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Jesus and Messianic prophecy

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Christians and Messianic Jews believe that many verses of the Hebrew Bible are prophecies of the Messiah that were fulfilled during the life of Jesus and during his Second Coming. See also Christian views of Jesus.

Jews believe that no Messianic prophecy of Jewish scripture was fulfilled by Jesus.[1] Jews believe that the Hebrew Bible is not prophetic about Jesus being the Messiah. [2] See also Judaism's view of Jesus and Jewish messianism.

Many passages have been debated as to whether they are prophecies at all. For example, in Genesis 2, when God is dispensing punishments on Adam, Eve and the serpent, God says, "the snake shall bite the heel of the child of the woman, but he shall crush the head of the snake". Some have seen this as a prophecy about Jesus ultimately defeating the devil through his crucifixion. But since the passage is ultimately about God describing the effects of Adam and Eve eating the forbidden fruit other scholars have said that people who see prophecy in this statement are taking the words out of context. Similarly, many other "prophecies", especially in Psalms, have the same problem.

Messianic Prophecies claimed to be fulfilled

Isaiah 53:5

Isaiah 53 is probably the most famous example of a messianic prophecy claimed to be fulfilled by Jesus. It speaks of one known as the "suffering servant," who suffers because of the sins of others. Jesus is said to fulfill this prophecy through his death on the cross.[3] The following verse from Isaiah 53:5 is understood by Christians to speak of Jesus as the Messiah:

5But he was wounded because of our crimes,
Crushed because of our sins;
the disciplining that makes us whole fell on him,
and by his bruises we are healed. (CJB)

Modern Jewish scholars, as well as the Bible commentator Rashi (1040-1105), argue that the suffering servant is actually Israel[4]. Several Christian scholarly books, such as the Oxford Study Edition Bible, The Revised Standard Version, also identify Isaiah 53 as speaking of the nation of Israel. New Revised Standard Version and New English Bible also follow this interpretation. Among other reasons, this is because the nation of Israel is called "servant" several times in the book of Isaiah.

Jews for Judaism founder Rabbi Bentzion Kravitz, in his book "The Jewish Response To Missionaries," has attempted to demonstrate that the Isaiah 53 passage is purposely mistranslated in Christian Bibles to support theological concepts. He maintains that the original Hebrew portrays a different picture. For example, the preposition "mi" in Isaiah 53:5 and 53:8 is commonly translated as "for." The meaning of "mi" is not "for" but rather "from" or "because of". Thus the Judaica Press Tanach translates Isaiah 53:5 as: "But he was pained because of our transgressions, crushed because of our iniquities; the chastisement of our welfare was upon him, and with his wound we were healed." Other examples of translation errors are Isaiah 53:8 where the Hebrew phrase "mi-pesha’ ‘ami niga’ lamo" is translated as "for the transgression of my people was he stricken". The word "lamo" is the poetic form of the Hebrew "lahem" which means their/them not him and is used as such throughout the Hebrew Bible. The Jewish rendition of Isaiah 53:8 then is: "because of the transgression of my people, a plague befell them." Based on this, the servant is argued to be a collective entity not a person. This claim is supported by the fact that the Hebrew word for "death" in the following verse of Isaiah 53:9, "And he made his grave with the wicked, and with the rich in his death;" is plural.

Again, the very nature of prophecies may intertwine between pluralistic and the singuar, clearly, from the beginning of the chapter, "he, hoo" was utilised inferring a singular person without any doubt and not a nation. When "kole, kole" was used only then we clearly have plurals referring to the Nations, including the Jewish Nation. To understand where it refers to the singular and where the plural, one has to read the chapter almost to its entirety.

However, in some of the most ancient Jewish writings, Isaiah 53:5 is applied to the Messiah. The verse is Messianically interpreted in the Midrash on Samuel[5], where it is said that all sufferings are divided into three parts, one of which the Messiah bore - a remark which is brought into connection with Ruth 2:14. On Ruth 2:14 (When meal-time came, Bo'az said to her, "Come here, have some of the meal, and dip your morsel in the vinegar."), the Midr. R. Ruth 5[6], has a very remarkable interpretation. Besides the application of the word 'eat,' as beyond this present time, to the days of the Messiah, and again to the world to come, which is to follow these days, the Midrash applies the whole of it mystically to the Messiah, viz. 'Come here,' that is, draw near to the kingdom, 'have some of the meal,' that is, the bread of royalty, 'and dip your morsel in vinegar' - these are the sufferings, as it is written in Isaiah 53:5, 'He was wounded for our transgression.' Comp. Midr. on Song of Songs 2:9; Pesik. 49 a, b. Again, the words, 'she ate, and was sufficed, and left,' are thus interpreted in Shabb. 113 b: she ate - in this world; and was sufficed - in the days of the Messiah; and left - for the world to come.

Also, Psalm 2:6 is applied to the Messiah in the Midrash on 1 Samuel 16:1[7], where it is said that of the three measures of sufferings one goes to the King Messiah, of whom it is written (Isaiah 53:5) 'He was wounded for our transgression.' They say to the King Messiah: Where do you seek to dwell? He answers: Is this question also necessary? In Zion My holy hill.[8]

Zechariah 12:10

Zechariah 12:10 is another verse commonly cited by Christian authors as a messianic prophecy fulfilled in Jesus as interpreted by the Gospel writers. [9]

“...and they will look to me, whom they pierced.” They will mourn for him as one mourns for an only son; they will be in bitterness on his behalf like the bitterness for a firstborn son. (CJB)

In some of the most ancient Jewish writings, Zechariah 12:10 is applied to the Messiah the son of Joseph in the Talmud[10], and so is verse 12 (The land will wail, each family by itself: The family of the House of David by themselves, and their women by themselves; the family of the House of Nathan by themselves, and their women by themselves), there being, however, a difference of opinion whether the mourning is caused by the death of the Messiah the son of Joseph, or else on account of the evil concupiscence (Yetser haRa).

The Gospel writers make reference to this prophecy when referring to the crucifixion of Jesus, as can be seen in the following account from the book of John: The soldiers came and broke the legs of the first man who had been put on a stake beside Yeshua, then the legs of the other one; but when they got to Yeshua and saw that he was already dead, they didn't break his legs. However, one of the soldiers stabbed his side with a spear, and at once blood and water flowed out . . . For these things happened in order to fulfill this passage of the Tanakh: "Not one of his bones will be broken." And again, another passage says, "They will look at him whom they have pierced." (John 19:32-37).

