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The Jewish Territorialist Organization, known as ITO, was a Jewish political movement formed in 1903. It was founded by Israel Zangwill after the official rejection by the seventh World Zionist Congress in 1905 of the "British Uganda Programme" an of land in East Africa for Jewish people put to Zionist leader Theodore Herzl by the British government. The ITO's members were known as territorialists or "ITOmen". ITO attempted to locate territory suitable for Jewish settlement in various parts of America (e.g. Galveston, Alaska), Africa (in Angola, establishing several contacts with the Portuguese government, the colonial power at the time), Asia, and Australia, but with little success. The ITO was dissolved in 1925, having lost impetus after the Balfour Declaration of 1917.
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