Part of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict
and Arab–Israeli conflict series
Peace Process
Is-wb-gs-gh v3
      Israel</tr>       West Bank, Gaza Strip, Golan Heights a
Negotiating Parties
Palestinian territories
Camp David Accords · Madrid Conference
Oslo Accords / Oslo II · Hebron Protocol
Wye River / Sharm el-Sheikh Memoranda
2000 Camp David Summit · Taba Summit
Road Map · Annapolis Conference
Primary Negotiation Concerns
Final borders  · Israeli settlements
Palestinian refugees  · Security concerns
Status of Jerusalem  · Water
Secondary Negotiation Concerns
Antisemitic incitements
Israeli West Bank barrier · Jewish state
Palestinian political violence
Places of worship
Palestinian territories  Current Leaders  Israel
Mahmoud Abbas
Salam Fayyad
Benjamin Netanyahu
Shimon Peres
International Brokers
Diplomatic Quartet · Arab League · Egypt
United Nations European Union Russia United States Arab League Egypt
Other Proposals
Arab Peace Initiative · Elon Peace Plan
Lieberman Plan · Geneva Accord · Hudna
Israel's unilateral disengagement plan
Israel's realignment plan
Peace-orientated projects · Peace Valley  · Isratin · One-state solution · Two-state solution · Three-state solution · Middle East economic integration
Major projects, groups and NGOs
Peace-orientated projects · Peace Valley  · Alliance for Middle East Peace · Aix Group · Peres Center for Peace

a The Golan Heights are not part of the Israeli-Palestinian process.

The Israeli peace camp is a self-described collection of movements which claim to strive for peace with the Arab neighbours of Israel (including the Palestinians, Syria and Lebanon) and encourage co-existence with the Arab citizens of Israel. The peace camp is mostly associated with Israeli left-wing politics; in contrast, the Israeli right-wing politics collection of Israeli organizations are called the national camp. Whereas Labor Zionist members of the "Peace camp," such as Nobel Peace Prize winner Shimon Peres, share demographic priorities in common with the Israeli right parties,[1] non-Zionists and Anti-Zionists see transforming Israel into a "State for all its citizens" as a prerequisite for peace.

Political movements (but not parties)

Peace Now was founded in the wake of the 1977 visit of Egyptian President Sadat to Jerusalem. The original feeling of euphoria was replaced by apprehension that the chance for peace would be lost, especially due to such acts as then Agriculture Minister Ariel Sharon establishing new settlements in North Sinai.

In its first year, the movement concentrated on putting pressure on the government to carry through a peace treaty with Egypt, especially via 100,000-strong gathering in Tel-Aviv on the eve of PM Menachem Begin's departure for camp David in 1978. At the time, Peace Now was careful to declare it was "neither for the government nor against it" and members of the movement actually greeted Begin with flowers at Ben Gurion Airport, when he came back from concluding the Camp David Agreement in which he undertook to dismantle the northern Sinai settlements.

However, the movement turned increasingly against Begin when it turned out that withdrawal from Sinai was accompanied by an accelerated settlement drive on the West Bank, and later when Begin appointed Sharon as his Defence Minister and launched the 1982 Lebanon War, known in Israel by the 'official name, "Peace for Galilee Operation".

Following the Sabra and Shatila Massacre in September 1982, Peace Now's "400,000 rally" (some doubt the number was that high)[1] led to the end of the Israeli offensive and the establishment of the Kahan Commission of Inquiry which found Ariel Sharon to be indirectly responsible for the Sabra and Shatila massacre committed by Christian Phalange Militia and recommended his removal from his post.

Peace Now also advocated a negotiated peace with the Palestinians. However, Peace Now's current focus is to systematise its ongoing struggle against the Israeli settlements into a constant, day-by-day monitoring of the settlements and publication of periodic reports on their growth. Peace Now is funded mainly by foreign governments, as Britain, Norway, and Finland. Subsequently, Peace Now has also been accused of being a foreign agent and spying on Israeli citizens and army installations for foreign governments.[2]

According to some columnists, Peace Now's 'hostility' toward the settlers and its perceived lack of criticism of Palestinian resistance can be seen to have decreased its standing within certain sections of the Israeli public. On March 19 2005, a pro-disengagement rally was not successful in attracting anything near its planned attendance, after only 10,000 people attended the demonstration. Critics assert that the failure is related to Yariv Oppemheimer (Peace Now's leader) strong criticism of the gםvernment's policy on settlers and the radical left-wing image that may have caused centrists and mainstream public to refrain from supporting the rally. [3], [4]

