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Saint John Chrysostom
East: Great Hierarch and Ecumenical Teacher
West: Bishop and Doctor of the Church
Born c. 347, Antioch
Died 14 September 407[1], Comana in Pontus [1]
Venerated in Anglicanism
Eastern Orthodoxy
Oriental Orthodoxy
Roman Catholicism
Feast Eastern Orthodoxy
13 November (Repose—transferred from 14 September)
27 January (Translation of Relics)
30 January (Three Holy Hierarchs)
Western Christianity
13 September (Repose—transferred from 14 September)
Attributes Vested as a Bishop, holding a Gospel Book or scroll, right hand raised in blessing. He is depicted as emaciated from fasting, a high forehead, balding with dark hair and small beard. Symbols: beehive, a white dove, a pan[2], chalice on a bible, pen and inkhorn
Patronage Constantinople, education, epilepsy, lecturers, orators, preachers [3]

John Chrysostom (c. 347–407, Greek: Ἰωάννης ὁ Χρυσόστομος), Archbishop of Constantinople, was an important Early Church Father. He is known for his eloquence in preaching and public speaking, his denunciation of abuse of authority by both ecclesiastical and political leaders, the Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, and his ascetic sensibilities. After his death (or, according to some sources, during his life) he was given the Greek surname chrysostomos, meaning "golden mouthed", rendered in English as Chrysostom.[1][2]

The Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches honor him as a saint and count him among the Three Holy Hierarchs, together with Saints Basil the Great and Gregory Nazianzus. He is recognized by the Eastern Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic Church as a saint and Doctor of the Church. Churches of the Western tradition, including the Roman Catholic Church, some Anglican provinces, and parts of the Lutheran Church, commemorate him on 13 September. Some Lutheran and many Anglican provinces commemorate him on the traditional Eastern feast day of 27 January. The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria recognizes John Chrysostom as a saint (feast days: 16 Thout and 17 Hathor).[3]

John is known in Christianity chiefly as a preacher, theologian and liturgist, particularly in the Eastern Orthodox Church. Among his sermons, eight directed against Judaizing Christians remain controversial for their impact on the development of Christian antisemitism.[4][5][6]. He was also active in destruction of pagan symbols and places of worship, including the temple of Artemis at Ephesus.


John Chrysostom Louvre OA3970

Byzantine 11th-century soapstone relief of John Chrysostom, Louvre

Early life and education

John was born in Antioch in 349.[7] Different scholars describe his mother Anthusa as a pagan[8] or as a Christian, and his father was a high ranking military officer.[9] John's father died soon after his birth and he was raised by his mother. He was baptised in 368 or 373 and tonsured as a reader (one of the minor orders of the Church).[10] As a result of his mother's influential connections in the city, John began his education under the pagan teacher Libanius. From Libanius John acquired the skills for a career in rhetoric, as well as a love of the Greek language and literature.[11] As he grew older, however, he became more deeply committed to Christianity and went on to study theology under Diodore of Tarsus, founder of the re-constituted School of Antioch. According to the Christian historian Sozomen, Libanius was supposed to have said on his deathbed that John would have been his successor "if the Christians had not taken him from us".[12] He lived with extreme asceticism and became a hermit in about 375; he spent the next two years continually standing, scarcely sleeping, and committing the Bible to memory. As a consequence of these practices, his stomach and kidneys were permanently damaged and poor health forced him to return to Antioch.[13]

Priesthood and service in Antioch

He was ordained as a deacon in 381 by Saint Meletius of Antioch, and was ordained as a presbyter (that is, a priest) in 386 by Bishop Flavian I of Antioch. Over the course of twelve years, he gained popularity because of the eloquence of his public speaking, especially his insightful expositions of Bible passages and moral teaching. The most valuable of his works from this period are his Homilies on various books of the Bible. He emphasised charitable giving and was concerned with the spiritual and temporal needs of the poor. He also spoke out against abuse of wealth and personal property:

Do you wish to honour the body of Christ? Do not ignore him when he is naked. Do not pay him homage in the temple clad in silk, only then to neglect him outside where he is cold and ill-clad. He who said: "This is my body" is the same who said: "You saw me hungry and you gave me no food", and "Whatever you did to the least of my brothers you did also to me"... What good is it if the Eucharistic table is overloaded with golden chalices when your brother is dying of hunger? Start by satisfying his hunger and then with what is left you may adorn the altar as well.[14]

