Imperial abbeys (German: Reichsabteien, also Reichsklöster and Reichsstifte) were religious houses within the Holy Roman Empire which for some period during their existence had the status of Reichsunmittelbarkeit ("imperial immediacy"): that is, such houses were answerable directly to the Emperor and were thus sovereign territories (however small), independent of other lordships. This status brought with it numerous other political and financial advantages, such as immunity from the authority of the local bishop, rights to demand various taxes and duties and to levy justice.

The head of an Imperial abbey was generally an Imperial abbot (Reichsabt) or Imperial abbess (Reichsäbtissin). (The head of a Reichspropstei - an Imperial provostry or priory - was generally a Reichspropst). Some of the greatest establishments had the rank of ecclesiastical principalities, and were headed by a Prince-Abbot or a Prince-Provost (Fürstabt, Fürstpropst), with status comparable to that of Prince-Bishops. Most however (and many of these religious houses had only very small territories) were Imperial prelates (Reichsprelaten) and as such participated in a single collective vote in the Reichstag as members of the Bench of Prelates, later (1575) divided into the Swabian College of Imperial Prelates and the Rhenish College of Imperial Prelates.

It was not uncommon for heads of religious houses other than the Imperial abbeys to have similar titles even though their establishments did not have Reichsunmittelbarkeit. To take three examples, the Prince-Bishop of St. Gall retained his title until the abbey was secularised in 1798, even though it had ceased to be an Imperial abbey in 1648; the abbot of Muri (which had a strong Habsburg connection) was created an Imperial prince in 1710, although by that time Muri was in Switzerland; and the Prince-Abbot of St. Blaise's Abbey in Baden-Württemberg held that title, not on account of the status of the abbey, which was not reichsunmmittelbar, but because it was conferred on him by the abbey's ownership of the County of Bonndorf.

Lists of Imperial abbeys

List A: Imperial abbeys named in the Matrikel

The religious houses listed here as List A are those named in the Matrikel, or lists of those eligible to vote in the Reichstag, including those whose votes were collective rather than individual. Three of these lists survive and are accessible, from 1521, 1755 (or thereabouts) and 1792.

This list includes the Principalities, Imperial abbeys (Reichsabteien and -klöster), Imperial colleges (Reichsstifte), Imperial provostries or priories (Reichspropsteien) and the single Imperial charterhouse (Reichskartause).

The word "Stift", meaning a collegiate foundation or canonry, possibly belonging to a variety of different orders or to none at all, and either with or without rules and vows, for either men ("Herrenstift") or for women ("Frauenstift"), has been left untranslated, except when it specifically refers to the chapter of a church.

Some of the imperial abbeys were dissolved during the Reformation; others were absorbed into other territories at various times in the general course of political life. Those in Alsace and Switzerland passed out of the Empire in 1648, when Alsace was ceded to France and Switzerland became independent. The great majority of these religious bodies however were secularised during the brief period that included the French Revolution, the Napoleonic Wars and their aftermath, especially as a result of the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss of February 1803. Any that survived, lost their Imperial titles when the Holy Roman Empire was wound up in 1806.