The Geneva Accord, which was launched in 2003 by Israeli politician Yossi Beilin, one of the architects of the Oslo accords, and former Palestinian Authority minister Yasser Abed Rabbo, claimed to try to promote peace by showing both Israelis and Palestinians that peace accords could be negotiated, and presented a draft 'Permanent Status Agreement', which was claimed to be negotiated by hundreds of public figures from both sides. Other groups among both Israelis and Palestinians found the accord unacceptable, and some Israelis even disputed the legitimacy of such a move. As of 2004, the negotiators advocated the Israeli and Palestinian public that the agreement provided hope of security for both parties and that the new Palestinian leadership represents a "partner for peace". The Geneva Accord initiative was funded heavily by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs. It also included a document which was printed out and mailed to each Israeli household.[5]

At that time, surprising tribute to the success of the Geneva Initiative was paid by Adv. Dov Weissglass, confidential adviser of then Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, who told quite frankly of the factors which led Sharon to resolve upon Israel's unilateral disengagement plan:

"Time was not on our side. There was international erosion, internal erosion. Domestically, in the meantime, everything was collapsing. The economy was stagnant, and the Geneva Initiative had gained broad support."[2]

It has been said that Weissglass and Sharon stated, the Gaza Disengagement was designed (among other political objectives) to take the wind out of Geneva's sails, in which it was eminently successful. While many on the Israeli Left and internationally considered the comprehensive peace vision of the Geneva Initiative far superior to a very partial unilateral withdrawal, the Geneva Accord was merely a theoretical draft not backed by those in power, while the other was a plan actually adopted and implemented by the government.

Eventually even Yossi Beilin, the leading proponent of Geneva, had to yield to this logic, extend a reluctant support to Sharon's Disengagement and see his brainchild pushed to the sidelines.

Gush Shalom a leftist movement, and classified as a peace movement is disputed by the Israeli right . Uri Avnery, the Gush Shalom leader and a former Israeli journalist, were among the first to meet and involve into negotiation with PLO leader Yasser Arafat. Following the victory of Hamas in the 2006 Palestinian elections, Gush Shalom members opened dialogue with elected Hamas parliamentarians in East Jerusalem, who declared their wish to put an end to bloodshed and establish "a decades-long truce" with Israel. The dialogue was, however, cut short by the government arresting all the Palestinian participants in it. Although Gush Shalom earned itself respect among peaceseekers in Israel as well as the United States and Europe, it is regarded by its opponents as a pro-Palestinian movement whose leadership are 'equivocal towards violence and terrorism against Israelis'. Gush Shalom itself states that being pro-Palestinian and being a patriotic Israeli, far from being in contradiction to each other, are completely compatible - and that only peace and integration in the Middle-Eastern environment can ensure Israel's long-term survival in a predominantly Arab region.

Non-political organizations

There are many projects working for peace among Israelis and Arabs in Israel. Many of the projects try to mediate between Jewish and Arab citizens within Israel, after the fragile coexistence was shattered by the violent October 2000 riots (13 Arabs, 1 Jew were killed) and the increasing involvement of Israeli-Arabs in terrorism against Israelis. One such initiative, the "Peace Team", is a youth soccer team of eight Israelis and eight Palestinians, who compete in international youth football tournaments. This project is sponsored by Peres Center for Peace.

Another widely publicized project is the "National Census" - a self-described peace initiative by former Shin Bet head Ami Ayalon and Palestinian professor Sari Nusseibeh. The current activity of the National Census is to sign as many Israelis and Palestinian on a petition which outlines a two-state solution without the right of return of Palestinians into Israel. While Ayalon had attempted to avoid from being identified with the political left, he later joined the Israeli Labour Party.

Political parties

Since 1967, one's stance on the future of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip has become the main dividing line which defines where one stands in Israeli politics.

In Israel, the left-wing parties are self-described as members of the peace camp, although successful peace treaties were achieved only by right-wingers (Menachem Begin, with Egypt) and from the center-left (Itzhak Rabin, with Jordan). This apparent paradox is explained by the assumption that the more right-wing the leader who undertakes a peace plan and adopts some part of the traditional left program, the less of an opposition from the right he or it would encounter. The same was manifested in PM Sharon's unilateral disengagement plan from Gaza where his being the leader of the main right-wing party while being supported by the left-wing parties, left the real right-wing isolated in opposing the move.

The traditional self-described "peace lobby" in the Knesset is composed of the Israeli Labor Party and Meretz-Yachad. Hadash is self-proclaimed Jewish-Arab socialist co-existence front, who was founded by the Communist Party of Israel, which was the first party in Israel to oppose the Israeli control of the West Bank and Gaza, and to call for a two-state solution.

Many Israelis do not consider the Arab parties as part of the Israeli peace camp.

The liberal party Shinui while a significant force in Israeli politics for a short time was totally wiped out in the 2006 elections. It was not considered as a part of the peace camp due its hard-line approach toward Palestinian political violence, Yasser Arafat as well as many right-wing Knesset members. Also, the fact that Shinui supported Ariel Sharon's policy, a long-time loathed figure by hardcore of the peace camp, prevented Shinui from joining the peace camp leadership.


