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Legal intoxicants

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Intoxicants are intoxicating drugs which are not prohibited by the United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs and which people who are seeking intoxication use. The most commonly used intoxicant is alcohol but many others are used including native intoxicating plants historically used by indigenous cultures and modern chemical intoxicating substances that have not been defined as illegal.

In recent years some legal intoxicants, such as BZP products have become a popular alternative to illegal street drugs like ecstasy and cocaine because they are easier (or cheaper) to get hold of and are often seen as a safer alternative because they are not 'cut' with other potentially dangerous substances.

Stimulants

Caffeine

A mild stimulant used most commonly via coffee.

Nicotine

Nicotine is present in tobacco.

Mephedrone

An analogue of Methcathinone, with similar but milder effects.

Ephedrine

A phenylethylamine that is a precursor to amphetamine, slightly similar effects.

Hallucinogens/psychoactive

Salvia Divinorum

Salvia divinorum is a powerful psychoactive plant[1] that has long been used as an entheogen by the indigenous Mazatec shamans for healing during spirit journeys. The plant is found in Oaxaca, Mexico. It is illegal in some states and many countries.

Hawaiian Baby Woodrose

Hawaiian Baby Woodrose (Argyreia nervosa) is a perennial climbing vine, also known as Elephant Creeper and Woolly Morning Glory. The seeds of the plant contain the alkaloid LSA (ergine), which is a chemical analog of LSD. As such, they are sometimes used as a "legal" psychedelic. Ipomea Morning Glory seeds also contain LSA, but at a lower level. However, as LSA is a DEA Schedule III substance in the USA, the ingestion of LSA-containing plants could be prosecutable. In most countries in the EU however, it is unregulated.

San Pedro cactus

San Pedro cactus contains mescaline which is illegal when isolated. This is the same active substance in the more famous peyote cactus which can only be used legally by some native American tribes which have a history of using the plant. San Pedro can be bought and sold and the tissues can also be bought (primary container) from online shops. In many countries, however, it is a serious crime to buy, sell or consume the cactus for reasons of intoxication (any other reason besides ornamental use), because the active ingredient in the cactus, mescaline, is a scheduled substance in those countries, regardless of its small relative harm compared to other drugs. Peruvian Torch and Peyote are both very similar to San Pedro, both being cacti that contain mescaline, and are used as entheogens.

Ololiúqui

Rivea corymbosa, called ololiúqui by the Aztecs, is a species of morning glory plants, native throughout Latin America. The seeds are used as a hallucinogen.

Tlitliltzin

Another morning glory, Ipomoea tricolor (called tlitliltzin by the Aztecs and often sold as "Heavenly Blue Morning Glory"), has similar effects as ololiúqui.

Nutmeg

Nutmeg contains Myristicin and Elemicin which are both psychoactive chemicals.[2]

Sinicuichi

Sinicuichi, a shrub in the genus Heimia, is widely reported to be psychoactive. [3]

Ergot

Ergots are parasitic fungi of the genus Claviceps that infect grains and grasses. Ergots produce hallucinogenic substances, but also alkaloids that have negative effects on the circulatory and nervous systems.

Toad

The skin and venom of some toads (namely of the genus Bufo and family Bufonidae) contain psychoactive ingredients, 5-meo-dmt and/or bufotenin, which are consumed once extracted from the toad.[4]

DXM

Dextromethorphan is an antitussive (cough-suppressant) drug found in many over-the-counter cold and cough medicines. When taken at doses higher than are medically recommended, dextromethorphan is classified as a dissociative hallucinogenic drug. It can produce effects similar to those of the controlled substances PCP and ketamine.

