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Many of the Church FathersIrenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Origen, and Jerome— have referred to a Hebrew Gospel. [1] Nicholson and other modern scholars believe that there was only one such gospel. [2] However, Funk and others have called this into question. They believe that there were several Jewish Gospels, some of which were non Hebrew in nature.[3] [4] [5] Pierson Parker and his followers take the position that there was only one Hebrew Gospel but several "editions" of it in circulation. [6] [7][8]


Finally, the literary relationship of this Jewish-Christian Gospel(s) to the New Testament Gospels, including Matthew, is also a matter of debate. [9]


Gospel of the Hebrews: Aramaic Matthew

Papias wrote some time in the second century that the apostle Matthew had written the logia in Hebrew, and that "every one translated it as he was able." [10] [11]

Matthew's Gospel of the Hebrews had been first written in the "Hebrew language" (probably meaning Aramaic, see also Aramaic of Jesus) and subsequently translated into Koine Greek.[12] [13][14] The information about this becomes more detailed as time goes by. Irenaeus added a time reference ("while Peter and Paul were preaching at Rome").

Origen wrote that Matthew "published it for Jewish converts," and Eusebius adds that the Apostle Bartholomew carried the Hebrew gospel to the Indies.[15] Jerome provided the fullest account of this gospel, noting there was a copy in a Library at Caesarea. [16]

Finally, we know for certain that it was in circulation in the Early Church as it is listed in some of the Church Catalogs[17] [18], see also Development of the New Testament canon.

The Gospel of the Apostles

The Gospel of the Apostles or the Gospel of the Twelve Apostles was well known to the scholars of the Early Church. The Apostles were said to have written it. Many believed to be the first Gospel written and the basis for future gospel accounts. Jerome said it was also called the Gospel of the Hebrews. [19] [20]


Gospel of the Ebionites

The Ebionites were Jewish-Christians who rejected Paul, see also Paul of Tarsus and Judaism. Irenaeus stated that they used only the Gospel of Matthew. Eusebius wrote that they used only the Gospel of the Hebrews. Some modern scholars have argued that the Ebionites may have also used a lost gospel called the Gospel of the Ebionites. This hypothetical gospel is not mentioned in any catalogs of the Early Church..[21]

The Gospel of the Nazoraeans

The Gospel of the Nazoraeans is a hypothetical book which may or may not be the same as, or derived from, the Gospel of the Hebrews. This Gospel was not mentioned by the Church Fathers nor is it found listed in the Early Church catalogs.[22] The book itself has completely disappeared.

The Gospel of the Nazarenes has been the subject of many critical surmises and discussions in the course of the last century, and recent discussions in a growing body of literature have thrown considerable light upon the problems connected with this Gospel.


Matthaei Authenticum

Many people in the Early Church referred to the Gospel of the Hebrews as "Authentic Matthew". [23]

Gospel of Matthew

Some believe that the Gospel of Matthew was a translation of a Jewish Gospel but this has now been largely disproved[24], see also Aramaic primacy.

Medieval References

A number of late references, including marginal notations in some copies of Matthew, seem to be to a version of Matthew (in Greek) that differed somewhat from the canonical edition.



Jewish-Christian Paralipomenea

The Early Church Fathers (Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Irenaeus Origen, Jerome etc) referred to a "Hebrew Gospel". Recent Scholarship has shown these citations, (or the Jewish-Christian Paralipomenea) may provide substantial insight to the Historical Jesus. Professor of Theology, James Edwards latest work, challenges long-held assumptions about the Gospel of the Hebrews. He presents evidence for the existence of an early Hebrew Gospel, written by the Apostle Matthew and that it preceded all the Canonical Gospels. Although no copies of this Hebrew Gospel exist, it was referred to over 100 times in the first nine centuries of Christianity. It was considered authentic and held in very high regard by Early Church leaders. [25][26] [3] [4]

Oxyrhynchus Paralipomenea

[27] [5]

The Oxyrhynchus Gospels are two fragmentary manuscripts, discovered at Oxyrhynchus, Egypt. They throw considerable light on the Jewish-Christian Gospel.