His straightforward understanding of the Scriptures – in contrast to the Alexandrian tendency towards allegorical interpretation – meant that the themes of his talks were practical, explaining the Bible's application to everyday life. Such straightforward preaching helped Chrysostom to garner popular support. He founded a series of hospitals in Constantinople to care for the poor.[15]

One incident that happened during his service in Antioch illustrates the influence of his sermons. When Chrysostom arrived in Antioch, the bishop of the city had to intervene with Emperor Theodosius I on behalf of citizens who had gone on a rampage mutilating statues of the Emperor and his family. During the weeks of Lent in 397, John preached twenty-one sermons in which he entreated the people to see the error of their ways. These made a lasting impression on the general population of the city: many pagans converted to Christianity as a result of the sermons. As a result, Theodosius' vengeance was not as severe as it might have been.[16]

Archbishop of Constantinople

St.Patrick's Cathedral NYC2

A sculpture of John Chrysostom in Saint Patrick's Cathedral, New York City

In 398, John was requested, against his will, to take the position of Archbishop of Constantinople. He deplored the fact that Imperial court protocol would now assign to him access to privileges greater than the highest state officials. During his time as Archbishop he adamantly refused to host lavish social gatherings, which made him popular with the common people, but unpopular with wealthy citizens and the clergy. His reforms of the clergy were also unpopular with these groups. He told visiting regional preachers to return to the churches they were meant to be serving—without any payout.[17] In 401, Chrysostom led a mob to finally destroy the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus[18] (one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, although it had been destroyed and rebuilt several times by then).

His time in Constantinople was more tumultuous than his time in Antioch. Theophilus, the Patriarch of Alexandria, wanted to bring Constantinople under his sway and opposed John's appointment to Constantinople. Being an opponent of Origen's teachings, he accused John of being too partial to the teachings of that theologian. Theophilus had disciplined four Egyptian monks (known as "the tall brothers") over their support of Origen's teachings. They fled to and were welcomed by John. He made another enemy in Aelia Eudoxia, the wife of the eastern Emperor Arcadius, who assumed (perhaps with justification) that his denunciations of extravagance in feminine dress were aimed at herself.[16]

Depending on one's outlook, John was either tactless or fearless when denouncing offences in high places. An alliance was soon formed against him by Eudoxia, Theophilus and others of his enemies. They held a synod in 403 (the Synod of the Oak) to charge John, in which his connection to Origen was used against him. It resulted in his deposition and banishment. He was called back by Arcadius almost immediately, as the people became "tumultuous" over his departure.[19] There was also an earthquake the night of his arrest, which Eudoxia took for a sign of God's anger, prompting her to ask Arcadius for John's reinstatement.[20] Peace was short-lived. A silver statue of Eudoxia was erected in the Augustaion, near his cathedral. John denounced the dedication ceremonies. He spoke against her in harsh terms: "Again Herodias raves; again she is troubled; she dances again; and again desires to receive John's head in a charger,"[21] an allusion to the events surrounding the death of John the Baptist. Once again he was banished, this time to the Caucasus in Armenia.[22]

Death and Canonization

File:Apostoles Constantinople.JPG

Pope Innocent I protested at this banishment, but to no avail. Innocent sent a delegation to intercede on behalf of John in 405. It was led by Gaudentius of Brescia; Gaudentius and his companions, two bishops, encountered many difficulties and never reached their goal of entering Constantinople.[23]

John wrote letters which still held great influence in Constantinople. As a result of this, he was further exiled to Pitiunt (Georgia) where his tomb is a shrine for pilgrims. He never reached this destination, as he died during the journey. His last words are said to have been, "δόξα τῷ θεῷ πάντων ἕνεκεν" (Glory be to God for all things).[20]

John came to be venerated as a saint soon after his death. His disciple, Saint Proclus, Patriarch of Constantinople (434-447), during services in the Church of Hagia Sophia, preached a sermon praising his teacher. He said, "O John, your life was filled with sorrow, but your death was glorious. Your grave is blessed and reward is great, by the grace and mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ O graced one, having conquered the bounds of time and place! Love has conquered space, unforgetting memory has annihilated the limits, and place does not hinder the miracles of the saint." This sermon helped to mobilize public opinion, and the patriarch received permission from the emperor to return Chrysostom's relics to Constantinople, where they were enshrined in the Church of the Holy Apostles.