Zechariah 9:9

Christian authors have interpreted Zechariah 9:9 as a prophecy of an act of messianic self-humiliation. [11]

Rejoice with all your heart, daughter of Tziyon!
Shout out loud, daughter of Yerushalayim!
Look! Your king is coming to you.
He is righteous, and he is victorious -
Humble and riding on an ass,
On a colt the foal of an ass. (CJB)

The Gospel of John links this verse to the account of Jesus’ entry into Jerusalem: They took palm branches and went out to meet him, shouting, "Deliver us!" "Blessed is he who comes in the name of the LORD, the King of Isra'el!" After finding a donkey colt, Yeshua mounted it, just as the Tanakh says - "Daughter of Tziyon, don't be afraid! Look! your King is coming, sitting on a donkey's colt." (John 12:13-15). The Synoptic Gospels make clear that Jesus arranged this event, thus consciously fulfilling the prophecy.[12]

The Gospel of Matthew describes Jesus' triumphant entry on Palm Sunday as a fulfillment of this verse in Zechariah. Matthew describes the prophecy in terms of a colt and a separate donkey, whereas the original only mentions the colt. The gospels of Mark, Luke, and John state Jesus sent his disciples after only one animal.[13] Critics claim this is a contradiction with some mocking the idea of Jesus riding two animals at the same time. A response is that the text allows for Jesus to have ridden on a colt that was accompanied by a donkey, perhaps its mother.[14] You can also consider the possibility that Jesus was in Mary's womb who was seated upon an ass on her journey to Bethlehem. This would place Jesus riding two different animals at two different times. [15]

In the most ancient Jewish writings Zechariah 9:9 is applied to the Messiah. According to the Talmud, so firm was the belief in the ass on which the Messiah is to ride that “if anyone saw an ass in his dream, he will see salvation”[16]. The verse is also Messianically quoted in Sanh. 98 a, in Pirqé de R. Eliez. c. 31, and in several of the Midrashim.

Micah 5:2

A section near the end of Micah's prophecy on the Babylonian captivity (Micah 5:2) has been interpreted by Christian scholars as a messianic prophecy that the Messiah would be born in Bethlehem. [17]

But you, Beit-Lechem near Efrat, so small among the clans of Y'hudah, out of you will come forth to me the future ruler of Isra'el, whose origins are far in the past, back in ancient times. (CJB)

The verse describes the clan of Bethlehem, who was the son of Caleb's second wife, Ephrathah. (1 Chr. 2:18, 2:50-52, 4:4) Bethlehem Ephrathah is the town and clan from which king David was born[18], and this passage refers to the future birth of a new Davidic heir.[19] Although the Gospel of Matthew and the Gospel of Luke give different accounts of the birth of Jesus, both place the birth in Bethlehem.[20] The Gospel of Matthew account describes Herod the Great asking the chief priests and scribes of Jerusalem where the Messiah was to be born; they respond by quoting the passage from Micah: "In Beit-Lechem of Y'hudah," they replied, "because the prophet wrote, 'And you, Beit-Lechem in the land of Y'hudah, are by no means the least among the rulers of Y'hudah; for from you will come a Ruler who will shepherd my people Isra'el.'" (Matthew 2:4-6)

Many modern scholars consider the birth stories as inventions by the Gospel writers, created to glorify Jesus and present his birth as the fulfilment of prophecy.[21][22] However since the birth in Bethlehem is one of the few common elements in the Gospel accounts, some scholars believe that both writers were drawing on an existing Christian tradition.[23] One must also realise that the writers of the Gospels were mainly Jews. Therefore to claim a non Jewish source-tradition is manifestly inexactitude and further, to infer invention rather than relating events as they occurred, needs a lot of verification that one cannot with the most incisive investigation conclude with any amount of confidence.[24]

The idea that Bethlehem was to be the birthplace of the Messiah appears in no Jewish source before the 4th century C.E.[25] Jewish tradition appears to have emphasised the idea that the birthplace of the Messiah was not known.[26] This well-known passage, however, is admittedly Messianic in the Targum, in the Pirqé de R. Eliez. c. 3, and by later Rabbis.

Isaiah 11:12

And he shall set up a banner for the nations,
and shall assemble the outcasts of Israel,
and gather together the dispersed of Judah
from the four corners of the earth.

Some commentators view this as an unfulfilled prophecy, arguing that the Jewish people have not all been gathered in Israel.[27] Some Christians refer to the foundation of the State of Israel as fulfilment of this prophecy.[28]

However, the majority of Christians believe that Jesus as the Messiah brings all nations to himself (cf. 11:10 Nations will seek his counsel / And his abode will be honored.) as Jesus said in John 12:32 ("And I, when I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all people to myself.") and as Paul acknowledges in Romans 15:12 when he quotes Isaiah 11:10, which emphasize the inclusion of the Gentiles into the people of God along with the Jews.[29]

Christians also believe that Isaiah 2:2 is to be understood in connection with Isaiah 11:10,12.

In the days to come,
The Mount of the Lord’s house
Shall stand firm above the mountains
And tower above the hills;
And all the nations
Shall gaze on it with joy.

Christians believe that Jesus the Messiah is the ultimate "house" or dwelling place of God, as is told in John 1:14 (And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we have seen his glory) and 2:19-21 (Jesus answered them, “Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.” The Jews then said, “It has taken forty-six years to build this temple, and will you raise it up in three days?” But he was speaking about the temple of his body.). Through him the messianic community becomes a temple in 1 Corinthians 3:16 (Do you not know that you all are God's temple and that God's Spirit dwells in you?) and Ephesians 2:20-22 (...built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, the Messiah Jesus himself being the cornerstone, in whom the whole structure, being joined together, grows into a holy temple in the Lord. In him you also are being built together into a dwelling place for God by the Spirit.) . It is through the Messiah's exaltation all nations are drawn to him, as in Luke 24:47 ("...and that repentance and forgiveness of sins should be proclaimed in his name to all nations, beginning from Jerusalem.").[30]

Ezekiel 37:26-27

I will make a covenant of peace with them, an everlasting covenant. I will give to them, increase their numbers, and set my Sanctuary among them forever. My dwelling place will be with them; I will be their God, and they will be my people. (CJB)

The "dwelling place" (Hebrew mishkan) recalls the wilderness tabernacle. The Sanctuary (Hebrew miqdash) points rather to the Temple, in particular the renewed Temple, which will occupy Ezekiel's attention in the last ch.s of 40-48. The group Jews for Judaism have said this in response to this prophetic passage: "At last check, there is NO Temple in Jerusalem. And worse, it was shortly after Jesus died that the Temple was DESTROYED! Just the opposite of this prophecy!"[27]

Christianity believes that Ezekiel's Temple is more glorious than the Tabernacle of Moses (Exodus 25-40) and the Temple of Solomon (1 Kings 5-8), pointing forward to several realities:

  • (1) the glory in which God dwells with man in the Messiah (John 1:14 The Word became a human being and lived with us, and we saw his Sh'khinah (CJB));
  • (2) The Messiah's body is the Temple (John 2:19-21 Yeshua answered them, "Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up again." The Judeans said, "It took 46 years to build this Temple, and you're going to raise it in three days?" But the "temple" he had spoken of was his body. (CJB));
  • (3) the messianic community as the Temple (1 Corinthians 3:16 Don't you know that you people are God's Temple and that God's Spirit lives in you?, Ephesians 2:20-22 You have been built on the foundation of the emissaries and the prophets, with the cornerstone being Yeshua the Messiah himself. In union with him the whole building is held together, and it is growing into a holy temple in union with the Lord. Yes, in union with him, you yourselves are being built together into a spiritual dwelling-place for God!, 1 Peter 2:5 yourselves, as living stones, are being built into a spiritual house to be cohanim set apart for God to offer spiritual sacrifices acceptable to him through Yeshua the Messiah. (CJB));
  • (4) the body of the individual believer (1 Corinthians 6:19 Or don't you know that your body is a Temple for the Ruach HaKodesh who lives inside you, whom you received from God? The fact is, you don't belong to yourselves (CJB));
  • (5) the heavenly Jerusalem (Revelation 21:9-22:5)[31]