  • Jesus explained, "The Pharisee plans in advance, before doing wrong, he slyly reasons everything out. Take care that you do not end up suffering the same fate as them. For the wicked of humanity receive Judgement not only among the living, but they will also undergo punishment later."
    Leading them, Jesus went into the place of purification and walked about in the Temple. Then Levi, a High Priest came toward them and said to the Savior, "Who allowed you to wander in this place of purification and to see these Holy Vessels, though you have not bathed and the feet of your disciples are unclean? And now that you have defiled it, you walk around in this pure area of the Temple where only a man who has bathed and changed his clothes can walk, and even such a person does not dare to look upon these holy vessels."
    Standing nearby with his disciples, the Savior said, "Since you are here in the Temple too, are you clean?"
    The High Priest of Pharisees answered him saying, "I am not unclean. For I bathed in the Pool of David. I went down into the pool by one set of stairs and came back up by another. Then I dressed in white clothes and they were not unclean. Only then did I come and look at these holy vessels."
    And our Savior said unto him, "Woe to you blind guides who can not see! You have washed in the running waters that swine and dogs are cast into day and night. And when you washed yourself, you scrubbed the outer layer of skin, the layer of skin that whores and flute-girls anoint with oil and wash and wipe and beautify for the lust of man; but within they are full of scorpions and all sorts wickedness. But I and my followers, who you say have not bathed, have been dipped in the waters of Eternal Life which come from . . . But woe unto the . . .
  • When the Rabbis and Pharisees and priests saw Him, they were greatly upset, for he reclined with sinners. Overhearing them, Jesus explained, “The healthy have no need of a doctor”.
  • Jesus continued to teach saying, “Then and only then will you will see more clearly to remove the speck from your brother’s eye.”
  • Jesus taught saying, “A city on a hill shall neither fall nor be hidden.”
  • Jesus taught saying, “If you do not fast, you will not find the Kingdom of Heaven. And if you do not remember the Sabbath Day and keep it holy, you shall never see your Heavenly Father.”
  • Jesus taught saying, “Do not worry all day or all night about your food, wondering what you will eat, or your clothes, wondering what you will wear. You are worth far more than the lilies that grow but do not spin. If you have one garment, what do you lack? Who can add years to your life? He, Himself will provide you with clothing!”
  • Jesus taught saying, “Pray for those who persecute you.”
  • Jesus taught saying, “Everything that is not obvious, indeed all that is hidden from you shall be revealed. In truth, there is nothing closed that will not be revealed, nor is there anything which is buried, which will not be uncovered.”
  • Jesus taught saying, “He who is against you is for you and he who is far from you will draw near tomorrow.”
  • Jesus taught saying, “He who seeks will find, he who finds will be surprised. He who is surprised will prevail and he who prevails will find peace.”
  • Jesus taught saying, “For many who are first shall be last, and those who are last shall be first. However, only a few truly find the Kingdom of Heaven.”
  • Jesus taught saying, “Just as a doctor does not treat his own, neither is a prophet acceptable in his own land.”
  • Jesus taught saying, “The Kingdom of Heaven is within you. Only he who knows himself can find it.”

Sayings of Jesus from the Fathers of the Early Church

  • Remember the words of our Lord Jesus who said, “Woe to whoever causes my chosen to fall. It would be good for him not to have been born. It would be better for him to have a great millstone fastened about his neck and be cast into the sea, than that he should cause one of my chosen to miss the mark.”[28]


  • The words of the Lord Jesus, which He spoke, “The measure you use, it will be measured against you.” [29]


  • The Lord commanded in his Gospel to pray like this: “Our Father in Heaven, hallowed be your name. Your Kingdom come, your will be done, on Earth as it is in Heaven. Give us this day our bread for tomorrow and forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive those who trespass against us. Lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil. For yours is the power and the glory, for ever.”[30]


  • When He came to those with Peter, Jesus said to them, “Take hold of me, handle me, and see that I am not a bodiless demon.”[31]


  • Matthew collected the teachings of Jesus (ta logia) in the Hebrew language and everyone translated them as best he could. (Papius also gives another story of a woman accused of many sins before the Lord, in the Gospel of the Hebrews). [32]


  • The Lord said in His teaching, “Blessed are the poor and those who are persecuted after righteousness sake, for yours is the Kingdom of Heaven.”[33]


  • The Lord said in His teaching, “The measure you use, it will be measured against you.” [34]


  • The Lord said, “Behold I make last things as the first.”[35]


  • The voice spoke to him, saying, “You are My Son, today I have begotten You”. This is recorded in the Gospel of the Apostles.[36]


  • When Jesus went down into the water, fire was kindled in the Jordan, and when he came up from the water, the Holy Spirit came upon Him. The Apostles of our Christ wrote this. [37]


  • The voice spoke to him, saying, “You are My Son, today I have begotten You”. This is recorded in the Gospel of the Apostles.[38]