The Eastern Orthodox Church commemorates him as a "Great Ecumenical Teacher", together with Basil the Great and Gregory the Theologian. These three saints, in addition to having their own individual commemorations throughout the year, are commemorated together on 30 January, a feast known as the Synaxis of the Three Hierarchs.

There are several feast days dedicated to him:

  • 27 January, Translation of the relics of St John Chrysostom from Comana to Constantinople
  • 30 January, Synaxis of the Three Great Hierarchs
  • 14 September, Repose of St John Chrysostom
  • 13 November, St John Chrysostom the Archbishop of Constantinople


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Nicephorus III and chrysostome BnF Coislin79 fol2v

The Byzantine emperor Nicephorus III receives a book of sermons from John Chrysostom, the Archangel Michael stands on his left (11th cent. illuminated manuscript).

Known as "the greatest preacher in the early church", John's sermons have been one of his greatest lasting legacies.[24] Chrysostom's extant homiletical works are vast, including many hundreds of exegetical sermons on both the New Testament (especially the works of Saint Paul) and the Old Testament (particularly on Genesis). Among his extant exegetical works are sixty-seven homilies on Genesis, fifty-nine on the Psalms, ninety on the Gospel of Matthew, eighty-eight on the Gospel of John, and fifty-five on the Acts of the Apostles.[25]

The sermons were written down by the audience and subsequently circulated, revealing a style that tended to be direct and greatly personal, but was also formed by the rhetorical conventions of his time and place.[26] In general, his homiletical theology displays much characteristic of the Antiochian school (i.e., somewhat more literal in interpreting Biblical events), but he also uses a good deal of the allegorical interpretation more associated with the Alexandrian school.[25]

John's social and religious world was formed by the continuing and pervasive presence of paganism in the life of the city. One of his regular topics was the paganism in the culture of Constantinople, and in his sermons he thunders against popular pagan amusements: the theatre, horseraces, and the revelry surrounding holidays.[27] In particular, he criticized Christians for taking part in such activities:

If you ask [Christians] who is Amos or Obadiah, how many apostles there were or prophets, they stand mute; but if you ask them about the horses or drivers, they answer with more solemnity than sophists or rhetors".[28]

John's homilies on Saint Paul's Epistles proceed linearly, methodically treating the texts verse by verse, often going into great detail. He shows a concern to be understood by laypeople, sometimes offering colorful analogies and practical examples. At other times, he offers extended comments clearly intended to address the theological subtleties of a heretical misreading, or to demonstrate the presence of a deeper theme.

One of the recurring features of John's sermons is his emphasis on care for the needy.[29] Echoing themes found in the Gospel of Matthew, he calls upon the rich to lay aside materialism in favor of helping the poor, often employing all of his rhetorical skills to shame wealthy people to abandon conspicuous consumption:

It is not possible for one to be wealthy and just at the same time.
Do you pay such honor to your excrements as to receive them into a silver chamber-pot when another man made in the image of God is perishing in the cold?[30]


Outside of his sermons, a number of John's other treatises have had a lasting influence. One such work is John's early treatise Against Those Who Oppose the Monastic Life, written while he was a deacon (sometime before 386), which was directed to parents, pagan as well as Christian, whose sons were contemplating a monastic vocation. The book is a sharp attack on the values of Antiochene upper-class urban society written by someone who was a member of that class.[31] Chrysostom also writes that, already in his day, it was customary for Antiochenes to send their sons to be educated by monks.[32] Other important treatises written by John include On the Priesthood (one of his earlier works), Instructions to Catechumens, and On the Incomprehensibility of the Divine Nature.[33] In addition, he wrote a series of letters to the deaconess Olympias, of which seventeen are extant.[34]

Sermons on Jews and Judaizing Christians

During his first two years as a presbyter in Antioch (386-387), John denounced Jews and Judaizing Christians in a series of eight sermons delivered to Christians in his congregation who were taking part in Jewish festivals and other Jewish observances.[35] It is disputed whether the main target were specifically Judaizers or Jews in general. His homilies were expressed in the conventional manner, utilizing the uncompromising rhetorical form known as the psogos (Greek: blame).

