|Kings of Israel|
Jehoash (Hebrew: יהואש המלך; Latin: Joas; fl. c. 790 BC), whose name means “Yahweh has given,” was a king of the ancient Kingdom of Israel and the son of Jehoahaz. He was the 12th king of Israel and reigned for 16 years. William F. Albright has dated his reign to 801 BC – 786 BC, while E. R. Thiele offers the dates 798 BC – 782 BC. When he ascended the throne, the Kingdom of Israel was suffering from the predations of the Arameans, whose king Hazael was reducing the amount of land controlled by Israel.
Later in his reign, Jehoash was involved in war with Amaziah, the king of Judah. Jehoash utterly defeated Amaziah at Beth-shemesh, on the borders of Dan and Philistia. Jehoash then advanced on Jerusalem, broke down a portion of the wall, and carried away the treasures of the Temple and the palace. After the battle he soon died and was buried in Samaria.
According to the second book of Kings, Jehoash was a sinful king and did evil in the eyes of the LORD. He tolerated the worship of the golden calves, yet maintained an appearance of worshipping Yahweh. He held the prophet Elisha in honor, and wept by his bedside while he was dying. At this meeting, Elisha predicted he would defeat the Arameans three times. The prediction came true; Jehoash sacked Jerusalem, taking hostages to assure good conduct.
Jehoash was king of Israel for 16 years and led the Israelites through some decisive battles. Jehoash led the men of Israel in the defeat of King Amaziah of Judah. Jehoash had warned Amaziah, saying: “A thistle in Lebanon sent a message to a cedar in Lebanon, 'Give your daughter to my son in marriage.' Then a wild beast in Lebanon came along and trampled the thistle underfoot. You have indeed defeated Edom and now you are arrogant. Glory in your victory, but stay at home! Why ask for trouble and cause your own downfall and that of Judah also?" Amaziah had begun to worship some of the idols he had taken from the Edomites, which the author of Chronicles believes led to his ruin and his defeat by Jehoash, whom he had challenged to battle. Jehoash took Amaziah as a prisoner. Amaziah's defeat was followed by a conspiracy that took his life.
Jehoash also went to visit Elisha, who was sick with the illness that would eventually lead to his death. Jehoash pleased Elisha, addressing him in the words Elisha himself had used when Elijah was carried up into heaven: "O my father, my father, the chariot of Israel and the horsemen thereof". When Jehoash failed to completely obey Elisha’s instructions, Elisha predicted that Jehoash would only defeat the Arameans three times rather than five or six times, which may have been enough to end the Syrian threat.
According to the Biblical account, Jehoash, despite his victories, did evil in the eyes of the LORD. Though Jehoash benefited from the righteous acts of his grandfather Jehu, he continued in the same sins that Jehu's predecessor Jereboam had introduced into the kingdom. When Jehu assumed the throne, he continued some of the same sins as Jereboam. Jehoahaz, Jehu's son and successor, maintained these practices. Jehoash, Jehu's grandson, also condoned the sacrifices and worshiping of idols by the Israelites. This is consistent with the words found in Exodus and Deuteronomy, where Yahweh promises to repay the sins of the fathers to the third and fourth generations.
As a descendent of Jehu, Jehoash's rule was a partial fulfillment of a promise the LORD had made to Jehu. Jehoash was the third generation of the four that the LORD promised would make up the Jehu Dynasty in Israel (Jehu, Jehoahaz, Jehoash, and Jereboam II). The LORD made this promise to Jehu because Jehu fulfilled the purpose that the LORD had for him, despite Jehu’s later sins. “The LORD said to Jehu, 'Because you have done well in accomplishing what is right in my eyes and have done to the house of Ahab all I had in mind to do, your descendants will sit on the throne of Israel to the fourth generation.' Yet Jehu was not careful to keep the law of the LORD, the God of Israel, with all his heart. He did not turn away from the sins of Jeroboam, which he had caused Israel to commit.”
The sins of Jeroboam are summarized in 1 Kings:
You have done more evil than all who lived before you. You have made for yourself other gods, idols made of metal; you have provoked me to anger and thrust me behind your back.