  • For the Ebionites, who use only the Gospel of Matthew, are convicted out of that very book as not holding right views about the Lord.[39]


  • Those who are called Ebionites accept that God made the world. However their opinions with respect to the Lord are quite similar to those of Cerinthus and Carpocrates. They use the Gospel of Matthew only, and repudiate the Apostle Paul, maintaining that he was an apostate from the Law. As to the prophetical writings, they expound them in a singular manner. They practice circumcision, observe of those customs that are enjoined by the Law, and are so very Judaic in their customs, they even adore Jerusalem as if it were the house of God.[40]


  • Matthew also issued a written Gospel of the Hebrews in their own language while Peter and Paul were preaching at Rome and laying the foundations of the Church. [41]


  • For the Ebionites, who use only the Gospel of Matthew, are convicted out of that very book as not holding right views about the Lord.[42]


  • Pantaenus was one of those, and is said to have gone to India. It is reported that among the Christians there that he had found the Gospel of Matthew. This had anticipated his own arrival, for Bartholomew, one of the apostles, had preached to them, and left with them the writings of Matthew in Hebrew, which they had preserved till that time. After many good deeds, Pantaenus finally became the head of the School in Alexandria, and expounded the treasures of divine doctrine both orally and in writing.[43]


  • Jesus said, “When you have seen your brother, you have seen the Lord.”[44]


  • “… And from the Syriac Gospel of the Hebrews he quotes some passages in Hebrew …” [45]


  • Jesus said, “When you have seen your brother, you have seen your Lord.” [46]


  • He who seeks will not give up until he finds; and having found he will be amazed; and having been amazed, he shall prevail and having prevailed, he shall rest in peace.[47]


  • Also in the Gospel of the Hebrews it is written, the saying, “He that is amazed will prevail, and he that prevails shall rest in peace.”[48]


  • The very first Gospel to be written was by Matthew, once a tax collector but later an apostle of Jesus Christ. Matthew published it for the converts from Judaism and composed it in Hebrew letters. [49]


  • It is written in a certain Gospel that is called of the Hebrews: The second rich youth said to him, “Rabbi, what good thing can I do and live?” Jesus replied, “Fulfill the law and the prophets.” “I have,” was the response. Jesus said, “Go, sell all that you have and distribute to the poor; and come, follow me.” The youth began to fidget, for it did not please him. And the Lord said, “How can you say, I have fulfilled the law and the prophets, when it is written in the law: You shall love your neighbor as yourself and many of your brothers, sons of Abraham, are covered with filth, dying of hunger, and your house is full of many good things, none of which goes out to them?” And he turned and said to Simon, his disciple, who was sitting by Him, “Simon, son of Jonah, it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for the rich to enter the Kingdom of Heaven. ”[50]


  • And Jesus said, “Because of the weak, I was weak, and because of the hungry I was hungry, and because of the thirsty I was thirsty.” [51]


  • And if any accept the Gospel of the Hebrews, in which the Savior says: “Even so did my mother, the Holy Spirit, take me by one of my hairs, and carry me to the great mountain Tabor.” The problem of explaining how it is possible for the “mother” of Christ to be the Holy Spirit, which came into existence through the Logos, must be dealt with. However, this is not difficult to explain, for if “whoever does the will of the Father in Heaven is brother and sister and mother”, and if the name “brother of Christ” applies not only to men, but also to beings of more divine rank, there is nothing wrong in the Holy Spirit being his mother, when anyone who does the will of the Father in Heaven is called “mother of Christ”.[52]


  • But the Gospel written in Hebrew script which has reached our hands turns the threat not against the man who had hid the talent, but against him who has lived dissolutely – for it told of three: one wasted his master’s possessions with harlots and flute-girls, one multiplied his gains, and one hid the talent. Accordingly, one was accepted, one was only rebuked, and one was shut up in prison.[53]


  • They went to all nations, teaching their message in the power of Christ, for He had commanded, saying, “Go and make disciples of all nations in My name.”[54]


  • They (the Apostles) were led to write only under the pressure of necessity. Matthew, who had first preached the Gospel in Hebrew, when on the point of going to other nations, committed the Gospel to writing in his native language. Therefore he supplied the written word to make up for the lack of his own presence to those from whom he was sent.[55]


  • “… which some reject, but which others class with the accepted books. And among these some have also placed the Gospel of the Hebrews, with which those Hebrews who accept Christ are especially delighted. All these may be reckoned among the disputed books.[56]