One of the purposes of these homilies was to prevent Christians from participating in Jewish customs, and thus prevent the perceived erosion of Chrysostom's flock. In his sermons, John criticized those "Judaizing Christians", who were participating in Jewish festivals and taking part in other Jewish observances, such as the shabbat, submitted to circumcision and made pilgrimage to Jewish holy places.[36] John claimed that on the shabbats and Jewish festivals synagogues were full of Christians, especially women, who loved the solemnity of the Jewish liturgy, enjoyed listening to the shofar on Rosh Hashanah, and applauded famous preachers in accordance with the contemporary custom.[37] A more recent theory is that he instead tried to persuade Jewish Christians, who for centuries had kept connections with Jews and Judaism, to choose between Judaism and Christianity.[38]

In Greek the sermons are called Kata Ioudaiōn (Κατὰ Ιουδαίων), which is translated as Adversus Judaeos in Latin and Against the Jews in English.[39] The original Benedictine editor of the homilies, Bernard de Montfaucon, gives the following footnote to the title: "A discourse against the Jews; but it was delivered against those who were Judaizing and keeping the fasts with them [the Jews]."[40]


Beyond his preaching, the other lasting legacy of John is his influence on Christian liturgy. Two of his writings are particularly notable. He harmonized the liturgical life of the Church by revising the prayers and rubrics of the Divine Liturgy, or celebration of the Holy Eucharist. To this day, Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches of the Byzantine Rite typically celebrate the Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom as the normal eucharistic liturgy, although his exact connection with it remains a matter of debate among experts.[41] These same churches also read his Catechetical Homily (Hieratikon) at every Easter, the greatest feast of the church year.[42]

Legacy and influence

During a time when city clergy were subject to criticism for their high lifestyle, John was determined to reform his clergy in Constantinople. These efforts were met with resistance and limited success. He was an excellent preacher[41] whose sermons and writings are still studied and quoted. As a theologian, he has been and continues to be very important in Eastern Christianity, and is generally considered the most prominent doctor of the Greek Church, but has been less important to Western Christianity. His writings have survived to the present day more so than any of the other Greek Fathers.[1] He rejected the contemporary trend for allegory, instead speaking plainly and applying Bible passages and lessons to everyday life. His exile demonstrated the rivalry between Constantinople and Alexandria for recognition as the preeminent Eastern See, while in the west, the Pope's primacy remained unquestioned.

Influence on the Catechism of the Catholic Church and clergy

John's influence on church teachings is interwoven throughout the current Catechism of the Catholic Church (revised 1992). The Catechism cites him in eighteen sections, particularly his reflections on the purpose of prayer and the meaning of the Lord's Prayer:

Consider how [Jesus Christ] teaches us to be humble, by making us see that our virtue does not depend on our work alone but on grace from on high. He commands each of the faithful who prays to do so universally, for the whole world. For he did not say "thy will be done in me or in us", but "on earth", the whole earth, so that error may be banished from it, truth take root in it, all vice be destroyed on it, virtue flourish on it, and earth no longer differ from heaven.[43]

Christian clerics, such as R.S. Storr, refer to him as "one of the most eloquent preachers who ever since apostolic times have brought to men the divine tidings of truth and love", and the 19th-century John Henry Cardinal Newman described John as a "bright, cheerful, gentle soul; a sensitive heart."[44]

Music and literature

John's liturgical legacy has inspired several musical compositions. Particularly noteworthy are Sergei Rachmaninoff's Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, Op.31, composed in 1910,[45] one of his two major unaccompanied choral works; Pyotr Tchaikovsky's Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, Op.41; and Ukrainian composer Kyrylo Stetsenko's Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom; and Arvo Pärt's Litany, which sets seven sentence prayers of Chrysostom's Divine Liturgy for chorus and orchestra.