Deliriants

The deliriants (or anticholinergics) are a special class of dissociative which are antagonists for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

Datura

Datura species (especially Datura stramonium and Datura wrightii) are common poisonous weeds in the Nightshade Family. They contain tropane alkaloids that are sometimes used as a hallucinogen. The active ingredients are atropine, hyoscyamine and scopolamine which are classified as deliriants, or anticholinergics. Datura use has been associated with hospital visits and death in cases of overdose, and it has earned a reputation of being a rather dangerous substance due to the possible loss of control over ones self.

Diphenhydramine

Diphenhydramine is an antihistamine and a sedative and is available over the counter for allergy relief and for use as a sleep aid. Recreational users take many times (>250mg) the therapeutic dose to achieve a state of delirium.

Depressants

Alcohol

Alcoholic beverages contain the psychoactive drug, ethanol (grain alcohol), with a depressant effect. They are legal in most of the non-Muslim world, although their use is restricted almost everywhere. Alcohol is considered a legal class A drug in most jurisdictions (Bufton, 2007).

Kava (Kavalactone)

Kava (Piper methysticum) is an ancient crop of the western Pacific. The onset of a moderate potency kava drink is 20-30 minutes, with effects usually lasting for two hours but effects can be felt up to eight hours after ingestion.

Diethyl Ether

A solvent sedative used as medically as an anestesic and recreationally for its effects similar to alcohol. It is more potent then alcohol and has less "hang over" effect. It is generally legal due its wide use as lab chemical and solvent for industry.

Inhalants

Inhalants are commonly used in many parts of the world for their powerful but short lived psychoactive effects; the most common group to use inhalants are young people.

Nitrous Oxide

One of the most common inhalants, nitrous oxide is also known as "whippits", after the common brand-name of the charging cartridges used in food service whipped-cream dispensers, or NOS after the brand-name Nitrous Oxide Systems which produce Nitrous Oxide-based power enhancement systems for internal combustion engines (commonly used by drag racers). Most inhalants are directly neurotoxic, except for nitrous, amyl nitrate, and ether to an extent. Although nitrous depletes vitamin B-12 from the body, this is not a concern for the occasional user since most animal foods have the vitamin, particularly beef, lamb, and pork (this is an issue for vegetarians and vegans). However, chronic use can cause a severe B-12 deficiency, which can cause psychological, neurological, and other physiological harm. Nitrous Oxide is commonly administered by using a charging cartridge and whipped cream dispenser to inflate a baloon, the contents of which is then inhaled in one deep breath. The 'high' can be extremely intense, often causing the user to laugh uncontrolably and producing a disassociative ( or 'spaced out') sensation, but this usually lasts for less than a minute.

Nitrites

Nitrites include Amyl, Butyl, Methyl, Isopropol, Isobutal, Ethyl, Alkyl and the newer "US" formula containing Cyclohexyl Nitrite(the only nitrite to not require a prescription, for now). Originally used as anti-anginal heart medication to lower blood pressure and even as an antidote to Cyanide Poisoning. Products are advertised as odorizers, leather cleaner and video head cleaner. Brands include "RUSH!", Jungle Juice(Plus!), Locker Room and many others. Popular among the homosexual, rave and inhalant abuser community. Combination with Nitrous Oxide is referred to as 'Space Surfing' because of the intense synergistic effect of the two inhalants.

Opioids

An opioid is a chemical substance that has a morphine-like action in the body, however most opioids are not legal for over the counter purchase. Codeine can be purchased over the counter in some jurisdictions, but it's usually mixed with Paracetamol to discourage abuse. The paracetamol, however, can be removed fairly easily by manipulation of the different solubility of paracetamol and codeine in cold water. [5]

Kratom

Non-opiate herbal drug native to Southeast Asia. The leaves are used as an opiate substitute, and around the world for opiate addiction recovery because it binds to the mu opioid receptors as all opioids do. It is also used as a stimulant (in low doses). Higher doses produce a more sedative effect.

Kratom is illegal in Australia, Malaysia, Myanmar, and Thailand.[6]

References

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This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original article was at Legal intoxicants. The list of authors can be seen in the page history.

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