  • Dates column:
    • fdd stands for "founded"
    • RU stands for: "Reichsunmittelbarkeit granted".
    • Note: If no date is specified for the end of Reichsunmittelbarkeit, it is the same as the date of secularisation or mediatisation.
  • Description and Imperial status column:
    • RA stands for Reichsabtei (Imperial abbey)
    • RF stands for "Reichsfürstentum" (Imperial Principality)
    • RP stands for "Reichspropstei" (Imperial provostry)
  • College column:
    • RC stands for "Rhenish College"
    • SC stands for "Swabian College"
    • RF stands for "Reichsfürst", i.e., the head of the house in question had an individual vote; there were eight of these (counting Stablo and Malmedy as one).
Religious house Location Dates Description and Imperial status College
Baindt Abbey Baden-Württemberg fdd 1240; RU 1376; secularised 1802 Cistercian nunnery [1]RA SC
Berchtesgaden Provostry Bavaria fdd 1102; RU 1194; secularised 1803 Augustinian Canons. Fürstpropstei ("Prince-Provostry"). RF from 1380 or 1559 RF
Buchau Abbey Baden-Württemberg fdd c 700; RU 1347; secularised 1803[2] Frauenstift. RA. RF RC
Burtscheid Abbey North Rhine-Westphalia (Aachen) fdd 997; RU 1220/21; secularised 1802 Benedictine monastery; from 1220/21 Cistercian nunnery. RF RC
Buxheim Charterhouse Bavaria fdd c 1100; RU 1548; secularised 1802/03 Canons; Carthusians from 1402 (the only Reichskartause). RP SC and RC
Comburg Baden-Württemberg (Schwäbisch Hall) fdd 1070s; RU before 15th century; mediatised by Württemberg 1587 (secularised 1803) Benedictine monastery, later Herrenstift. RA SC
Corvey Abbey North Rhine-Westphalia (Höxter) fdd c. 820; RU c. 1150; secularised 1803 Benedictine monastery. RA; RF no later than 1582[3] RF
Disentis Abbey Switzerland fdd early 8th century[4]RU temp. Charlemagne; ceased to be part of the HRE in 1648 (secularised 1798; re-established 1803) Benedictine monastery. RA SC
Echternach Abbey Luxembourg fdd 700; RU 751; mediatised by Austria sometime after 1521[5](secularised 1794) Benedictine monastery. RA
Einsiedeln Abbey Switzerland fdd 934; RU 965; ceased to be part of the HRE in 1648 (secularised 1798; re-established 1803) Benedictine monastery. RA
Elchingen Abbey Bavaria fdd nk; RU nk; secularised 1802 Benedictine monastery. RA SC
Ellwangen Abbey Baden-Württemberg fdd c 764[6]; RU 1011 (probably); secularised 1802 Benedictine monastery; Fürstpropstei ("Prince-Provostry"). RF RF
Essen Abbey North Rhine-Westphalia fdd c. 845; RU 874 x 947; secularised 1803 Frauenstift. RA RC
Frauenchiemsee Abbey (aka Frauenwörth) Bavaria fdd 772; RU nk; secularised 1803 Benedictine nunnery. RA SC
Fraumünster Abbey Switzerland (Zürich) fdd 853; RU 1218; secularised 1524 Benedictine nunnery. RA SC
Fürstenfeld Abbey Bavaria (Fürstenfeldbruck) fdd 1263 x 1265; RU probably temp. Ludwig the Bavarian; secularised 1803 Cistercian monastery. RA SC
Fulda Abbey Hesse fdd 744; RU 765; secularised 1802 Benedictine monastery. RF[7] RF
Gandersheim Abbey Lower Saxony fdd 852; RU 877 / 919; secularised 1810 [8] Frauenstift. RA RC
Gengenbach Abbey Baden-Württemberg fdd 727 x 735; RU 9th century; secularised 1803 Benedictine monastery. RA SC
Gernrode Abbey Saxony-Anhalt fdd before 961; RU before 965; secularised 1610 Frauenstift. RA RC
Göss Abbey Austria (Leoben) fdd 1004; RU 1020; secularised 1782 Benedictine nunnery. RA SC
Gutenzell Abbey Baden-Württemberg fdd 1237; RU nk; secularised 1803 Cistercian nunnery. RA SC
Heggbach Abbey Baden-Württemberg (Maselheim) fdd 1231; RU 1429; secularised 1803 Beguines; Cistercian nunnery from 1248[9]. RA SC
Helmarshausen Abbey Hesse (Bad Karlshafen) fdd 997; RU probably temp. Otto III; secularised 1538 Benedictine monastery. RA SC
Herford Abbey North Rhine-Westphalia fdd 789; RU temp. Ludwig the Pious (d. 840); secularised 1802[10] Frauenstift. RA RC
Herrenalb Abbey Baden-Württemberg fdd 1147; RU nk; secularised 1536 Cistercian monastery. RA SC
Hersfeld Abbey Hesse fdd 736 x 742; RU 775; secularised 1606 / 1617 Benedictine monastery. RA RC
Irsee Abbey Bavaria fdd 1186; RU 1695; secularised 1802 Benedictine monastery. RA SC
Kaisheim Abbey (sometimes Kaisersheim Abbey) Bavaria fdd 1135; RU 1346, confirmed 1656[11]secularised 1802 Cistercian monastery. RA SC and RC
Kaufungen Abbey Hesse (Kassel) fdd 1017; RU probably from date of foundation; secularised 1527[12] Benedictine nunnery. RA