James Joyce's novel Ulysses includes a character named Mulligan who brings 'Chrysostomos' into another character's mind because Mulligan's gold-stopped teeth and his gift of the gab earn him the title which St. John Chrysostom's preaching earned him, 'golden-mouthed':[46] Chrysostomos also refers to Stephen, the independent and exiled genius: "He peered sideways up and gave a long low whistle of call, then paused awhile in rapt attention, his even white teeth glistening here and there with gold points. Chrysostomos." [47]


John Chrysostom died in the city of Comana in the year 407 on his way to his place of exile. There his relics remained until 438 when, thirty years after his death, they were transferred to Constantinople during the reign of the Empress Eudoxia's son, the Emperor Theodosius II (408-450), under the guidance of John's disciple, St. Proclus, who by that time had become Archbishop of Constantinople (434-447).

Most of John's relics were looted from Constantinople by Crusaders in 1204 and taken to Rome, but some were returned to the Orthodox on 27 November 2004 by Pope John Paul II.[48]

However, the skull of St John, having been kept at the Vatopedi Monastery on Mount Athos in northern Greece, was not among the relics that were taken by the crusaders in the 13th century. In 1655, at the request of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, the skull was taken to Russia, for which the monastery was compensated in the sum of 2000 rubles. In 1693, having received a request from the Vatopedi Monastery for the return of St John's skull, Tsar Peter the Great ordered that the skull remain in Russia but that the monastery was to be paid 500 rubles every four years. The Russian state archives document these payments up until 1735.

The skull was kept at the Moscow Kremlin, in the Cathedral of the Dormition of the Mother of God, until 1920, when it was confiscated by the Soviets and placed in the Museum of Silver Antiquities. In 1988, in connection with the 1000th Anniversary of the Baptism of Russia, the Head, together with other important relics, was returned to the Russian Orthodox Church and kept at the Epiphany Cathedral, until being moved to the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour after its restoration.

However, today, the Vatopedi Monastery posits a rival claim to possession of the skull of St John Chrysostom, and there a skull is venerated by pilgrims to the monastery as that of St John.

The right hand of St John is preserved on Mount Athos, and numerous smaller relics are scattered throughout the world.[49]


