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January 1, 1887|
Sighet, Hungary (now Romania)
August 19, 1979 (aged 92)|
Kiryas Joel, USA
|Resting place||Kiryas Joel|
|Religion||Haredi Orthodox Judaism|
Rabbi Joel (Yoel) Teitelbaum, (Hebrew: יואל טייטלבוים) (born 1887  - died August 19, 1979) known as Reb Yoelish or the Satmar Rav (or Rebbe), was a prominent  Hungarian Hasidic rebbe and Talmudic scholar.  He was probably the best known Haredi opponent of all forms of modern political Zionism. But his opposition to Zionism was only part of a much wider approach to Judaism that revivified many Hungarian and Transylvanian Jewish survivors of the Holocaust and led to a renaissance of the 'Ungarish' (Hungary-originated) Hasidic community.
Teitelbaum was the second and youngest son, and fifth child of, Grand Rabbi Chananyah Yom Tov Lipa Teitelbaum (died 1904), who served as the rabbi of Sighet in Romania (at that time Hungary). A spirited child, he was renowned from a young age for his sharp tongue and brilliant analytical skills. During the 1920s, he served as the rabbi of Krole (Nagykaroly or Carei) near Satmar (Satu Mare). In 1928, he was invited to become the rabbi of Satmar, but vigorous opposition to his appointment led to bitter fighting and he was unable to take up his position until 1934. Upon his departure from Krole, the local community appointed Rabbi Abishel Horowitz, a son-in-law of the Spinka Rebbe.
Private life and family
By the age of 17, he married Chavah, the daughter of Rabbi Abraham Chaim Horowitz, the Plontcher Rav of Polaniec.  She died in the 1920s and, after a couple of years, he remarried to Alte Faige née Shapiro. He had three daughters from his first marriage: Esther, Rachel and Roysele. They all died in his lifetime: Esther died during childhood; Rachel died 6 months after she married her first cousin, R' Zalmen Leib Teitelbaum, the Rav of Sighet; and Roysele (the only of his children to survive the holocaust), who married R' Lipa Teitelbaum, the Semihaya Rav, and died in 1953 in the US. His second wife did not bear him any children. Thus, whilst his second wife survived him, he was not survived by any children. This was the source of a succession dispute after his death.
Teitelbaum was rescued from death in the Holocaust during 1944 in Nazi-controlled Transylvania as a result of a deal between a Hungarian Zionist official, Rudolph Kastner, and a deputy of Adolf Eichmann. Although Kastner intended to rescue only Hungarian Zionists on a special Kastner train bound for Switzerland, Teitelbaum and a few other religious Jews were also given seats. (Some of Teitelbaum's followers believe it was the result of a dream in which Kastner's father-in-law was informed by his late mother that if Teitelbaum were not included on the train, none of the passengers would survive.) En route, the train was re-routed by the Germans to Bergen-Belsen, where the 1600 passengers languished for four months while awaiting further negotiations between rescue activists and the Nazi leadership. In the end, the train was released and continued on to Switzerland.
Teitelbaum briefly lived in Jerusalem after World War II, but, at the request of some of his followers who had emigrated to the United States, he settled there instead. He attracted many new followers and established a large community in the densely Orthodox neighborhood of Williamsburg located in northern Brooklyn in New York City. Starting in the 1960s, he searched for a location outside of the city to establish a new self-contained community for his disciples and their families, eventually deciding upon Monroe, New York where a new town known as Kiryas Joel was launched. The name Kiryas Joel means "Town of Joel" which alludes to the awe in which he was held by his adherents. Upon his death, he was the first individual to be buried there in 1979. Reputedly over 100,000 Jews attended his funeral. He was succeeded by his nephew Rabbi Moshe Teitelbaum, who divided the control of the Williamsburg and Monroe Satmar communities between two of his own sons.
Teitelbaum's works include collections of responsa and novelae (scholarly contributions to Talmudic debates) entitled Divrei Yoel and Al HaGeulah V'Al HaTemurah this was written with the help of the late Rabbi N.Y. Meisels. He also authored a brief introduction to the Talmudic tractate Shabbos for a Holocaust-era printing in Romania. His exposition of his belief that Zionism is prohibited by Halakha ("Jewish law") is entitled VaYoel Moshe. There are also collections of his speeches entitled, Hidushei Torah MHR"I Teitelbaum.
Opposition to modern Zionism
Teitelbaum was renowned for his vocal religiously motivated opposition to Zionism in all arenas. This approach was a continuation of his father's views and of other prominent Hasidic rabbis. His father and predecessor was Rabbi Chananyah Yom Tov Lipa Teitelbaum. He encouraged his followers to form self-sufficient communities without the help of the State of Israel and forbade "official" engagement with it.