Kempten Abbey Bavaria fdd 752; RU 1062; secularised 1803 Benedictine monastery; Fürststift from 1524. RA / RF RF
Klingenmünster Abbey Rhineland-Palatinate fdd nk; RU before or in 9th century; secularised 1567 Benedictine abbey until 1490; then Herrenstift. RA / RP RC
Königsbronn Abbey Baden-Württemberg (Heidenheim) fdd 1303; RU nk; taken over and made Protestant by Württemberg in 1553[13] Cistercian monastery. RA
Kornelimünster Abbey North Rhine-Westphalia (Aachen) fdd 614; RU by mid-9th century; secularised 1802 Benedictine monastery. RA[14] RC
Kreuzlingen Abbey Switzerland fdd c 1125; RU c 1150; ceased to be part of the HRE in 1648 (dissolved 1848) Augustinian Canons. RA
Lindau Abbey Bavaria fdd early 9th century; RU 1466; secularised 1802 Frauenstift; RA.[15] SC
Lorsch Abbey Hesse (Darmstadt) fdd 764; RU c. 10th/11th centuries (?); secularised 1556 Benedictine monastery until 1248; thereafter Premonstratensian. RA SC
Malmedy Abbey Belgium fdd nk; RU nk; secularised 1794-95 Benedictine monastery. RA[16] RF
Marchtal Abbey (also Marchthal) Baden-Württemberg fdd before 776, re-fdd 1171; RU 1500; secularised 1803 Premonstratensian monastery. RA SC
Marmoutier Abbey; also Maursmünster[17] Alsace fdd 659 (?); RU 7th/8th centuries; secularised 1790 Benedictine monastery. RA SC
Maulbronn Abbey Baden-Württemberg fdd 1147; RU nk; mediatised by Württemberg 1504 (secularised 1555) Cistercian monastery. RA SC
Memleben Abbey Saxony-Anhalt fdd 975; RU temp. Otto II or Otto III; secularised 1548 Benedictine monastery. RA RC
Michaelsberg Abbey (also known as Siegburg Abbey) North Rhine-Westphalia (Siegburg) fdd 1064; RU 1512; mediatised 1676; secularised 1803 Benedictine monastery. RA RC
Mönchrot Abbey, also Mönchroth or Münchenroth Abbey; Rot Abbey or Rot an der Rot Abbey Baden-Württemberg (Rot an der Rot) fdd 1126; RU 1376; secularised 1803 Premonstratensian monastery. RA SC
Mondsee Abbey Austria fdd 748; RU 788; secularised 1791 Benedictine monastery. RA SC
Münster im St. Gregoriental[18] see Marmoutier Abbey
Murbach Abbey (incl Lüders) Alsace fdd 727; RU 782-783 (?); secularised 1789[19] Benedictine monastery. RF SC
Muri Abbey Switzerland fdd 1027; RU - none; ceased to be part of the HRE in 1648 (secularised 1798; re-established 1803)[20] Benedictine monastery. RA
Neresheim Abbey Baden-Württemberg fdd 1095; RU nk[21]; secularised 1802 Benedictine monastery. RA SC
Niedermünster Bavaria (Regensburg) fdd before 778; 2nd foundation 948 x 955; RU 1002; secularised 1803 Frauenstift. RA RC
Nordhausen chapter Thuringia fdd nk; RU by 1220; secularised 1802 Chapter of Nordhausen Cathedral. RA
Obermünster Bavaria (Regensburg) fdd early 9th century; RU temp. Emperor Henry II; secularised 1810 Benedictine nunnery, later Frauenstift. RA. RF from 1315 RC
Oberschönenfeld Abbey Bavaria fdd c. 1211 / 1248; RU nk; secularised 1803 Beguines until c 1211, then Cistercian nunnery, formalised from 1248. RA
Ochsenhausen Abbey Baden-Württemberg fdd 1093; RU 1495; secularised 1803 Benedictine monastery. RA SC
Odenheim Abbey (originally Wigoldsberg; later also Odenheim and Bruchsal) Baden-Württemberg fdd c. 1108; RU nk; secularised 1802-03 Benedictine monastery; Herrenstift from 1496. RA RC
Ottobeuren Abbey Bavaria fdd 764; RU 1299, regranted 1710[22]; secularised 1802 Benedictine monastery. RA SC
Petershausen Abbey Baden-Württemberg (Konstanz) fdd 983; RU temp Frederick II; secularised 1802 Benedictine monastery. RA SC
Pfäfers Abbey Switzerland fdd 731; RU 9th century (?); ceased to be part of HRE in 1648 (secularised 1798; re-established 1803) Benedictine monastery. RA
Prüfening Abbey Bavaria (Regensburg) fdd 1109; RU nk; secularised 1803 Benedictine monastery. RA SC
Prüm Abbey Rhineland-Palatinate fdd 720; RU 10th/11th centuries; secularised 1794 Benedictine monastery. RF[23] RF
Quedlinburg Abbey Saxony-Anhalt fdd 936; RU around time of foundation; Lutheran from 1540; secularised 1803 Frauenstift. RA RC
Recklinghausen Abbey (also Rechenhausen) North Rhine-Westphalia fdd nk; RU nk; mediatised by Essen Abbey, date nk RA
Reichenau Abbey Baden-Württemberg fdd 724; RU nk; Reichsunmittelbarkeit given up to Bishopric of Konstanz 1540 or 1548 Benedictine monastery. RA SC
Riddagshausen Abbey Brunswick fdd 1145/46; RU nk; mediatised 1569 by Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (secularised 1809) Cistercian monastery. RA