  • “These men thought that it was necessary to reject all the epistles of the apostle, whom they called an apostate from the Law and they used only the so-called Gospel of the Hebrews making little account of the others. The Sabbath and the rest of the Law of the Jews they observed just like them, but like us, they celebrated the Lord’s Day as a memorial of the Resurrection of the Savior. Therefore, in consequence of such a course they received the name of Ebionites.”[57]


  • Christ himself taught the reason for the separations of souls that take lace in houses, as we have found in the Gospel that is spread among those of circumcision in Hebrew script in which He said, “I choose for Myself the most worthy. The most worthy are those My Father in Heaven has given Me.” [58]


  • There are many people with two names. Scripture calls Matthew “Levi” in the Gospel of Luke, but they are not the same person. Rather Matthias who replaced Judas, and Levi are the same man with a double name. This is obvious in the Gospel of the Hebrews.[59]


  • They have the Gospel of Matthew complete in Hebrew, for this gospel was preserved among them as it was first written in Hebrew script.[60]


  • Their Gospel commences as follows: “In the days of King Herod of Judea, a certain man named John came baptizing with a baptism of repentance in the river Jordan. He was said to be of the family of Aaron the priest, son of Zechariah and Elizabeth, and all went out to him.” There is no genealogy [nor virgin birth] in their Gospel of Matthew, which commences as already stated: “In the days of King Herod of Judea, during the high-priesthood of Caiaphas.”Their gospel says, “This man named John came baptizing with a baptism of repentance in the Jordan River, et cetera.” [61]


  • They too accept the Gospel of Matthew, and like the followers of Cerinthus and Merinthus, they use it alone. They call it the Gospel of the Hebrews, for in truth Matthew alone in the New Testament expounded and declared the Gospel in Hebrew using Hebrew script.[62]


  • In the Gospel called of Matthew which they call the Hebrew Gospel is written the following: “There was a certain man named Jesus, about thirty years old, who chose us. Coming to Capernaum, He entered the house of Simon, who is called Peter, and said, ‘As I passed by the Sea of Galilee, I chose John and James, sons of Zebedee, and Simon, and Andrew, Thaddaeus, Simon the Zealot, Judas Iscariot; and you Matthew, sitting at the tax office, I called and you followed me. You therefore, I want to be the Twelve, to symbolize Israel.’” And “It so happened that John came baptizing, and Pharisees and all Jerusalem came out to him to get baptized. And John wore clothing made of camel hair and had a leather belt about his waist. His food,” it continues, “consisted of wild honey that tasted like manna, like sweet cake cooked in oil.” [63]


  • After saying many things, this Gospel continues: “After the people were baptized, Jesus also came and was baptized by John. And as Jesus came up from the water, Heaven was opened, and He saw the Holy Spirit descend in the form of a dove and enter into Him. And a voice from Heaven said, ‘You are my beloved Son; with You I am well pleased.’ And again, ‘Today I have begotten You.’ “Immediately a great light shone around the place; and John, seeing it, said to Him, ‘Who are you, Lord? And again a voice from Heaven said, ‘This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased.’ Then John, falling down before Him, said, ‘I beseech You, Lord, baptize me!’ But He forbade him saying, ‘Let it be so; for thus it is fitting that all things be fulfilled.’”[64]


  • Moreover, they deny that He was a man, apparently on the basis of the word which the Savior spoke when it was announced to Him, “Behold, your mother and your brothers stand outside.” “Who are My mother and brothers?” And stretching out His hand toward his disciples He continued, “These who do the will of My Father are my brothers and sisters.” [65]


  • Jesus came and announced, as it says in the Gospel, the one called ‘of the Hebrews’, “I have come to destroy sacrifices; and if you do not stop making sacrifices, the wrath of God will not leave you.”[66]


  • The disciples said, “Where will You have us prepare for You to eat the Passover?” Jesus replies, “Have I earnestly desired to eat this Passover meat with you?”[67]


  • “In the Hebrew Gospel of Matthew it states, ‘Give us this day our bread for tomorrow.” [68]
  • “My mother the Holy Spirit.” [69]


  • In the Gospel written in the Hebrew script that the Nazarenes read, he whole fount of the Holy Spirit descends upon Him, for God is Spirit and where the Spirit resides, there is freedom. Further in the Gospel which we have just mentioned we find the following written: “When the Lord came up out of the water the whole fount of the Holy Spirit descended upon Him and rested on Him saying, ‘My Son, in all the prophets was I waiting for You that You should come and I might rest in You. For You are My rest. You are My first begotten Son that prevails forever.’ ” [70]