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "St John Chrysostom" in the Catholic Encyclopedia, available online; retrieved March 20, 2007.
  2. Pope Vigilius, Constitution of Pope Vigilius, 553
  3. Coptic synaxarium
  4. John Chrysostom, Discourses against Judaizing Christians, translated by Paul W. Harkins. The Fathers of the Church; v. 68 (Washington: Catholic University of America Press, 1979)
  5. Walter Laqueur, The Changing Face of Antisemitism: From Ancient Times To The Present Day, (Oxford University Press: 2006), p. 48. ISBN 0-19-530429-2. 48
  6. Yohanan (Hans) Lewy, "John Chrysostom" in Encyclopaedia Judaica (CD-ROM Edition Version 1.0), Ed. Cecil Roth (Keter Publishing House: 1997). ISBN 965-07-0665-8.
  7. The date of John's birth is disputed. For a discussion see Robert Carter, "The Chronology of St. John Chrysostom's Early Life", in Traditio 18:357–64 (1962) Jean Dumortier, "La valeur historique du dialogue de Palladius et la chronologie de saint Jean Chrysostome", in Mélanges de science religieuse, 8:51–56 (1951). Carter dates his birth to the year 349. See also Robert Louis Wilken, John Chrysostom and the Jews: Rhetoric and Reality in the Late Fourth Century, (Berkeley: University of California Press:1983), p.5.
  8. "John Chrysostom", Encyclopaedia Judaica
  9. The Encyclopaedia Judaica describes Chrysostom's mother as a pagan. In Pauline Allen and Wendy Mayer, John Chrysostom, (Routledge:2000), p.5 ISBN 0-415-18252-2, she is described as a Christian.
  10. Wilken (p. 7) prefers 368 for the date of Chrysostom's baptism, the Encyclopaedia Judaica prefers the later date of 373.
  11. Wilken, p. 5.
  12. Sozomen (1995) [1890]. "Ecclesiastical History of Sozomen, Book VIII, Chapter II: Education, Training, Conduct, and Wisdom of the Great John Chrysostom". in Schaff, Philip and Wace, Henry (trs., eds.). Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Volume II: Socrates and Sozomenus Ecclesiastical Histories. Zenos, A. C. (rev., notes) (reprint ed.). Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers. pp. 399. ISBN 1-56563-118-8. Retrieved 2007-03-29. 
  13. Pauline Allen and Wendy Mayer, John Chrysostom, (Routledge:2000), p.6 ISBN 0-415-18252-2,
  14. John Chrysostom, In Evangelium S. Matthaei, hom. 50:3-4: PG 58, 508-509
  15. See Cajetan Baluffi, The Charity of the Church, trans. Denis Gargan (Dublin: M H Gill and Son, 1885), p. 39 and Alvin J. Schmidt, Under the Influence: How Christianity Transformed Civilization (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 2001), p. 152
  16. 16.0 16.1 Robert Wilken, "John Chrysostom" in Encyclopedia of Early Christianity, ed. Everett Ferguson (New York:Garland Publishing, 1997).
  17. David H. Farmer, The Oxford Dictionary of the Saints, second ed. (New York:Oxford University Press, 1987) p.232.
  18. John Freely, The Western Shores of Turkey: Discovering the Aegean and Mediterranean Coasts 2004, p. 148
  19. Socrates Scholasticus (1995) [1890]. "Book VI, Chapter XVI: Sedition on Account of John Chrysostom's Banishment". in Schaff, Philip and Wace, Henry (trs., eds.). Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Volume II: Socrates and Sozomenus Ecclesiastical Histories. Zenos, A. C. (rev., notes) (reprint ed.). Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers. pp. 149. ISBN 1-56563-118-8. Retrieved 2007-03-29. 
  20. 20.0 20.1 "St John Chrysostom the Archbishop of Constantinople". Orthodox Church in America. Retrieved 2007-03-29. 
  21. Socrates Scholasticus, op cit "Chapter XVIII: Of Eudoxia's Silver Statue", p. 150.
  22. "John Chrysostom" in The Oxford Dictionary of Church History, ed. Jerald C. Brauer (Philadelphia:Westminster Press, 1971).
  24. "John Chrysostom" in Encyclopedia of Early Christianity.
  25. 25.0 25.1 "John Chrysostom" in the Catholic Encyclopedia, online, retrieved March 20, 2007.
  26. Yohanan (Hans) Lewy, "John Chrysostom" in Encyclopaedia Judaica (CD-ROM Edition Version 1.0), Ed. Cecil Roth (Keter Publishing House: 1997). ISBN 965-07-0665-8.
  27. Wilken, p.30.
  28. John Chrysostom, quoted in Wilken, p.30
  29. Liebeschuetz, J.H.W.G. Barbarians and Bishops: Army, Church, and State in the age of Arcadius and Chrysostom, (Oxford: Clarendon Rress, 1990) pp.175-176
  30. John Chrysostom, quoted in Liebeschuetz, p.176
  31. Wilken, p.26.
  32. Thomas Woods, How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization, (Washington, D.C.: Regenery, 2005), ISBN 0-89526-038-7, p.44
  33. On the Priesthood was well-known already during Chrysostom's lifetime, and is cited by Jerome in 392 in his De Viris Illustribus, chapter 129
  34. Kirsch, Johann Peter (1911). "St. Olympias". Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 2009-11-17. 
  35. See Wilken, p.xv, and also "John Chrysostom" in Encyclopaedia Judaica
  36. Wilken, p.xv.
  37. "John Chrysostom" in Encyclopaedia Judaica.
  38. Rodney Stark, The Rise of Christianity. How the Obscure, Marginal Jesus Movement Became the Dominant Religious Force in the Western World in a Few Centuries, (Princeton University Press:1997)p.66-67.
  39. John Chrysostom, Discourses Against Judaizing Christians (vol. 68 of Fathers of the Church), trans. Paul W. Harkins (Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 1979) p.x
  40. Chrysostom, Discourses Against Judaizing Christians, p.xxxi)
  41. 41.0 41.1 Parry (2001), pp. 268-269
  42. Barker, Jason (2005). "Pascal Homily". Be Transformed. Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America, dept. of Youth Ministry. Retrieved 2009-11-17. 
  43. John Chrysostom, Hom. in Mt. 19,5: PG 57, 280.
  44. John Henry Newman, "St. Chrysostom" in The Newman Reader (Rambler:1859) available online(see esp. chapter 2). Retrieved March 20, 2007
  45. "The Divine Liturgy of St John Chrysostom, Op 31". Hyperion Records, Ltd.. 
  46. Blaimes (1996, 3).
  47. Joyce (1961, 3).
  48. Pope John Paul II. "Letter to the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, His Holiness Bartholomew I". Retrieved 2007-03-20. 
  49. "Thousands queue outside Cyprus church after reports of miracle-working relic". International Herald Tribune. 13 November 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-13. 


