|His Eminence |
Jaime Lachica Sin
|Cardinal Archbishop Emeritus of Manila|
|Enthroned||19 March 19, 1974|
|Reign ended||15 September 2003|
|Predecessor||Rufino Jiao Santos|
|Ordination||3 April 1954|
|Consecration||18 March 1967|
|Created Cardinal||24 May 1976|
|Other||Archbishop of Jaro (1972-74)|
August 31, 1928|
New Washington, Aklan, Philippines
June 21, 2005 (aged 76)|
|Buried||Crypt at the Manila Cathedral|
Jaime Sin, also Jaime Lachica Sin (31 August 1928 – 21 June 2005) (Chinese name: 辛海梅; 辛海棉 Xīn Hǎiméi; Xīn Hǎimián), was a Roman Catholic Archbishop of Manila known for his instrumental role in the People Power Revolution, which toppled the regime of Ferdinand Marcos and installed Corazon Aquino as president of the Philippines. During his reign, he was considered an influential and charismatic leader of the Filipino people having led another "people power" in 2001. He died at the age of 76 on 21 June 2005 due to complications to the kidney as a result of diabetes.
Cardinal Sin was only the third native Filipino Archbishop of Manila, following centuries of Spanish, American and Irish episcopacy. He led the Archdiocese of Manila as its archbishop and was made cardinal by Pope Paul VI. As Archbishop of Manila, he was widely considered Primate of the Philippines, though no formal dignity has ever been attached to the archdiocese. He retired as the Archbishop of Manila on 15 September 2003, having reached the age of retirement for bishops under Canon Law, and was succeeded by Gaudencio Rosales.
His title and surname as Cardinal Sin were the source of many jokes in the Philippines, such as "The greatest sin of all...Cardinal Sin", and his own pun: "Welcome to the house of Sin" referring to his official residence, Villa San Miguel.
Priesthood and episcopacyEdit
Sin was born in New Washington, Aklan, Philippines to Juan Sin (of Chinese ancestry) and Máxima Lachica (of Aklanon ancestry). He was the seventh of sixteen children. He is the brother of Dr. Ramón L. Sin. He eventually left his childhood home and his family to study in St. Vincent Ferrer Seminary, and was ordained a priest of the Archdiocese of Jaro on 3 April 1954. He was the first rector of St. Pius X Seminary in Lawaan Hills, Roxas City, Capiz. He was appointed auxiliary bishop of Jaro on 10 February 1967, and was ordained as bishop of the titular see of Obba on 18 March of that year. On 15 March 1972, Sin was appointed Coadjutor Archbishop of Jaro, taking on administrative roles in the archdiocese, while holding the titular see of Massa Lubrense. On 8 October 1972, Sin was appointed Archbishop of Jaro, taking full control of the archdiocese.
Sin's service as Archbishop of Jaro ended with his appointment on 21 January 1974 to the larger archdiocese seated in the nation's capital of Manila. Sin was officially installed as Archbishop of Manila at the Manila Cathedral on 19 March 1974. On 24 May 1976, Pope Paul VI made him a member of the College of Cardinals, creating him Cardinal Priest of the titular church of Santa Maria ai Monti. He remained the youngest member of the College until 1983.
People Power movementEdit
|Styles of |
|Reference style||His Eminence|
|Spoken style||Your Eminence|
Events in the Philippines under President Ferdinand Marcos forced Sin, the spiritual leader of all Filipino Catholics, to become involved in the politics of the region. He became witness to corruption, fraud and even murder at the hands of the regime — events that pushed Filipinos to the brink of civil unrest and even war. Sin appealed to Filipinos of all religions to follow the teachings of Jesus in the Gospels and use peaceful means to change the political situation in the Philippines.
President Marcos ordered his generals to deploy against the marchers. However, tanks and troops were stopped in the streets with people on their knees praying the rosary and singing English language translations of sacred hymns. Some soldiers decided to join the marchers.
In what later became known as the People Power Revolution, Marcos, his family, and close advisors were forced to flee the Philippines, taking up residence in Honolulu, Hawaii upon the invitation of President of the United States Ronald Reagan. Cardinal Sin, along with Presidents Corazon Aquino and Fidel Ramos, became known to Filipinos as the architects of the People Power Movement.
Sin decided to intervene again, in 2001, to become the spiritual leader of another People Power Movement. Some Filipinos alleged that President Joseph Estrada was guilty of widespread corruption and graft because of the controversial "second envelope". Poor people marching in the streets, with the support of Sin, the elite and military generals, succeeded in toppling Estrada from power and elevating Gloria Macapagal Arroyo as acting president in what was perceived by the international community as a triumphant democracy. The "second envelope" was opened after the coup and turned out to be Estrada's bank account.
Two and a half years after Sin's death, it was reported that at the height of EDSA II, Sin received a directive from the Vatican ordering him and the Philippine clergy to adopt a non-partisan stance towards the political crisis. Sin, who by then had committed support for the EDSA II revolt, was said to have threatened to resign as Archbishop if compelled to withdraw his support. The standoff was reportedly resolved with the mediation of the then Supreme Court Associate Justice Artemio Panganiban (later, Chief Justice of the Philippines), a member of the Pontifical Council for the Laity, a department of the Roman Curia. As a result, the Vatican did not insist upon its earlier demand. The reports were attributed to persons reputed to have first-hand knowledge of the events, but there has been no official confirmation of them from the Vatican or from the Archdiocese of Manila.
Sin was decorated three times by the Philippine government. The first was by President Corazon C. Aquino, who conferred him with the Philippine Legion of Honor, rank of Chief Commander; the second, by President Joseph Estrada, who conferred on him the Order of Sikatuna, rank of Rajah; the final time was shortly after his retirement, when President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo conferred on him the Order of Lakandula, rank of Bayani (Grand Cross).
Retirement and deathEdit
Afflicted for years with a kidney ailment brought on by diabetes, he was taken on 19 June 2005 to the Cardinal Rufino Santos Medical Center in San Juan, Metro Manila because of a slight but lingering fever. He died of renal failure on 21 June 2005 at 6:15 a.m. at the age of 76. The Philippine government accorded him the honor of a state funeral and a period of national mourning. He is buried in the crypt of the Manila Cathedral along with his three immediate predecessors. Thousands of Filipinos attended his funeral.
|Consecrated by:||Antonio Frondosa|
|Date of consecration:||18 March 1967|
|Bishop||Date of consecration|
|José C. Sorra||28 August 1974|
|Gaudencio Borbon Rosales||28 October 1974|
|Alberto Jover Piamonte||2 February 1975|
|Fernando R. Capalla||18 June 1975|
|Oscar V. Cruz||3 May 1976|
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Labog-Javellana, Juliet (2008-01-21). "Sin opposed Vatican order, pushed Edsa II". Philippine Daily Inquirer. http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/inquirerheadlines/nation/view/20080121-113651/Sin_opposed_Vatican_order,_pushed_Edsa_II. Retrieved 2008-01-21.
- ↑ http://www.catholicnewsagency.com/new.php?n=4245
- O'Donnell, Michelle (2005-06-21). "Cardinal Jaime Sin, a Champion of the Poor in the Philippines, Is Dead at 76". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/06/21/obituaries/21sin.html. Retrieved 2008-01-08.
- Washington Post
- Archdiocese of Manila
|Archbishop of Manila|
1974 – 2003
| Succeeded by|
|Cardinal-Priest of S. Maria ai Monti|
24 May 1976 – 21 June 2005
| Succeeded by|