  • For when the apostles thought Him to be a spirit, or in the words of the Gospel of the Hebrews, which the Nazarenes read, “A bodiless demon” [71]
  • In the Gospel of the Hebrews that the Nazarenes read, it says, “Even now my mother the Holy Spirit carried me away.” This should upset no one because “spirit” in Hebrew is feminine, while in our language it is masculine and in Greek it is neuter. In divinity there is no gender. [72]
  • In the Book of Judges we read “Deborah”, which means “honeybee”. Her prophecies are the sweetest honey and refer to the Holy Spirit, who is called in Hebrew by a feminine noun. In the Gospel of the Hebrews that the Nazarenes read, the Saviour indicates this by saying, “Even now my mother, the Holy Spirit, carried me away.” [73]
  • In the Gospel of the Hebrews that the Nazarenes read there is counted among the most serious offenses, "He that has grieved the spirit of his brother." [74]
  • Whoever has read the Song of Songs knows that the Word of God is also the bridegroom of the soul. And whoever accepts the Gospel circulating under the title ‘Gospel of the Hebrews,’ which we most recently translated, in which it is said by the Saviour, “Even now my mother, the Holy Spirit, carried me away by one of my hairs,” will not hesitate to say that the Word of God proceeds from the Spirit, and that the soul, which is the bride of the Word, has the Holy Spirit (which in Hebrew is feminine in gender, RUA). [75]


  • “Matthew, who wrote his Gospel in Hebrew speech, put it thus, ‘Osanna barrama.’” [76]


  • In the so-called Gospel of the Hebrews, for “bread essential to existence,” I found “mahar”, which means “of tomorrow”; so the sense is: our bread for tomorrow, that is, of the future, give us this day. [77]


  • In the Gospel which the Nazarenes and the Ebionites use which we have recently translated from Hebrew to Greek, and which most people call The Authentic Gospel of Matthew, the man who had the withered hand is described as a mason who begged for help in the following words: “I was a mason, earning a living with my hands. I beg you, Jesus, restore my health to me, so that I need not beg for my food in shame.” [78]


  • “In this last he bore witness to the Gospel which I have recently translated.” [79]


  • In the Gospel that the Nazarenes use, for “son of Barachiah” we find written “son of Johoiada.” [80]


  • In the Gospel of the Hebrews, Barabbas is interpreted as “son of their master”. He was condemned because of insurrection and murder. [81]


  • In the Gospel I so often mention we read, “A lintel of the Temple of immense size was broken.” [82]


  • In the Gospel written in Hebrew script we read not that the curtain of the temple was torn, but that the astonishingly large lintel of the temple collapsed. [83]


  • As we have read in the Hebrew Gospel, the Lord says to his disciples: ”And never be you joyful, except when you behold your brother with love.” [84]


  • In the Gospel of the Hebrews, written in the Chaldee and Syriac language but in Hebrew script, and used by the Nazarenes to this day (I mean the Gospel of the Apostles, or, as it is generally maintained, the Gospel of Matthew, a copy of which is in the library at Caesarea), we find, “Behold the mother of the Lord and his brothers said to him, ‘John the Baptist baptizes for the forgiveness of sins. Let us go and be baptized by him.’ But Jesus said to them, ‘in what way have I sinned that I should go and be baptized by him?Unless perhaps, what I have just said is a sin of ignorance.’” And in the same volume, “‘If your brother sins against you in word, and makes amends, receive him seven times a day.’ Simon, His disciple, said to Him, ‘Seven times in a day!’ The Lord answered and said to him, ‘I say unto thee, until seventy times seven.’ ” [85]


  • Also, the Gospel called of the Hebrews, recently translated by me into Greek and Latin, which Origen often uses, states, after the Resurrection of the Saviour: “Now the Lord, after he had given His grave clothes to the servant of the priest, appeared to James, for James had sworn that he would not eat bread from that hour in which he had drunk the Lord’s cup until he should see Him risen from the dead.” And a little further on the Lord says, “‘bring a table and bread.’” And immediately it is added, “He took bread and blessed and broke and gave it to James the Just and said to him, ‘My brother, eat your bread, for the Son of Man is risen from the dead.’” [86]