Isaiah 9:5 (9:6)

Christians believe that this verse refers to the birth of Jesus as the Messiah. The verse reads:

For a child is born to us,
A son is given to us;
Dominion will rest on his shoulders,
And he will be given the name
Pele-Yo'etz El Gibbor [Wonder of a Counselor, Mighty God,]
Avi-'Ad Sar-Shalom. [Father of Eternity, Prince of Peace] (CJB)

The word translated "wonderful" is actually a noun, meaning a "wonder". Another translation of that phrase would be "A wonder, a counselor is the mighty God, the everlasting father, prince of peace." Like the name "Immanuel," this name would describe God, not the person who carries the name. The word "is", is usually not stated in Hebrew. Rather,"is" is understood. For example, the words "hakelev" (the dog) and "gadol" (big), when joined into a sentence "hakelev gadol" means "the dog is big," even though no Hebrew word in that sentence represents the word "is." On the other hand, the Hebrew word "hu" (meaning he) is often used similarly to the word "is", so to say "A wonder, a counselor, is the mighty God..." one would probably say "Pele yo`ets hu el gibor...", inserting the word "hu". In any case, if this "name" is actually a sentence, it is a rather unnatural sentence by the standards of Biblical Hebrew.

This long name is the throne name of the royal child. Semitic names often consist of sentences that describe God; thus the name is Isaiah in Hebrew means "The LORD saves"; Hezekiah, "The LORD strengthens"; in Akkadian, the name of the Babylonian king M'rodakh-Bal'adan (39:1) means "the god Marduk has provided an heir." These names do not describe that person who holds them but the god whom the parents worship.[32]

This verse is expressly applied to the Messiah in the Targum, and there is a very curious comment in Debarim R. 1 (ed. Warsh., p. 4a) in connection with a Haggadic discussion of Genesis 43:14, which, however fanciful, makes a Messianic application of this passage - also in Bemidbar R. 11.[33]

Isaiah 2:4

He will judge between the nations
And arbitrate for many peoples.
Then they will hammer their swords into plow-blades
And their spears into pruning-knives;
Nations will not raise
Swords at each other,
And they will no longer learn war. (CJB)[27]

This passage was applied to the Messiah by the most ancient Jewish writings, such as in Shabb. 63a. Also, in Tanchuma on Deut. 20:10[34] ("When you advance on a town to attack it, first offer it terms for peace."), the offer of peace to a hostile city is applied to the future action of Messiah to the Gentiles, in accordance with Is. 2:4 along with Zech. 9:10 and Ps. 68:31(30); while, on the other hand, the resistance of a city to the offer of peace is likened to rebellion against the Messiah, and consequent judgment, according to Is. 11:4. Christians interpreters take this verse to describe the effect on the nations as their citizens and leaders submit to the rule of the Messiah. Jesus, along with ancient and modern[35] Jewish commentators, believed that conflict would still exist in the world (Matt. 10:34-36 "Don't suppose that I have come to bring peace to the Land. It is not peace I have come to bring, but a sword! For I have come to set a man against his father, a daughter against her mother, a daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law, so that a man's enemies will be the members of his own household.")

Non-Messianic Prophecies claimed to be fulfilled

Judaism holds that the Messiah has not yet arrived namely because of the belief that the Messianic Age has not started yet. Jews believe that the Messiah will completely change life on earth and that pain and suffering will be conquered, thus initiating the Kingdom of God and the Messianic Age on earth. Contrary to the Christian belief that the Kingdom of God is not worldly, most Jews hold that the Kingdom of God will be on earth. Jews hold that life on earth after Jesus has not changed profoundly enough for him to be considered the Messiah.

While Christians have cited the following as prophecies referencing the life, status, and legacy of Jesus, Jewish scholars maintain that these passages are not messianic prophecies and are based on mistranslations/misunderstanding of the Hebrew texts.[36]

Deuteronomy 18:15

Deuteronomy 18 is one of the earliest prophecies which speaks of a prophet who would be raised up from among the Jewish nation.

15 "The LORD will raise up for you a prophet like me from among yourselves, from your own kinsmen. You are to pay attention to him . . . 18I will raise up for them a prophet like you from among their kinsmen. I will put my words in his mouth, and he will tell them everything I order him." (CJB)

In the first century C.E., Jews expected a final prophet.[37] The Gospel of John states that the Jews of Jesus' time asked John the Baptist if he were the prophet described in this verse (John 1:19-22), and that he denied it. In Acts 3:18-22, Peter claimed that Jesus was the fulfillment of this promise.

Davidic line prophecies

Daniel 9:24-27

“Seventy weeks of years are decreed concerning your people and your holy city, to finish the transgression, to put an end to sin, and to atone for iniquity, to bring in everlasting righteousness, to seal both vision and prophet, and to anoint a Most Holy. 25. Know therefore and understand that from the going forth of the word to restore and build Jerusalem to the coming of an Anointed, a prince, there shall be seven weeks. Then for sixty-two weeks it shall be built again with squares and moat, but in a troubled time. 26. And after the sixty-two weeks, an Anointed shall be cut off, and shall have nothing; and the people of the prince who is to come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary. Its end shall come with a flood, and to the end there shall be war; desolations are decreed. 27. And he shall make a strong covenant with many for one week; and for half of the week he shall cause sacrifice and offering to cease; and upon the wing of abominations shall come one who makes desolate, until the decreed end is poured out on the desolator” (Daniel 9: 24-27).

King James Version puts a definite article before "Messiah the Prince". The original Hebrew text does not read "the Messiah the Prince," but, having no article, it is to be rendered "a mashiach, a prince". The word mashiach["anointed one," "messiah"] is nowhere used in the Jewish Scriptures as a proper name, but as a title of authority of a king or a high priest. Therefore, a correct rendering of the original Hebrew should be: "an anointed one, a prince." [38]

According to Christians, the references to “most holy”, "anointed" and "prince" speak of Jesus, while the phrase “anointed shall be cut off” points to his crucifixion, and the “people of the prince who is to come” are the Romans who destroyed Jerusalem and the Temple in A.D. 70. [39]

Verse 27. “And he shall make a strong covenant with many” – i.e., “…this is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins” (Matthew 26: 28). The messiah will “cause sacrifice and offering to cease;” – i.e., by his sacrifice upon the cross, Jesus abolished all the sacrifices of the Torah, according to the antinomistic interpretation.