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  • Parry, David; David Melling (editors) (2001). The Blackwell Dictionary of Eastern Christianity. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0631189661. 
  • Pradels, W. (2002). "Lesbos Cod. Gr. 27 : The Tale of a Discovery", Zeitschrift für Antikes Christentum 6, pp. 81–89.
  • Pradels, W., R. Brändle, and M. Heimgartner (2001). "Das bisher vermisste Textstück in Johannes Chrysostomus, Adversus Judaeos, Oratio 2", Zeitschrift für Antikes Christentum 5, pp. 23–49.
  • Pradels, W., R. Brändle, and M. Heimgartner (2002). "The sequence and dating of the series of John Chrysostom's eight discourses Adversus Judaeos", Zeitschrift für Antikes Christentum 6, 90-116.
  • Schaff, Philip, and Henry Wace (eds.) (1890). Socrates, Sozomenus: Church Histories (A Select Library of Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, second series, vol. II). New York: The Christian Literature Company.
  • Stark, Rodney (1997). The Rise of Christianity. How the Obscure, Marginal Jesus Movement Became the Dominant Religious Force in the Western World in a Few Centuries. Princeton University Press.
  • Stephens, W.R.W. (1883). Saint John Chrysostom, His Life and Times. London: John Murray.
  • Stow, Kenneth (2006). Jewish Dogs, An Imagine and Its Interpreters: Continiuity in the Catholic-Jewish Encounter. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-5281-8.
  • Wilken, Robert Louis (1983). John Chrysostom and the Jews: Rhetoric and Reality in the Late Fourth Century. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Willey, John H. (1906). Chrysostom: The Orator. Cincinnati: Jennings and Graham.
  • Woods, Thomas (2005). How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization. Washington, D.C.: Regenery. ISBN 0-89526-038-7

Collected works

Widely used editions of Chrysostom's works are available in Greek, Latin, English, and French. The Greek edition is edited by Sir Henry Savile (eight volumes, Eton, 1613); the most complete Greek and Latin edition is edited by Bernard de Montfaucon (thirteen volumes, Paris, 1718–38) republished in 1834-40). There is an English translation in the first series of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers (London and New York, 1889–90). A selection of his writings has been published more recently in the original with facing French translation in Sources Chrétiennes.

External links


Orthodox Feast days

Preceded by
Patriarch of Constantinople
Succeeded by
Arsacius of Tarsus

bg:Йоан Златоуст

ca:Joan Crisòstom cs:Jan Zlatoústý da:Johannes Chrysostomoseo:Johano Krizostomogl:Xoán Crisóstomo ko:요한네스 크리소스토무스 hr:Sveti Ivan Zlatousti id:Yohanes Krisostomuska:იოანე ოქროპირი (კონსტანტინოპოლის პატრიარქი) sw:Yohane Krisostomo la:Iohannes Chrysostomus lt:Jonas Auksaburnis hu:Aranyszájú Szent János mk:Свети Јован Златоуст ml:യോഹന്നാൻ ക്രിസോസ്തമസ് arz:يوحنا فم الذهب ms:John Chrysostomja:ヨハネス・クリュソストモス no:Johannes Chrysostomos nn:Johannes Chrysostomospt:São João Crisóstomo ro:Ioan Chrysostom ru:Иоанн Златоуст sc:Giuanne Crisostomo sq:Shën Gjoni Gojëarti sk:Ján Zlatoústy sl:Sveti Janez Krizostom sr:Јован Златоусти sh:Jovan Hrizostom fi:Johannes Krysostomos sv:Johannes Chrysostomos uk:Святий Іван Золотоустий vi:Gioan Kim Khẩu zh:约翰一世 (君士坦丁堡牧首)

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