  • Matthew, also called Levi, who used to be a tax collector and later an apostle, composed the Gospel of Christ, which was first published in Judea in Hebrew script for the sake of those of the circumcision who believed. This Gospel was afterwards translated into Greek (and the Greek has been lost) though by what author uncertain. The Hebrew original has been preserved to this present day in the library of Caesarea, which Pamphilus diligently gathered. I have also had the opportunity of having this volume transcribed for me by the Nazarenes of Beroea, Syria, who use it. It should be noted that wherever the Evangelist (whether on his own account or in the person of our Lord and Saviour) quotes the testimony of the Old Testament he does not follow the authority of the language of the Septuagint but the Hebrew. Therefore these two forms exist, “Out of Egypt have I called my Son,” and, “For He will be called a Nazarene.” [87]



The Paralipomenea of Justin Martyr

[88]

Biblical scholar Arthur Lillie argues that when Justin Martyr is quoting from the Memoirs of the Apostles these teachings are really from the Gospel of the Hebrews. The following Hebrew Paralipomenea are from his book


  • "To him that smites you on the one cheek offer also the other, and him that takes away your cloak or coat forbid not. And whosoever shall be angry shall be in danger of the fire. And everyone that makes you go with him a mile follow him two. And let your good works shine before men, that they, seeing them, may glorify your Father who is in Heaven.


  • "Love your enemies. Be kind and merciful as your heavenly Father is.


  • "Give to him who asks, and from him that would borrow, turn not away. For if you lend to them of whom you hope to receive, what good thing do you do? Even the publicans do this. Lay not up for yourselves treasures on earth, where moth and rust corrupt and where thieves break through, but lay up for yourself treasure in Heaven, where neither moth nor rust corrupts. For what is a man profited if he gains the whole world and lose his own soul? And what shall a man give in exchange for it? Lay up, therefore, treasure in Heaven, where neither moth nor rust corrupts.


  • "Swear not at all, but let your yes be yes, and your no, no; for whatsoever is more than this cometh of evil.


  • "You shall love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy strength, and thy neighbor as thyself.


  • "If you love them that love you, what good thing do you do? For even the sexually immoral do this. But I say to you, pray for your enemies, and love them that hate you, and bless them that curse you, and pray for them that spitefully use you.


  • "There are some who have been made eunuchs of men and some who were born eunuchs, and some who have made themselves eunuchs for the Kingdom of Heaven's sake; but all cannot receive this saying.


  • "If thy right eye offend you, cut it out; for it is better for you to enter the Kingdom of Heaven with one eye than having two eyes to be cast into everlasting fire.


  • "He who looks on a woman lustfully commits adultery with her in his heart before God.


  • "Whosoever shall marry her who is divorced from another husband commits adultery.


  • "I am not come to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance.


  • "Fear not them that kill you and after that can do no more, but fear him who after death is able to

cast both soul and body into hell.


  • "Except you be born again, verily you shall not enter the Kingdom of Heaven.


  • "The children of this world marry and are given in marriage, but the children of the world to come neither marry nor are given in marriage, but shall be like the angels in Heaven.


  • "Many false Christs and false apostles shall arise and shall deceive many of the faithful.


  • And he overthrew the money-changers, and exclaimed, "Woe unto you Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, because you pay a tithe of mint and rue but do not observe the love of Most High and justice. You whitewashed Sepulchres, appearing beautiful outwardly, but are within full of dead men's bones. Woe unto you Scribes, for you have the keys, and you do not enter in yourselves, and them that are entering in, you hinder. You blind guides, you are the Children of Hell times twice over.


  • "Beware of false prophets, who shall come to your clothed outwardly in sheep's clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves.


  • "The Law and the Prophets were until John the Baptist. From that time the Kingdom of Heaven suffered violence, and the violent take it by force. And if you can receive it, he is Elijah who was to come. He that has ears to hear let him hear.


  • "Elijah must come and restore all things. But I say to you, Elijah has already come, and they knew him not, but have done to him whatever they chose. Then the disciples understood that he spoke to them about John the Baptist.


  • "The Son of Man must suffer many things and be rejected by the Pharisees and Scribes, and be crucified, and the third day rise again.


  • "I give you power to tread on serpents and on scorpions and on all the might of the enemy.


  • "Not every one who says to me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the Kingdom of Heaven, but he that does the will of my Father who is in Heaven. For whosoever hears me and does my teachimgs, hears him that sent me. And many will say to me, Lord, Lord, have we not eaten and drunk in your name and done wonders? And then will I say unto them, 'Depart from me, you workers of iniquity. Then shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth, when the righteous shall shine like the sun, and the wicked are sent into everlasting fire. For many shall come in my name clothed outwardly in sheep's clothing, but inwardly being ravening not forth good fruit is cast down and thrown into the fire.