Finally, verse 27 mentions the “horrible abomination” or “abomination of desolation,” to which Jesus refers at Matthew 24: 15. “So when you see the desolating sacrilege spoken of by the prophet Daniel…” In this interpretation, the abomination is the Roman army, which surrounded and destroyed Jerusalem..

The general scholarly view is that Daniel is writing a contemporaneous account of the Maccabean Revolt c. 167 BCE; the abomination refers to Antiochus IV erecting a statue of Zeus in the Temple, the final straw breaking the uneasy coexistence of the traditionalist Jews and the more Hellenized Jews. A similar event happens in 132 CE, where Hadrian erects a statue of Jupiter on the sacred ground of the Temple, sparking the Bar Kokhba Revolt. A minority view Jesus' prediction of the abomination causing desolation to refer to Hadrian erecting the statue of Jupiter and "false Christs" as a reference to Bar Kokhba, who was considered the messiah for a while after the revolt.

Hosea 11:1

“When Israel was a child, I loved him, and out of Egypt I called my son.”

In its original context, this text from Hosea referred to the deliverance of the people of Israel from bondage in Egypt.[40] The Gospel of Matthew applies it to the return from Egypt of Jesus and his family as a messianic prophecy. [41] “An angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream and said, ‘Rise, take the child and his mother, and flee to Egypt, and remain there till I tell you; for Herod is about to search for the child to destroy him.’ And he rose and took the child and his mother by night, and departed to Egypt, and remained there until the death of Herod. This was to fulfil what the Lord had spoken by the prophet, ‘Out of Egypt have I called my son’” (Matthew 2: 13-15).

Isaiah 8:23-9:1 (9:1-2)

The use of Isaiah 9:1 by the Gospel author of Matthew has led many Christian authors to cite its messianic applications. [42]

1“But there will be no more gloom for those who are now in anguish. In the past the land of Z'vulun and the land of Naftali were regarded lightly; but in the future he will honor the way to the lake, beyond the Yarden, Galil-of-the-Goyim. ”
2The people living in darkness
Have seen a great light;
Upon those living in the land that lies in the shadow of death,
Light has dawned. (CJB)

Matthew refers to this, since Jesus began his public mission in Galilee:

“Now when Jesus heard that John had been arrested, he withdrew into Galilee; and leaving Nazareth he went and dwelt in Capernaum by the sea, in the territory of Zebulon and Naphtali, that what was spoken by the prophet Isaiah might be fulfilled: ‘The land of Zebulon and the land of Naphtali, toward the sea, across the Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles – the people who sat in darkness have seen a great light, and for those who sat in the region and shadow of death light has dawned’” (Matthew 4: 15-16).

In Isaiah, this passage describes how Assyrian invaders are increasingly aggressive as they progress toward the sea, while Matthew 4:13-15 has re-interpreted the description as a prophecy stating that Jesus would progress (without any hint of becoming more aggressive) toward Galilee. While Matthew uses the Septuagint rendering of Isaiah, in the Masoretic text it refers to the region of the gentiles rather than Galilee of the nations, and it is likely that the presence of the word Galilee in the Septuagint is a translation error - the Hebrew word for region is galil which can easily be corrupted to galilee.

Isaiah 7:14

Isaiah 7:14 - Matthew 1:22-23 states "The virgin will be with child and will give birth to a son, and they will call him Immanuel" — which means, "God with us". However the Jewish translation of that passage reads "Behold, the young woman [ha-almah in Hebrew]is with child and will bear a son and she will call his name Immanuel."[43] Judaism affirms that [ha-almah] ("young woman") does not refer to a virgin, and that had the Tanakh intended to refer to such, the specific Hebrew word for virgin [bethulah] would have been used. According to secular and Jewish scholarship, Isaiah chapter 7 when read in context, speaks of a prophecy made to the Jewish King Ahaz to allay his fears of two invading kings (those of Damascus and of Samaria) who were preparing to invade Jerusalem, about 600 years before Jesus’ birth. Isaiah 7:16: "For before the boy will know enough to refuse evil and choose good, the land whose two kings you dread will be forsaken." Howard W. Clarke, the Professor Emeritus of Classics at the University of California, Santa Barbara, says Isaiah seems to be explicitly referring to a son of the Judean King Ahaz (ca. 735-715 BC) rather than to his mother as Matthew misterprets it. [44]

However, [ha-almah] may also refer to a virgin, as "young woman, lass, damsel or maid" imply virginity, especially in ancient times. Prophetic pronouncements by their nature are often layered, even multi-layered, in their reference/s, as an example, Judaic approach to Isaiah 27:12-13 have embraced the current modern return of Jewish race to Israel and Jerusalem [see below: Messianic Prophecy, Judaism:'He will gather the Jewish people from exile and return them to Israel'], whereas it also refers to the return of the Jews under Artaxerxes rule.[45]. So, one may see it quite confidently as well, using Matthew's visionscope.

Jeremiah 31:15

Matthew 2:17-18 gives the killing of innocents by Herod as the fulfillment of a prophecy spoken of in Jeremiah:

Then what was said through the prophet Jeremiah was fulfilled:
A voice is heard in Ramah,
weeping and great mourning,
Rachel weeping for her children
and refusing to be comforted,
because they are no more.

In Jeremiah 31:15, the phrase "because her children are no more" refers to the captivity of Rachel's children in Assyria. The subsequent verses describe their return to Israel, [46] which never happened. (see also Assyrian_captivity#No_Historical_Return)

II Samuel 7:14

Hebrews 1:5 quotes this verse as, "I will be his Father, and he will be my Son.". However, the verse doesn’t end with the phrase quoted in the New Testament, but continues: "When he does wrong, I will punish him with the rod of men, with floggings inflicted by men." This cannot possibly fit the Christian Bible’s view of a sinless Jesus.[47] The Old Testament verse is referring to Solomon.[43][48]

Wisdom of Solomon 2:12-20

The Wisdom of Solomon is one of the Deuterocanonical books of the Hebrew Bible. The Deuterocanonical books are considered canonical by Catholics, Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox, but are considered non-canonical by Jews and Protestants.

"Let us lie in wait for the righteous man, because he is inconvenient to us and opposes our actions; he reproaches us for sins against the law, and accuses us of sins against our training. He professes to have knowledge of God, and calls himself a child of the Lord. He became to us a reproof of our thoughts; the very sight of him is a burden to us, because his manner of life is unlike that of others, and his ways are strange. We are considered by him as something base, and he avoids our ways as unclean; he calls the last end of the righteous happy, and boasts that God is his father. Let us see if his words are true, and let us test what will happen at the end of his life; for if the righteous man is God's son, he will help him, and will deliver him from the hand of his adversaries. Let us test him with insult and torture, that we may find out how gentle he is, and make trial of his forbearance. Let us condemn him to a shameful death, for, according to what he says, he will be protected".

See article on the messianic interpretation of the Wisdom of Solomon.


It should be noted that portions of the psalms are considered prophetic in Judaism, even though they are listed among the Ketuvim (Writings) and not the Nevi'im (Prophets).