Roggenburg Abbey Bavaria fdd 1126; RU 1482 x 1485; secularised 1803 Premonstratensian monastery. RA SC
Rottenmünster Abbey Baden-Württemberg (Rottweil) fdd nk; RU nk; secularised 1803 (reopened 1898) Cistercian nunnery. RA SC
Saalfeld Abbey Thuringia (Saalfeld/Saale) fdd 1071; RU nk; secularised 1526 Benedictine monastery. RA
St. Bartholomäus cathedral chapter Hesse (Frankfurt am Main) fdd 852; RU nk; secularised 1803 Chapter of the Kaiserdom in Frankfurt. RP RC
St. Blaise's Abbey (the abbey itself was not reichsunmittelbar)[24] Baden-Württemberg fdd nk; RU - none;; secularised 1806 Benedictine monastery. RF on account of the County of Bonndorf
St. Emmeram's Abbey Bavaria (Regensburg) fdd c. 739; RU 1295; secularised 1803 Benedictine monastery. RA RC
St. Gall's Abbey Switzerland fdd 613; RU 13th century; secularised temporarily 1527-32; ceased to be part of the HRE in 1648 (finally secularised in 1798; not re-established) Benedictine monastery; later Fürstabtei. RA / RF SC
St. George's Abbey, Isny Baden-Württemberg (Isny im Allgäu) fdd 1096; RU 1781; secularised 1802 Benedictine monastery. RA SC
St. Giles' Abbey, Nuremberg (Schottenkloster Sankt Ägidien) Bavaria fdd c. 1140; RU nk; absorbed by Nuremberg (city) in 1525[25], as unable to document Reichsunmittelbarkeit[26] "Schottenkloster"; Benedictine monastery from 1418. RA
St. Ludger's Abbey Lower Saxony (Helmstedt) fdd c. 800; RU nk; secularised 1802 Benedictine monastery. RA RC
St. Maximin's Abbey, Trier Rhineland-Palatinate fdd 4th century; RU nk; mediatised in 16th century by Kurpfalz, but status not finalised until 1669, when Reichsunmittelbarkeit definitely given up to Elector of Trier Benedictine monastery. RA RC
St. Peter's Abbey in the Black Forest Baden-Württemberg fdd before 1073; RU nk; mediatised by Austria, date nk (15th century?) (secularised 1806) Benedictine monastery. RA
St. Ulrich's and St. Afra's Abbey, Augsburg Bavaria fdd 5th century (?); RU 1577 or 1643/44; secularised 1802 [27] Benedictine monastery from 1006 x 1012. RA RC
Salem Abbey aka Salmansweiler Baden-Württemberg fdd 1136; RU 1138 x 1152; secularised 1803 Cistercian monastery. RA SC
Schaffhausen Abbey Switzerland fdd nk; RU 1190; mediatised by the town of Schaffhausen, date nk; ceased to be part of HRE in 1648 Benedictine monastery. RA
Schänis Abbey Switzerland fdd 9th century; RU poss c 1045; secularised temporarily 1529-31; ceased to be part of the HRE in 1648 (finally secularised in 1811) Frauenstift. RA SC
Schussenried Abbey Baden-Württemberg fdd 1183; RU 1440; secularised 1803 Premonstratensian monastery. RA SC
Schuttern Abbey[28] Baden-Württemberg fdd 603; RU c. 8th century; secularised 1803 Benedictine monastery. RA SC
Selz Abbey Baden, later Alsace fdd c. 991; RU from 992; mediatised by Kurpfalz during the Reformation (secularised 1803) Benedictine monastery / nunnery. RA
Söflingen Abbey (sometimes Söfflingen) Baden-Württemberg (Ulm) fdd nk; RU nk; secularised 1802 or 1803 [29] Poor Clares. RA SC
Stablo or Stavelot Abbey (also Stablingen) Belgium fdd c. 650; RU nk (before 12th century); secularised 1794-95 Benedictine monastery. RF[30] RF
Stein am Rhein Abbey Switzerland fdd 9th century on the Hohentwiel; moved to Stein am Rhein c. 1007; RU nk; secularised by Zürich 1521 x 1526 RA
Thorn Abbey The Netherlands (Limburg) fdd 10th century; RU c 1000 (?); secularised 1794 Frauenstift. RA RC
Ursberg Abbey[31] Bavaria fdd 1126 x 1128; RU 1143; secularised 1803 Premonstratensian monastery. RA SC
Waldsassen Abbey Bavaria fdd 1128 x 1132; RU 1177; mediatised by Kurpfalz 1543 (secularised 1803; reopened as Cistercian nunnery 1863) Cistercian monastery. RA SC
Walkenried Abbey Thuringia fdd 1127; RU 1542; secularised 1648 Cistercian monastery. RA RC
Weingarten Abbey Baden-Württemberg fdd 1056; RU 1274; secularised 1803 Benedictine monastery. RA SC
Weissenau Abbey Baden-Württemberg (Ravensburg) fdd 1145; RU c. 1257; secularised 1802 Premonstratensian monastery. RA SC
Weissenburg Abbey Alsace fdd 7th century; RU nk; ceased to be part of the HRE in 1648 (secularised c. 1798) Reichspropstei. RP / RF[32] RF
Werden Abbey North Rhine-Westphalia (Essen) fdd 799; RU 877; secularised 1803 Benedictine monastery. RA RC
Wettenhausen Abbey Bavaria fdd 1130[33]; RU nk; secularised 1802 Augustinian Canons. RA SC
Zwiefalten Abbey Baden-Württemberg fdd 1089; RU 1750; secularised 1802 Benedictine monastery. RA SC