  • "They shall come from the East and shall sit down with Abraham and Isaac and Jacob in the Kingdom of Heaven.


  • "There is none good but God only, who made all things.


  • "No man knows the Father but the Son, nor the Son but the Father, and they to whom the Son reveals himself.


  • "In whatsoever things I shall apprehend you, in those also will I judge you."


  • "An evil and adulterous generation seeks a sign, and no sign shall be given it save the sign of Jonah.


  • "Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's.


The Fayyum Fragment

[89]

The Fayyum Fragment is the oldest fragment of a non-canonical gospel to date. [6] Harnack believed that the fragment may belong to the Gospel of the Hebrews a suggestion supported by Chiapelli and others. [7]

  • Before I must depart, you all like . . . will be offended in this night according to the Scripture : " I will strike the Shepherd and the sheep shall be scattered. But Peter replied, "Although even all, yet not I. And Jesus answered saying, "Before the cock crow twice you shall deny me three times!"

Notes

  1. James R. Edwards, The Hebrew Gospel & the Development of the Synoptic Tradition, © 2009, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.pp. 1-376
  2. Nicholson The Gospel according to the Hebrews, © 2009, BiblioBazaar, LLC, pp 1-81.
  3. Robert Walter Funk The Gospel of Jesus: according to the Jesus Seminar, © 1999, Publisher Polebridge Press.
  4. Philipp Vielhauer and Georg Strecker, "Jewish-Christian Gospels," in Wilhelm Schneemelcher, New Testament Apocrypha © 1991, volume 1, pp. 134-178.
  5. Helmut Koester, Introduction to the New Testament, © 1982, especially volume 2 pp. 201-203 and 223-224.
  6. James R. Edwards, The Hebrew Gospel & the Development of the Synoptic Tradition, © 2009, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.pp. 1-376
  7. Pierson Parker A Proto-Lukan Basis for the Gospel According to the Hebrews Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 59, No. 4 (Dec., 1940), pp. 471.
  8. [1]
  9. Ernest W. Parsons, The Jewish-Christian Gospels, © 1914, The University of Chicago Press.
  10. Eusebius, Church History III . 39 . 16
  11. Bart Ehrman, Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium, © 1999 Oxford University Press, p.43
  12. Jerome, On Illustrious Men III
  13. Jerome, Against Pelagius III .2
  14. Helmut Koester, Introduction to the New Testament, © 1982, ii p. 172.
  15. Irenaeus, Against Heresies 3.1.1 in The Ante-Nicene Fathers (ANF) I, p. 414; Origen, Commentary on Matthew, as cited in Eusebius, History of the Church 6.25; Eusebius, History of the Church, 5.10.
  16. Jerome, On Illustrious Men III
  17. Eusebius, Church History 3.25.5
  18. Nicephorus' Stichometry
  19. J B Dods, Gibson Smith, The Gospel of Jesus,(VT.1858) G. Smith Pub., pp. iii - vii
  20. Authors: Xenia Theological Seminary, Pittsburgh-Xenia Theological Seminary of the United Presbyterian Church of North America, Bibliotheca Sacra, © 1852 Volume 9, Publisher Dallas Theological Seminary, pp 99
  21. F.L. Cross and E.A. Livingston, The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, © 1989, Oxford University Press, p. 438 -439.
  22. F.L. Cross and E.A. Livingston, The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, © 1989, Oxford University Press, p. 626.
  23. [2]; Matthaei Authenticum (Authentic Matthew)
  24. Bart Ehrman, Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium, © 1999 Oxford University Press, p. 43
  25. Bernhard Pick, The Gospel According to the Hebrews, © 2005 Kessinger Publishing. pp. 1-28
  26. James R. Edwards, The Hebrew Gospel & the Development of the Synoptic Tradition, © 2009, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.pp. 1-376
  27. S. Kent Brown comments on the text of Oxyrhynchus 840 The Anchor Bible Dictionary, v. 5, p. 1000. (Scholars have linked these papyri to the Gospel of the Hebrews)
  28. First Clement, 46.14
  29. First Clement, 13.12
  30. Didache, 8.2
  31. Ignatius, Epistle to the Smyrneans