Keep in mind that the words Messiah and Christ mean "anointed one"- in ancient times Jewish leaders were anointed with olive oil when they assumed their position (e.g. David, Saul, Isaac, Jacob). And "Messiah" is used as a name for kings in the Hebrew Bible: in 2Samuel 1:14 David finds King Saul's killer and asks, "Why were you not afraid to lift your hand to destroy the LORD's anointed?"

In many Psalms, which were mostly written by King David (i.e. Messiah David), the author writes about his life in third person, referring to himself as "the/God's/your messiah" while clearly talking about his military exploits. Thus it can be argued that many of the portions that are commonly seen as prophecies in Psalms may not be. Psalm 2, spoken of below, can be argued to be about David and not Jesus. Psalms 2:6 says "I have installed [past tense] my King on Zion, my holy hill [Jerusalem, David's capital that he captured in battle in 1 Samuel]." Psalms 2:7 says, "I [David, the author] will proclaim the decree of the LORD: He said to me [David, the person to whom God was speaking], 'You [David] are my Son; today I have become your [adopted] Father.'" If the passage was speaking about a begotten son then that person would have been born the son of that father; he wouldn't have to become it at some later point after birth. (Throughout the Bible it is common to call saints and angels the sons or children of God.)

Psalm 2

"Why do the nations conspire, and the peoples plot in vain? 2. The kings of the earth set themselves, and the rulers take counsel together, against the LORD and his Anointed, saying, 3. 'Let us burst their bonds asunder, and cast their cords from us.' 4. He who sits in the heavens laughs; the LORD has them in derision. 5. Then he will speak to them in his wrath, and terrify them in his fury, saying, 6. 'I have set my king on Zion, my holy hill." 7. I will tell of the decree of the LORD: He said to me, 'You are my son, today I have begotten you. 8. Ask of me, and I will make the nations your heritage, and the ends of the earth your possession. 9. You shall break them with a rod of iron, and dash them in pieces like a potter’s vessel'" (Psalm 2: 1-9).

The dating of Psalm 2 is argued among scholars, but one suggestion is that it was composed under the Hasmonean dynasty (140-37BC.[49] The authors of Acts and the Epistle to the Hebrews interpreted it as relating to Christ.

Verse 2. “Anointed” – in Hebrew mashiah, “anointed”; in Greek christos, whence English Messiah and Christ.

Verse 7. The LORD is the messiah’s father.

As for kings and rulers setting themselves against the Christ, both Herod and Pontius Pilate set themselves against Jesus, whom God had anointed, according to Acts of the Apostles 4: 25-27.

Acts 13: 33 interprets Jesus’ rising from the dead as confirmation of verse 7 (“You are my son, today I have begotten you”).

Hebrews 1: 5 employs verse 7 in order to argue that Jesus is superior to the angels, i.e., Jesus is superior as a mediator between God and man. “For to what angel did God ever say, Thou art my Son, today I have begotten thee?”

Texts vary in the exact wording of the phrase beginning Psalm 2:12, with "kiss his foot", and "kiss the Son" being most common in various languages for centuries. Strong's shows the widely known word "bar," of apparent Chaldean origin but still in common use in Hebrew today as "son," as meaning "heir" or "son." Thus, with this word and the context there is an obvious reverence for royalty which is being portrayed in various manners. The New Testament era translation of the Old Testament, the Septuagint, gives another variation, literally "accept correction." All of these variations express the same concept- to show reverence and submission to the LORD and his anointed.

Psalm 110

Christian authors have interpreted Psalm 110 as a messianic passage in light of several New Testament passages. [50]

“A psalm of David.

1. The Lord says to my lord: ‘Sit at my right hand, till I make your enemies your footstool.’
2. The Lord sends forth from Zion your mighty sceptre: ‘Rule in the midst of your foes!
3. With you is sovereignty in the splendor of holiness on the day of your birth: before the morning star, like the dew, I have begotten you.’
4. The Lord has sworn and will not change his mind: ‘You are a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek.’
5. The Lord is at your right hand; he will shatter kings on the day of his wrath.
6. He will execute judgment among the nations, filling them with corpses; he will crush heads over the wide earth.
7. He will drink from the brook by the way; therefore he will lift up his head.”

Verse 1. God speaks to David. The first instance of "The LORD (Hebrew: YHWH)" in this verse is a translation of the Hebrew name of God, Yahweh. The second instance of "my lord (Hebrew: ADONI)" is David, from the viewpoint of the Psalmist. It should be noted that the opening phrase of Psalm 110 is literally translated as "Regarding David, a psalm," indicating that the psalm is "of" or "about" King David, not written by him. The same introduction (τω δαυιδ ψαλμος) is used in the LXX version of Psalm 110 (which is Psalm 109 in the Greek text)[51].

In the New Testament, the gospel writers leave out the portion "regarding David, a psalm" and reinterprets the remaining out of context verse as a messainic prophecy: “while the Pharisees were gathered together, Jesus asked them a question, saying, ‘What do you think of the Christ? Whose son is he?’ They said to him, ‘The son of David.’ He said to them, ‘How is it then that David in the Spirit calls him Lord, saying, The Lord said to my Lord: Sit at my right hand, till I put thy enemies under thy feet? If David thus calls him Lord, how is he his son?’ And no one was able to answer him a word” (Matthew 22: 41-46). The remaining portion of this verse speaks of how David shall be seated at God's right hand, with his enemies thoroughly defeated. Although Hebrew has no capital letters, the Hebrew translation of that passage reads "The Lord said to my lord" indicating that it is not speaking of God.[52]

Paul says of Jesus that “he must reign, until he has put all his enemies under his feet” (1 Corinthians 15: 25).

Verse 3. Before the morning star, like the dew, I have begotten you. The relationship between the Lord God and the messiah: God has begotten the messiah before the morning star, i.e., before the world began. Hence Jesus says, “Father, glorify me with the glory that I had with you before the world was made” (John 17: 5).

Verse 4. The New Testament letter to the Hebrews connects Jesus to the priest Melchizedek. “Christ did not exalt himself to be made a high priest, but was appointed by him who said to him, ‘Thou art my Son, today I have begotten thee’; as he says also in another place, ‘Thou art a priest for ever, after the order of Melchizedek.’ For Jesus, in the days of his flesh, offered up prayers and supplications, with loud cries and tears, to him who was able to save him from death, and he was heard for his godly fear. Although he was a Son, he learned obedience through what he suffered; and being made perfect he became the source of eternal salvation to all who obey him, being designated by God a high priest after the order of Melchizedek” (Hebrews 5: 5-10).

Psalm 16

The interpretation of Psalm 16 as a messanic prophecy is common among Christian evangelical hermeneutics. [53] “I bless the Lord who has given me understanding, because even in the night, my heart warns me. I keep the Lord always within my sight; for he is at my right hand, I shall not be moved. For this reason my heart is glad and my soul rejoices; moreover, my body also will rest secure, for thou wilt not leave my soul in the abode of the dead, nor permit thy holy one to see corruption. Thou wilt show me the path of life, the fullness of joys in thy presence, and delights at thy right hand forever” (verses 7-11).