List B: Reichsmatrikel 1521

The Matrikel of 1521 included a number of religious houses which have not been identified:

Religious house Location Dates Description and Imperial status
Beckenried Abbey[34] Switzerland ceased to be part of the HRE in 1648 RA
Blankenburg Abbey nk[35] nk nk
Brunnen Abbey Landstrass, Carinthia (Austria) nk nk
Hynoltshusen Abbey nk[36] nk monastery
Kitzingen Abbey nk nk monastery
Rockenhausen nk[37] nk RA
St. Johann (St. John's Abbey) nk nk nk

Inclusion in the 1521 Reichsmatrikel is not by itself conclusive evidence that a particular religious house was in fact an Imperial abbey, and the status of the following abbey listed in the Matrikel is questionable in the absence of further confirmation from other sources:

Religious house Location Dates Description and Imperial status
St. John's Abbey in the Thurtal (Sant Johans im Turital) Switzerland (Alt St. Johann, later Nesslau) fdd. before 1152; RU nk (if at all); subordinated to St. Gall's Abbey 1555; ceased to be part of the HRE 1648 (dissolved 1805) Benedictine monastery. Imperial status unknown

List C: Imperial abbeys not named in the Matrikel

For a variety of reasons a quantity of religious houses that possessed, or claimed, the status of Imperial immediacy either did not attend the Reichstag, or were not listed in the surviving Matrikel. The following list is very far from complete, and possibly some of those listed may not in fact have been reichsunmittelbar.

