36.
  19. 19.0 19.1 Baumgartner, 2003, p. 36.
  20. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 36-37.
  21. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 37-39.
  22. Baumgartner, 2003, p. 40.
  23. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 40-41.
  24. Walsh, Michael J. (2003). The Conclave. ISBN 158051135X. p. 86
  25. 25.0 25.1 Baumgartner, 2003, p. 41.
  26. Baumgartner, 2003, p. 42.
  27. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 42-43.
  28. Baumgartner, 2003, p. 43.
  29. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 43-45.
  30. Baumgatner, 2003, pp. 45-46.
  31. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 47-48.
  32. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 48-49.
  33. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 49-50.
  34. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 50-51.
  35. Baumgartner, 2003, p. 51.
  36. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 52-53.
  37. Baumgartner, 2003, p. 54.
  38. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 54-55.
  39. 39.0 39.1 Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 55-60.
  40. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 60-61.
  41. Baumgartner, 2003, p. 61.
  42. Baumgartner, 2003, p. 62.
  43. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 62-63.
  44. Baumgartner, 2003, p. 63.
  45. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 63-64.
  46. Baumgatner, 2003, pp. 64-66.
  47. Baumgartner, 2003, p. 67.
  48. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 68-69.
  49. 49.0 49.1 49.2 49.3 49.4 49.5 49.6 Chambers, DS. 1978. "Papal Conclaves and Prophetic Mystery in the Sistine Chapel". Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, Vol. 41: 322-326.
  50. Baumgartner, 2003, p. 69.
  51. Baumgartner, 2003, p. 70.
  52. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 71-73.
  53. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 73-77.
  54. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 77-79.
  55. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 79-81.
  56. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 81-83.
  57. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 84-85.
  58. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 86-89.
  59. Baumgartner, 2003, p. 89.
  60. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 91-93.
  61. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 95-98.
  62. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 98-101.
  63. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 102-103.
  64. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 104-110.
  65. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 111-112.
  66. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 112-113.
  67. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 116-120.
  68. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 121-123.
  69. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 125-126.
  70. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 127-130.
  71. Baumgartner, 2003, p. 132-134.
  72. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 134-135.
  73. Baumgartner, 2003, p. 136.
  74. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 136-138.
  75. Baumgartner, 2003, p. 139-142.
  76. Baumgartner, 2003, p. 142.
  77. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 143-145.
  78. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 147-149.
  79. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 153-154.
  80. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 155-157.
  81. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 157-159.
  82. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 159-161.
  83. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 161-162.
  84. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 163-164.
  85. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 164-166.
  86. Baumgartner, 2003, p. 167.
  87. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 168-170.
  88. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 170-171.
  89. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 171-173.
  90. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 173-175.
  91. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 175-176.
  92. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 176-178.
  93. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 179-180.
  94. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 182-184.
  95. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 186-187.
  96. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 188-189.
  97. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 189-190.
  98. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 191-193.
  99. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 195-199.
  100. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 201-204.
  101. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 206-208.
  102. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 209-210.
  103. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 212-213.
  104. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 215-218.
  105. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 219-222.
  106. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 223-227.
  107. Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 227-223.
  108. Greeley, Andrew M. 2005. The Making of the Pope: 2005. Brown, Little. ISBN 0316861499.
  109. Weigel, George. 2005. God's Choice: Pope Benedict XVI and the Future of the Catholic Church. HarperCollins. ISBN 0066213312.
  110. Allen, John L., Jr. 2005. The Rise of Benedict XVI: The inside story of how the pope was elected and where it will take the Catholic Church. Doubleday Religion. ISBN 0385513208.

References

  • Baumgartner, Frederic J. 2003. Behind Locked Doors: A History of the Papal Elections. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-29463-8.

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