According to the preaching of Peter, this prophecy is about the messiah’s triumph over death, i.e., the resurrection of Jesus.

“God raised Jesus up, having loosed the pangs of death, because it was not possible for him to be held by it. For David says concerning him, ‘I saw the Lord always before me, for he is at my right hand that I may not be shaken… For thou wilt not abandon my soul to Hades, nor let thy Holy One see corruption… Thou wilt make me full of gladness with thy presence.’ Brethren, I may say to you confidently of the patriarch David that he both died and was buried, and his tomb is with us to this day. Being therefore a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn with an oath to him that he would set one of his descendants upon his throne, he foresaw and spoke of the resurrection of the Christ, that he was not abandoned to Hades, nor did his flesh see corruption. This Jesus God raised up, and we are all witnesses of it” (Acts 2: 24-32).

Also of note is what Paul said in the synagogue at Antioch. “And as for the fact that he raised him from the dead, no more to return to corruption, he spoke in this way, ‘I will give you the holy and sure blessings of David.’ Therefore he also says in another psalm, ‘Thou wilt not let thy Holy One see corruption.’ For David, after he had served the counsel of God in his own generation, fell asleep, and saw corruption; but he whom God raised up saw no corruption” (Acts 13: 34-37).

Psalm 34

Some Christian writers have used the Gospel of John allusion to Psalm 34:20 as an example of a messianic prophecy. [54]

Psalm 34:20 reads: “Many are the afflictions of the just man; but the Lord delivers him from all of them. He guards all his bones: not even one of them shall be broken.” (Psalms 34:20)

In its account of the crucifixion of Jesus, the Gospel quotes this, interpreting it as a prophecy. Linking the psalm's account of the suffering of David (traditionally considered the author) with the suffering of Jesus, it presents some of the details as fulfilment:

“So the soldiers came and broke the legs of the first, and of the other who had been crucified with Jesus; but when they came to Jesus and saw that he was already dead, they did not break his legs. But one of the soldiers pierced his side with a spear, and at once there came out blood and water… For these things took place that the scripture might be fulfilled, ‘Not a bone of him shall be broken.’ And again another scripture says, ‘They shall look on him whom they have pierced’” (John 19:32-37)

Psalm 22

Psalm 22 is considered by Christian authors to be a key prophecy of the passion of Jesus. Two of the Gospels accounts Matthew 27:46 and Mark 15:34) quote Jesus as speaking words from this on the cross:[55]

"From the cross, Jesus cried with a loud voice, “Eli, Eli, lema sabachthani?” which means, “My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?”

The other two Gospel accounts quote different accounts of the words of Jesus on the cross. For instance, Luke 23:46 quotes Psalm 31:5 ("Into your hands I commit my spirit") while John has Jesus say "It is finished" (John 19:30). Some scholars see this as evidence that the words of Jesus were not part of the pre-Gospel Passion narrative, but were added by the Gospel writers.[56]

In most Hebrew manuscripts such as the Masoretic, Psalm 22:16 (verse 17 in the Hebrew verse numbering) reads כארי ידי ורגלי ("like a lion my hands and my feet").[57][unreliable source?] Many Christians translate this as "they have pierced my hands and my feet", based on the Septuagint and Syriac manuscripts. However, there remains some controversy about this translation. The Dead Sea Scrolls lends considerable weight to the translation as "They have pierced my hands and my feet".[58]

Psalm 69

"They gave me also gall for my meat; and in my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink" Christians believe that this verse refers to Jesus' time on the cross in which he was given a sponge soaked in vinegar to drink, as seen in Matthew 27:34, Mark 15:23, and John 19:29.[59]

Unfulfilled Prophecies

Rule at a time when the Jews follow God's commandments

  • He will rule at a time when the Jewish people will observe God's commandments - "My servant David shall be king over them; and they shall all have one shepherd. They shall follow My ordinances and be careful to observe My statutes." (Ezekiel 37:24) [27]

Rule at a time when everybody believes in God

  • He will rule at a time when all people will come to acknowledge and serve one God - "And it shall come to pass that from one new moon to another and from one Sabbath to another, shall all flesh come to worship before Me, says the Lord" (Isaiah 66:23) [27]

Claimed examples of Prophecy

As examples, passages are listed below which many Christians consider to be messianic prophecies that refer to Jesus, who they believe is the Messiah. Moshiach Online has a set of articles on Jewish interpretations regarding the Messiah.

Ancestors of Messiah

  • Isaiah 37:31 Once more a remnant of the house of Judah will take root below and bear fruit above.
  • Isaiah 11:10 In that day the Root of Jesse will stand as a banner for the peoples; the nations will rally to him, and his place of rest will be glorious.
  • Isaiah 11:1 A shoot will come up from the stump of Jesse; from his roots a Branch will bear fruit.
  • Isaiah 16:5 In love a throne will be established; in faithfulness a man will sit on it—one from the house of David--one who in judging seeks justice and speeds the cause of righteousness.

Nature of the Messiah

Who has ascended into heaven, or descended?
Who has gathered the wind in His fists?
Who has bound the waters in a garment?
Who has established all the ends of the earth?
What is His name, and what is His Son's name, if you know?

Personality of the Messiah

  • Isaiah 11:2-5 (2) The Spirit of the LORD will rest on him — the Spirit of wisdom and of understanding, the Spirit of counsel and of power, the Spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD — (3) and he will delight in the fear of the LORD. He will not judge by what he sees with his eyes, or decide by what he hears with his ears; (4) but with righteousness he will judge the needy, with justice he will give decisions for the poor of the earth. He will strike the earth with the rod of his mouth; with the breath of his lips he will slay the wicked. (5) Righteousness will be his belt and faithfulness the sash around his waist.
  • Isaiah 16:5 In love a throne will be established; in faithfulness a man will sit on it—one from the house of David—one who in judging seeks justice and speeds the cause of righteousness.

Activities of the Messiah

  • Isaiah 11:4 but with righteousness he will judge the needy, with justice he will give decisions for the poor of the earth. He will strike the earth with the rod of his mouth; with the breath of his lips he will slay the wicked.

Miracles of Messiah

  • Isaiah 29:18 In that day the deaf will hear the words of the scroll, and out of gloom and darkness the eyes of the blind will see.
  • Isaiah 35:5-6a (5) Then will the eyes of the blind be opened and the ears of the deaf unstopped. (6a) Then will the lame leap like a deer, and the mute tongue shout for joy.

How the Messiah will come (style)

  • Isaiah 49:7 This is what the LORD says—the Redeemer and Holy One of Israel—to him who was despised and abhorred by the nation, to the servant of rulers: "Kings will see you and rise up, princes will see and bow down, because of the LORD, who is faithful, the Holy One of Israel, who has chosen you."