Religious house Location Dates Description and Imperial status
Amorbach Abbey Bavaria
Munsterbilzen Abbey Belgium
Nienburg Abbey Saxony-Anhalt fdd 975; RU temp. Otto II; mediatised 1166 by the Archbishop of Magdeburg; secularised 1563 by the Prince of Anhalt-Dessau Benedictine monastery. RA RC
Nivelles Abbey Belgium
Schöntal Abbey[38] Baden-Württemberg fdd. 1157; RU from 1418 to 1495; secularised 1803 Cistercian; RA
Tegernsee Abbey Bavaria
Wiblingen Abbey Baden-Württemberg, Ulm fdd. 1037; RU from 1701; secularised 1806 Benedictine; RA


  1. reichsunmittelbar but remained subordinate to Salem Abbey
  2. in 1792 the "Gefürstete Äbtissin zu Buchau" was listed among the Swabian Counts, not the Prelates
  3. The abbots became the Bishops of Corvey; the territory was later part of the Prince-Bishopric of Paderborn
  4. the traditional date of 614 is not borne out by archaeological investigation
  5. listed in the 1521 Matrikel but not in that of 1755
  6. possibly as early as 732
  7. from 1752 the abbots were also the Prince-Bishops of Fulda
  8. The abbey asserted Reichsunmittelbarkeit but owned no reichsunmittelbar estates, and was claimed till 1709 by Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
  9. 1248 is the year of the charter confirming status, but probably Cistercian in observance from c. 1237 x 1244
  10. or possibly 1810
  11. status not recognised by the Wittelsbachs, who were the Vögte; legal agreement reached with their successor in 1656
  12. given to the Hessische Ritterschaft 1532; still extant as a private foundation
  13. remained Protestant despite failed attempts to revert to Catholicism in 1630-32 and 1635-1648; wound up in 1710
  14. possibly later a Reichsfürstabtei
  15. possibly later a Reichsfürstabtei.
  16. formed a single principality with Stablo Abbey
  17. "Münster im St Georgental" or "St. Grigoriental" in the Matrikel of 1521 also seem to refer to Marmoutier
  18. mentioned in 1521 Matrikel
  19. effectively French since 1648, but anomalously remained legally part of the HRE
  20. The abbot of Muri was created a Reichsfürst in 1701
  21. The abbey's status was the subject of litigation with Öttingen until after 1760
  22. RU lost when abbey was mediatised by Bishops of Augsburg (date nk); RU was regranted 1710, but the Abbot did not regain a seat in the Reichstag
  23. status later assumed by the Archbishop of Trier
  24. the Prince-Abbot of St. Blaise's had princely status not because of the abbey itself but because the abbey had acquired the County of Bonndorf, which carried princely status with it from 1609: 1792 Matrikel: Fürst u. Abt zu St. Blasien wegen der gefürsteten Grafschaft Bonndorf
  25. date sometimes given as 1567, but cf next note
  26. in 1526 Melanchthon set up a Gymnasium in the buildings; church and monastery burnt down 1696
  27. The abbey was made reichsunmittelbar in 1577 but its status was challenged by the Bishop of Augsburg in litigation until 1643/44
  28. not to be confused with Schottern Abbey in Austria, secularised in the 15th century
  29. The abbey's status has been questioned
  30. formed a single principality with Malmedy Abbey
  31. not to be confused with Urspring Abbey
  32. status later assumed by Bishop of Speyer
  33. on site of earlier foundation from 982
  34. there is no trace of a religious house at any time located in the village of Beckenried
  35. attributed, by sources on the Heraldica website either to Blankenberg in Lorraine or to a place "Blankenburg" near Oldenburg
  36. Honnecourt near Cambrai has been suggested see Heraldica website
  37. a location near Kaiserslautern has been suggested, or possibly Rönkhausen Abbeysee Heraldica website
  38. not to be confused with Schönthal Priory in Bavaria, which was not reichsunmittelbar


In German:

  • Matthäi, George, 1877: Die Klosterpolitik Kaiser Heinrichs II. Ein Beitrag zur *Geschichte der Reichsabteien. Grünberg i.Schl.
  • Brennich, Max, 1908: Die Besetzung der Reichsabteien in den Jahren 1138 - 1209. Greifswald.
  • Polzin, Johannes: Die Abtswahlen in den Reichsabteien von 1024 - 1056.
  • Riese, Heinrich, 1911: Die Besetzung der Reichsabteien in den Jahren 1056 - 1137.
  • Feierabend, Hans, 1913, repr. 1971: Die politische Stellung der deutschen Reichsabteien während des Investiturstreites. Breslau 1913; Aalen 1971
  • Wehlt, Hans-Peter, 1970: Reichsabtei und König
  • Vogtherr, Thomas, 2000: Die Reichsabteien der Benediktiner und das Königtum im hohen Mittelalter (900–1125) (Mittelalter-Forschungen, vol. 5)

External links


ru:Имперское аббатство th:ราชสังฆาจักร uk:Імперське абатство

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