– 1 Kings 14:9 NIV
Jeroboam also angered the LORD by condoning the worship of golden calves. Not only did he condone it, but offered sacrifices to the calves that he himself had made. “He instituted a festival on the fifteenth day of the eighth month, like the festival held in Judah, and offered sacrifices on the altar. This he did in Bethel, sacrificing to the calves he had made. And at Bethel he also installed priests at the high places he had made.” Jehoash, too did not turn away from the sins of Jeroboam, his great-grandfather, and Israel continued in them as well. For example, Jehoash condoned the worship of the golden calves among the Israelites. Also, late in his reign Jehoash worshipped the gods of Edom.
- ↑ Joash, Jehoash; New Bible Dictionary. Douglas, J.D., ed. 1982 (second edition). Tyndale House Publishers, Wheaton, IL, USA. ISBN 0842346678, p. 597-598
- ↑ 2 Kings 14:1; compare 12:1; 13:10
- ↑ Edwin Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, (1st ed.; New York: Macmillan, 1951; 2d ed.; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1965; 3rd ed.; Grand Rapids: Zondervan/Kregel, 1983). ISBN 082543825X, 9780825438257
- ↑ 2 Kings 13:12;14:8-14; 2 Chronicles 25:14-24
- ↑ 2 Kings 13:13; Joash, Jehoash. Illustrated Dictionary & Concordance of the Bible. Wigoder, Geoffrey, ed., 1986. G.G. The Jerusalem Publishing House Ltd. ISBN 0895774070
- ↑ 2 Kings 13:11
- ↑ Joash, Jehoash; New Bible Dictionary, Douglas, J.D., ed. 1982 (second edition). Tyndale House Publishers, Wheaton, IL, USA. ISBN 0842346678, p. 597-598
- ↑ 2 Kings 13:14-20
- ↑ Joash, Jehoash. New Bible Dictionary. Douglas, J.D., ed. 1982 (second edition). Tyndale Press, Wheaton, IL, USA. ISBN 0842346678, pp. 597-598; 2 Kings 13:14-20
- ↑ 2 Kings 13:12
- ↑ 2 Kings 14:8-14; 2 Chronicles 25:17-24; Joash, Jehoash. New Bible Dictionary. Douglas, J.D., ed. 1982 (second edition). Tyndale Press, Wheaton, IL, USA. ISBN 0842346678, pp. 597-598
- ↑ Joash, Jehoash. New Bible Dictionary. 1982 (second edition). Tyndale Press, Wheaton, IL, USA. ISBN 0842346678, p. 597-598; 2 Kings 14:13
- ↑ 2 Kings 14:9-10; Joash var. Jehoash. The Anchor Bible Dictionary, Vol III, 1992. Freedman, David Noel., ed., New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0385193610 pp. 857-858
- ↑ 2 Chronicles 25:20
- ↑ 2 Kings 14:13
- ↑ 2 Kings 14:8-14, 19
- ↑ 2 Kings 13:14
- ↑ 2 Kings 13:14; 2 Kings 14, Adam Clarke's Commentary on the Holy Bible. Clarke, Adam. 1967. Beacon Hill Press, Kansas City, KA, USA. pp. 372-373
- ↑ 2 Kings 13:19; Joash var. Jehoash. The Anchor Bible Dictionary, Vol III, 1992. Freedman, David Noel., ed., New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0385193610 pp. 857-858
- ↑ 2 Kings 13:11
- ↑ Exodus 20:5, Deuteronomy 5:9
- ↑ Joash var. Jehoash. The Anchor Bible Dictionary, Vol III, 1992. Freedman, David Noel., ed., New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0385193610 pp. 857-858
- ↑ 2 Kings 10:30-31
- ↑ 2 Kings 14, Unger's Bible Handbook. Unger, Merrill F., 1966. Moody Press, Chicago, IL, USA. pp 214-215
- ↑ 1 Kings 12:32
- ↑ The One Volume Bible Commentary. The Rev. J. R. Dummelow, M.A., ed., 1950. The Macmillan Company, NY, USA, p. 236; 2 Kings 13:11
Jehoash of Israel
|King of Israel|
798 BC – 782 BC
| Succeeded by|