Results of the Messiah's coming (long-term)

  • Isaiah 61:1-2 (1) The Spirit of the Sovereign LORD is on me, because the LORD has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim freedom for the captives and release from darkness for the prisoners, (2) to proclaim the year of the LORD's favor and the day of vengeance of our God, to comfort all who mourn,
  • Isaiah 49:6 he (the Lord) says: "It is too small a thing for you to be my servant to restore the tribes of Jacob and bring back those of Israel I have kept. I will also make you a light for the Gentiles, that you may bring my salvation to the ends of the earth."
  • Isaiah 42:1 "Here is my servant, whom I uphold, my chosen one in whom I delight; I will put my Spirit on him and he will bring justice to the nations (Gentiles)."

Debate about claims of prophecy fulfilment in the New Testament

Opinion is not unanimous as to which Old Testament passages are messianic prophecies and which are not. However, one subset of New Testament passages engender another type of debate: whether the prophecies they claim to have been fulfilled are intended to be prophecies at all. The authors of these Old Testament "prophecies" may actually have been describing events that had already occurred. For example, the New Testament verse Matthew 2:14 states, "So he got up, took the child and his mother during the night and left for Egypt, 15 where he stayed until the death of Herod. And so was fulfilled what the Lord had said through the prophet: 'Out of Egypt I called my son.'" This is referring to the Old Testament verse Hosea 11:1. However, that passage reads, "When Israel was a child, I loved him, and out of Egypt I called my son."

Skeptics' view

Skeptics say that the Hosea passage clearly is talking about a historical event and therefore the passage clearly is not a prophecy.

According to the Bible commentator Rashi, the suffering servant described in Isaiah chapter 53 is actually the Jewish people; sometimes Isaiah mentions groups of people as if they were one person

According to some, the rabbinic response, e.g., Rashi and Maimonides, is that although the suffering servant passage clearly is prophetic and even if Psalm 22 is prophetic, the Messiah has not come yet, therefore, the passages could not possibly be talking about Jesus. As noted above, there is some controversy about the phrase "they have pierced my hands and my feet".


Different explanations are offered for why these types of passages should be considered prophecies, depending on the particular passage.

The Pesher interpretation method

Some have pointed out that at the time of Jesus of Nazareth there was a Jewish method of biblical interpretation known as pesher in Hebrew. It was a common approach to the Hebrew Bible by the communities at Qumran. It was a widely-known and widely-accepted interpretive technique that the Jewish writers of the New Testament would have known well. In modern Christian theological terminology, this approach involves typology. When a New Testament author describes something as a prophecy that is not usually regarded as a prophecy, he is saying essentially, "This event is an example of the type of thing that this Old Testament passage is referring to."

The Remez interpretation method

Jews and Christians tend to ask different questions about the Bible. One example cited is that a common question of Jewish biblical scholars is, "Why is this passage next to this passage?"

Jewish interpretive techniques often look for a "hint" at a deeper meaning; this "hint" is known as remez in Hebrew. Because the New Testament writers were fluent in biblical Hebrew, sometimes they are using a play on Hebrew words in the original Tanach that is not obvious to Greek scholars and translators or to English-speaking readers. One example is Matthew saying at Matthew 2:23 "and he went and lived in a town called Nazareth. So was fulfilled what was said through the prophets: 'He will be called a Nazarene.'" The words "Nazareth" and "Nazarene" do not occur in the Old Testament. Juster opines that Matthew is hinting at two Hebrew words: the root n-z-r, meaning "branch", and "Nazarite".

Another possible explanation offered is that such a prophecy once existed in the biblical texts but was lost. This theory is supported by the fact that such a verse exists in a copy of Samuel found among the Dead Sea Scrolls.

Comparison of the messianic prophecies in Judaism and Christianity

The following are the scriptural requirements in Judaism and Christianity concerning the Messiah, his actions, and his reign. Jewish sources insist that the Messiah will fulfill the prophecies outright. Some Christians maintain that some of these prophecies are associated with a putative second coming while Jewish scholars state there is no concept of a second coming in the Hebrew Bible.

Messianic Prophecy Judaism      Christianity
The Sanhedrin will be re-established[60][61] Purple check
Once he is King, leaders of other nations will look to him for guidance.[61][62] Purple check Green check
The whole world will worship the One God of Israel[61][63][64] Purple check Green check
Jews will return to full Torah observance and practice it.[61] Purple check
He will be descended from King David[65] via Solomon[43][66] Purple check Green check
The Moshiach will be a man of this world, an observant Jew with "fear of God"[61][67] Purple check Green check
Evil and tyranny will not be able to stand before his leadership[61][68] Purple check Green check
Knowledge of God will fill the world[61][69] Purple check Green check
He will include and attract people from all cultures and nations[61][70] Purple check Green check
All Israelites will be returned to their homeland[61][71] Purple check
Death will be swallowed up forever[61][72] Purple check Green check
There will be no more hunger or illness, and death will cease[61][72] Purple check Green check
All of the dead will rise again. According to the Zohar, the resurrection will take place forty years
after the arrival of Moshiach[61][73]
Purple check Green check
The Jewish people will experience eternal joy and gladness[61][74] Purple check
He will be a messenger of peace[61][75] Purple check Green check
Nations will end up recognizing the wrongs they did to Israel[61][76] Purple check
The peoples of the world will turn to the Jews for spiritual guidance[61][77] Purple check
The ruined cities of Israel will be restored[61][78] Purple check
Weapons of war will be destroyed[61][79] Purple check Green check
The Temple will be rebuilt[80] resuming many of the suspended 613 mitzvot.[61] Purple check
He will rebuild the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem.[43][64][81] Purple check
He will gather the Jewish people from exile and return them to Israel.[43][82] Purple check
He will bring world peace.[43][64][83] Purple check Green check
He will influence the entire world to acknowledge and serve one God.[43][84] Purple check Green check
He will then perfect the entire world to serve God together[61][85]
He will give you all the worthy desires of your heart[61][86]
Purple check Green check
He will take the barren land and make it abundant and fruitful[61][87] Purple check Green check