  32. Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, 39.16
  33. Polycarp to the Philippians
  34. Polycarp to the Philippians, 2.18
  35. Barnabas,6.13
  36. Justin, Dialogue, 103
  37. Justin, Dialogue, 88
  38. Justin, Dialogue, 103
  39. Irenaeus, Against Heresies 3.11.7
  40. Irenaeus, Against Heresies 1.26.2
  41. Irenaeus, Against Heresies 3.1.1
  42. Irenaeus, Against Heresies 3.11.7
  43. Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, 5.10.3
  44. Tertullian, On prayer 26
  45. Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, 3.22.6
  46. Clement of Alexandria, Stromateis 1.19
  47. Clement of Alexandria, Stromateis [Miscellanies] 5.14
  48. Clement of Alexandria, Stromateis [Miscellanies] 2.9
  49. Eusebius, ''Ecclesiastical History, 6.25.4.
  50. Origen, Commentary on Matthew 15.14
  51. Origen, Commentary on Matthew 13:2
  52. Origen, Commentary on John 2.12 See also Origen’s Homily on Jeremiah 15.4, which says, “If anyone can accept this – ‘Even so did my mother the Holy Spirit take me up to the great mountain, Tabor’ – one can see she is his mother.”
  53. Eusebius, Theophany on Matthew 22
  54. Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, 3.5.2.
  55. Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 3.24.6
  56. Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, 3.25.5 ** See also Nicephorus, Patriarch of Constantinople, who produced a catalogue of New Testament books, followed by that of the antilegomena (which contains the Revelation of John) and that of the apocrypha. Next to each book is the count of its stichoi (lines). The following is an excerpt. New Testament (writings) the following are gainsaid: 1. The Revelation of John 1400 lines 2. The Revelation of Peter 300 lines 3. The Epistle of Barnabas 1360 lines 4. The Gospel of the Hebrews 2200 lines Apocrypha of the New Testament: 1. The Circuit of Paul 3600 lines 2. The Circuit of Peter 2750 lines 3. The Circuit of John 2500 lines 4. The Circuit of Thomas 1600 lines 5. The Gospel of Thomas 1300 lines 6. The Didache 200 lines 7. The 32 (books) of Clement 2600 lines It is important to note that the Gospel of the Hebrews is 2200 lines, 300 fewer than Greek Matthew. (Nicephorus, Patriarch of Constantinople, in his Stichometry)
  57. Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, 3.27.4.
  58. Eusebius, Theophania 4.12
  59. Didymus, Commentary on Psalm
  60. Epiphanius, Panarion 29.9.4
  61. Epiphanius, Panarion 30.13.6
  62. Epiphanius, Panarion 30.3.7
  63. Epiphanius, Panarion 30.13.2
  64. Epiphanius, Panarion 30.13.7
  65. Epiphanius, Panarion 30.14.5
  66. Epiphanius, Panarion 30.16.5
  67. Epiphanius, Panarion 30.22.4
  68. Jerome, On Psalm 135
  69. Jerome, Commentary on Isaiah 11.9
  70. Jerome, Commentary on Isaiah 4
  71. Jerome, Commentary on Isaiah, Preface to Book 18
  72. Jerome, Commentary on Isaiah 40.9
  73. Jerome, Commentary on Ezekiel 16.3
  74. Jerome, Commentary on Ezekiel 6
  75. Jerome, Commentary on Micah 7.6
  76. Jerome’s Letter to Damascus 20 on Matthew 21.9
  77. Jerome, Commentary on Matthew 1
  78. Jerome, Commentary on Matthew 2
  79. Jerome, On Illustrious Men 16
  80. Jerome, Commentary on Matthew 4 See also: And Zechariah the son of Johoiada said, “For he was of two names.” (Peter of Laodicea, Commentary on Matthew, ed. Heinrici, 5. 267
  81. Jerome, Commentary on Matthew 4
  82. Jerome, On Matthew 27
  83. (See also Epist. 20.5) (Jerome, Letter 120 to Hedibia)
  84. Jerome, Commentary on Ephesians 3
  85. Jerome, Against Pelagius 3.2
  86. Jerome, On Illustrious Men, 2
  87. See also margin of codex 1424 – This was to fulfill what the Lord had spoken by the prophets, “Out of Egypt have I called my Son.” (Jerome, On Illustrious Men 3)
  88. Arthur Lillie, The Gospel According to the Hebrews, © 2005 Kessinger Publishing, pp. 111 - 134
  89. Pick Bernhard, Paralipomena: Remains of Gospels and Sayings of Christ, © 2009 BiblioBazaar, LLC, p.31

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