Before World War II, most Hasidic rabbis, as well as many other prominent Orthodox leaders, believed that God had promised to return the Jewish people to the land of Israel by means of the actions of the Jewish Messiah who would be sent if the Jewish people merited his arrival. During the current exile, the Jewish people are expected to perform the mitzvot. In addition, they are advised not to antagonize or rebel against the gentile nations of the world in the course of their long exile in the diaspora. In the years following the Holocaust, Teitelbaum undertook to maintain and strengthen this position, as did many Orthodox Jews and communities.
In the view of Rebbi Teitelbaum's followers, the current State of Israel, which was founded by people that included some anti-religious personalities in seeming violation of the traditional notion that Jews should wait for the Jewish Messiah, is seen as contrary to Judaism as Satmar Hasidism understands it to be. Moreover, the Satmar Rebbe taught that the existence of the Zionist State of Israel is preventing the Messiah from coming.
The three oaths
The core citations from classical Judaic sources cited by Teitelbaum in his arguments against modern Zionism are based on a passage in the Talmud, Rabbi Yosi b'Rebbi Hanina explains (Kesubos 111a) that the Lord imposed "Three Oaths" on the nation of Israel: a) Israel should not return to the Land together, by force; b) Israel should not rebel against the other nations; and c) The nations should not subjugate Israel too harshly.
According to Teitelbaum, the second oath is relevant concerning the subsequent wars fought between Israel and Arab nations. He views the Zionist State of Israel as a form of "impatience" and in keeping with the Talmud's warnings that being impatient for God's love leads to "grave danger". Satmar Hasidism explains that the constant wars in Israel are a fulfilment of ignoring this oath.
R. Teitelbaum saw his opposition to Zionism as a way of protecting Jewish lives and preventing bloodshed. Although some Haredi rabbis may agree with this idea, the general view of Agudath Israel and many other orthodox rabbis is that for all practical purposes, through participating in the Israeli government, efforts can be made to promote religious Judaism in Israel. Rabbi Teitelbaum, however, felt that any participation in the Israeli government, even voting in elections, was a grave sin, because it contributes to the spiritual and physical destruction of innocent people. He was openly opposed to the views of Agudath Israel, and until the present time, the official Satmar movement refuses to become a member of the Agudath Israel organization or party. The Satmar view is that only the Jewish Messiah can bring about a new Jewish government in the Holy Land, and even if a government declaring itself religious would be formed before the Messiah, it would be illegitimate due to its improper arrogation of power.
While the Satmar Hasidim are opposed to the present secular government of Israel, many of them live in and visit Israel.
- Vayoel Moshe (1958)
- Al HaGeulah VeAl HaTemurah (1967)
- Divrei Yoel
- Dibros Kodesh
- Yechezkel Yossef Weisshaus.THE REBBE. A Glimpse into the Daily Life of the Satmar Rebbe Rabbeinu Yoel Teitelbaum. Translated by Mechon Lev Avos from Sefer Eidis B'Yosef by Rabbi Yechezkel Yosef Weisshaus. Machon Lev Avos. Distributed by Israel Book Shop, Lakewood New Jersey, 2008. ISBN 978-1-60091-063-0
- ↑ http://www.chabad.org/calendar/view/day_cdo/aid/218019/jewish/Satmar-Rebbe-Rescued.htm says 1887-1979. Chabad is not affiliated with Satmar, thus satisfying Wikipedia's "sources affiliated with the subject are generally not sufficient for a Wikipedia article" requirement at least for YOB/YOD.
- ↑ http://www.ou.org/about/judaism/rabbis/teitelbaum.htm also says 1887-1979. [Orthodox Union|OU, The Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America, also UOJCA], also is not affiliated with Satmar.
- ↑ http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F30913FD385D12728DDDA90A94D0405B898BF1D3, dated Monday Aug. 20 1979, says he died "yesterday" and gives his age as 92.
- ↑ http://mj.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/kjm007v1, specifically http://services.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/searchresults?title=between+metz&fulltext=yoelish+joel&author1=Farbstein%2C+Esther&fyear=1849 &tyear=2009
- ↑ Google can find this word in the New York Times' web site and elsewhere, but most interesting as to who and what is prominent is that at http://www.nytimes.com/1998/09/13/nyregion/no-headline-830682.html?n=Top%2FReference%2FTimes%20Topics%2FSubjects%2FM%2FMedia The Times contradicted itself and said that The Divrei Yoel (based on the title of his book) "died in 1978" (vs. having said Monday, Aug. 20, 1979 that he died "yesterday"). The Satmar Rav is noted as a founder  and, yes "prominent and controversial."  Other appreciative words include  inimitable.
- ↑ author of Divrei Yoel  and also of VaYoel Moshe  
- ↑ http://www.plontch.net/Great_fire_in_polaniec.htm a memorial to the town, which was destroyed by the Nazis, exists at http://www.plontch.net