See also


  1. The Real Messiah: A Jewish Response to Missionaries By Rab. Aryeh Kaplan; "To the Jew, the Messiah has a most important mission, namely to bring the world back to G-d, and make it a place of peace, justice and harmony. When Jesus failed to accomplish this, the early Christians had to radically alter the very concept of the Messiah. This, in turn, transformed Christianity from another Jewish Messianic sect into a religion that is quite alien to many basic Jewish teachings." Citing From Messiah to Christ, p.14; 1976 by National Conference of Synagogue Youth.
  2. The Jewish Response to Missionaries By Rab. Aryeh Kaplan; "The Hebrew word for 'Messiah' is 'Moshiach'. The literal and proper translation of this word is “anointed,” which refers to a ritual of anointing and consecrating someone or something with oil." Citing The Hebrew Roots of the word “Messiah”, p.29; Fourth Edition. Revised. 2001 Jews for Judaism International Inc.
  3. George Dahl Journal of Biblical Literature Vol. 57, No. 1 (Mar., 1938) requires subscription for full content
  4. Joel E. Rembaum Harvard Theological Review Vol. 75, No. 3 (Jul., 1982) requires subscription for full content
  5. ed. Lemberg, p. 45a, last line
  6. ed. Warsh. p. 43 a and b
  7. Par. 19, ed, Lemberg, p. 45 a and b
  8. Comp. also Yalkut ii. p. 53 c.
  9. Richard H. Hiers Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 90, No. 1 (Mar., 1971) Requires subscription for full content
  10. Sukk. 52a
  11. George Livingstone Robinson American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Vol. 12, No. 1/2 (Oct., 1895 - Jan., 1896) Requires subscription for full content
  12. D. A. Carson, The Gospel According to John (Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1991), page 433.
  13. Mark 11:1-7, Luke 19:30-35, John 12: 14-15
  14. Harbin, Michael A. (2005). The Promise and the Blessing. Grand Rapids: Zondervin. pp. 415+636. ISBN 0-310-24037-2. 
  16. Ber. 56b
  17. W. Muss-Arnolt Biblical World, Vol. 9, No. 6 (Jun., 1897) Requires subscription for full content
  18. 1 Samuel 16.18-23
  19. Joseph A. Fitzmyer, The One who is to Come, (Eerdmans, 2007), page 53.
  20. Raymond E. Brown, The Birth of the Messiah, Anchor Bible (1999), page 36.
  21. Geza Vermes, The Nativity: History and Legend, London, Penguin, 2006, p22.
  22. E. P. Sanders, The Historical Figure of Jesus, Penguin, 1993, p.85.
  23. Edwin D. Freed, The Stories of Jesus' Birth, (Continuum International, 2004), page 78.
  24. Introduction to NKJV New Testament section
  25. Edwin D. Freed, The Stories of Jesus' Birth, (Continuum International, 2004), page 79.
  26. Edwin D Freed, The Stories of Jesus' Birth, (Continuum International, 2004), page 79; see John 7:26-27
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 27.3 27.4 Jews for Judaism: Messiah: The Criteria
  28. Farzana Hassan, Prophecy and the Fundamentalist Quest: An Integrative Study of Christian and Muslim Apocalyptic Religion (McFarland, 2008), page 26-27.
  29. ESV Study Bible; "History of Salvation in the OT"
  30. ESV Study Bible; "History of Salvation in the OT"
  31. ESV Study Bible; "History of Salvation in the OT"
  32. The Jewish Study Bible (Oxford Press); commentary on Isaiah 9.5
  34. Par. 19, ed. Warsh. p. 114b
  35. The Jewish Study Bible (Oxford Press, 2004), commentary on Isaiah 2.4; "The prophet does not imagine a future without borders or distinct nationalities. International conflicts will still occur, but nations will no longer resolve them through warfare."
  36. [1]
  37. ESV Study Bible (commentary on Deuteronomy 18.15-19)
  38. Jews for Judaism FAQ
  39. Tim Meadowcroft Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 120, No. 3 (Autumn, 2001) Requires subscription for full content
  40. David A. DeSilva, An Introduction to the New Testament, InterVarsity Press, 2004, page 249.
  41. John H. Sailhamer Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 44/1 (March 2001)
  42. J. M. Powis Smith American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Vol. 40, No. 4 (Jul., 1924) Requires subscription for full content
  43. 43.0 43.1 43.2 43.3 43.4 43.5 43.6 English Handbook Page 34
  44. Howard Clarke, The Gospel of Matthew and its readers, Indiana University Press, p.5
  45. Nehemiah, Ezra
  46. Jeremiah 31:16-17, 23
  47. 2 Cor. 5:21, 1 Peter 2:21-22
  48. 1 Chronicles 22:9-10
  49. Marco Treves Vetus Testamentum, Vol. 15, Fasc. 1 (Jan., 1965) Requires subscription for full content
  50. Herbert W. Bateman IV 'Psalm 110'. Bibliotheca Sacra 149 (Oct. 1992)
  52. Outreach Judaism - responds directly to the issues raised by missionaries and cults. Responds to Jews For Jesus
  53. Darrell L. Bock Bibliotheca Sacra 142 (July, 1985)
  54. Ray Pritchard What A Christian Believes: An Easy to Read Guide to Understanding chapter 3 Crossway Books ISBN 1-58134-016-8
  55. Mark H. Heinemann BIBLIOTHECA SACRA 147 (July 1990)
  56. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible, (Eerdmans, 2000), page 1012.
  57. Disciples Study Bible (NIV)
  58. The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible, Translated and with commentary by Martin Abegg Jr., Peter Flint and Eugene Ulrich. (San Francisco: HarperCollins, 1999
  59. James Montgomery Boice and Philip Graham Ryken The Heart of the Cross pg 13 Crossway Books ISBN 1-58134-678-6
  60. Isaiah 1:26
  61. 61.00 61.01 61.02 61.03 61.04 61.05 61.06 61.07 61.08 61.09 61.10 61.11 61.12 61.13 61.14 61.15 61.16 61.17 61.18 61.19 61.20 61.21 Jewish Messiah, Moshiach/Mashiach - What is the Jewish Belief About ‘The End of Days’?
  62. Isaiah 2:4
  63. Isaiah 2:17
  64. 64.0 64.1 64.2 Messiah Truth: A Jewish Response to Missionary Groups
  65. Isaiah 11:1
  66. 1 Chron. 22:8-10
  67. Isaiah 11:2
  68. Isaiah 11:4
  69. Isaiah 11:9
  70. Isaiah 11:10
  71. Isaiah 11:12
  72. 72.0 72.1 Isaiah 25:8
  73. Isaiah 26:19
  74. Isaiah 51:11
  75. Isaiah 52:7
  76. Isaiah 52:13-53:5
  77. Zechariah 8:23
  78. Ezekiel 16:55
  79. Ezekiel 39:9
  80. Ezekiel 40
  81. Micah 4:1
  82. Isaiah 11:12, Isaiah 27:12-13
  83. Isaiah 2:4, Isaiah 11:6, Micah 4:3
  84. Isaiah 11:9, Isaiah 40:5, Zephaniah 3:9
  85. Zephaniah 3:9
  86. Psalms 37:4
  87. Isaiah 51:3, Amos 9:13-15, Ezekiel 36:29-30, Isaiah 11:6-9

Further reading

  • Herbert Lockyer All the Messianic Prophecies of the Bible Zondervan 1988 ISBN 0-310-28091-5
  • Nelson Reference Guides Find It Fast Messianic Prophecies Fulfilled In Jesus Christ Nelson Reference 2001 ISBN 0-7852-4754-8
  • Charles A. Briggs Messianic Prophecy: The Prediction of the Fulfilment of Redemption Through the Messiah

Wipf & Stock Publishers 2005 ISBN 1-59752-292-9

  • Edward Riehm Messianic Prophecy: Its Origins, Historical Growth and Relation to New Testament Fulfillment Kessinger Publishing 2006 ISBN 1-4254-8411-5
  • Aaron Kligerman Old Testament Messianic Prophecy Zondervan 1957 ASIN B000GSNPMQ
  • Michael F. Bird, Are You the One Who Is to Come? Baker Academic 2008.

External links

Jewish analysis

Evangelical Christian analysis

Skeptical and Critical analysis

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