The Israeli peace camp is highly criticized by opponents for lacking "realism" given the absence of a corresponding movement on the Arab side of the conflict. It is also accused for being forgiving toward Palestinian political violence and not being able to stand up for the rights of the Israelis and the vital interests of Israel. According to the Tami Steinmetz Center for Peace Research that has been watching Israeli public opinion toward the peace process and the peace camp for more than a decade, the Israeli peace camp has poor standings in the Israeli public.Tami Steinmetz Center for Peace Research show (for example: May 2004). In January 2008, Israel's parliament passed a new law requiring organizations to publicize financial contributions from foreign governments. This law was generally aimed at organizations in the peace camp (specifically Peace Now) who many Israelis have come to view as "agents of foreign governments" acting against the State of Israel's national interests.[6]

Ideological right wing

Criticism from the right-wing is focused against the ideology of the peace camp, claiming that a land for peace deal with Palestinian Liberation Organization is endangering the existence of Israel and will not lead to true peace. Moreover, they claim that such a deal is morally unacceptable as it involves the uprooting of people from their houses in Israeli settlements. Right-wingers have suggested alternative peace plans in which the Palestinian refugees would either establish themselves in Arab countries ("transfer with agreement"), or remain in their place, but be granted Jordanian citizenship. The right wing also have strong criticism over the left's "partner for peace". They claim that the true intention of Arafat was the destruction of Israel, and that the Oslo accords were actually a Trojan horse.

Political center and pragmatists

The Israeli political center is composed from the moderate right, the liberals and the security-oriented left (שמאל ביטחוני). Their position on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is viewed as pragmatic and derived from security and economy interests, rather than a dogmatic ideology.

Criticism from the center says that the right-wing was "right" about the PLO and that in Yassar Arafat, Israel did not have a sincere Palestinian partner for peace. The peace camp suggested the need to disengage from the Palestinians and the need to give them a state of their own so they won't be a demographic and political burden over Israel. Many of this group are what the right-wingers call "Oslo disappointed" ( מאוכזבי אוסלו ) – people who used to support the peace process and the peace camp until the al-Aqsa Intifada. This group favor unilateral actions to disengage from the Palestinians and widely support the Israeli West Bank barrier and Israel's unilateral disengagement plan of 2004.

It is claimed that centrists usually refrain from voting to the left and support it publicly since many of them believe that left-wing politicians (such as Yossi Beilin) are 'incapable' of standing up for Israel's rights and fear that they might endanger Israel by trying to appease the Palestinians.

Zionist left wing

Criticism from the left is focused mainly on the "small details", since they still believe that land for peace and negotiations with the Palestinians is the correct direction towards peace. Some details that are criticized are:

  • The marketing of the peace process and the failure to gain wide public support.
  • Their critical approach toward the Israeli Defence Forces and settlers which creates them a "Jewish self-haters" reputation.
  • The lack of pro-Israeli rhetoric in the peace rallies.
  • The focusing on political arrangements while leaving the social and economic infrastructure for popular support at the hands of 'fundamentalist groups' on both sides

Ami Ayalon has criticized Peace Now for demonizing the Israeli Jewish settlers, often treating them as "enemies", thus encouraging hate towards settlers, and providing the general public reasons to dislike the peace camp. Ayalon scorns Peace Now for failing to rally the masses in support of the Israeli peace movement, although surveys indicate that the Israeli public supports a separation from the Palestinians and a peaceful solution. Ayalon explains that this because Peace Now and the left wing have shown 'alienation, hostility and a patronising attitude' towards the general Israeli public, and that this attitude combined with increased 'terrorist activity' over the past four years are to blame for Peace Now's current poor standing within the Israeli public, which feels the peace camp is not committed (enough) to stop Palestinian political violence and protect Israel's interests.

Ayalon concluded that many settlements should indeed be disbanded, but the transferred settlers should be embraced and receive support - both financial and moral - from the state and the public, and not being treated as enemies. [7], [8]

Far left

Criticism from the far left criticized the adherence of the major movements (such as the Israeli Labor party and Peace Now) for Zionism and commitment toward Israel. They claim that the Oslo accords was a capitalist-Zionist fraud in order to exploit the Palestinians and deceive the world, while expanding the Israeli settlements and deepening the Israeli control of the West Bank and Gaza. It is being claimed that the Israeli far left is very pro-Palestinian and anti-Zionist, they think that true peace can only be achieved by the elimination of Zionism and Israel's transition to an inclusive multi-ethnic state rather than an exclusively Jewish state. Many of them offer a bi-national state solution or a two-state solution with full or limited right of return for Palestinian refugees.

Of the far left groups Gush Shalom is one that advocates to the two-state solution. [9] Moderate left-wingers often blame the far left for the bad image the Israeli peace camp has in the eyes of Zionist Israeli public.


Political leaders

Leaders of organizations

Politicly affiliated peace activists

Peace activists without political affiliation


See also

Arab-Israeli peace diplomacy and treaties


  1. "Jabotinsky grandson lauds Peres for 'historic' speech"; Haaretz, 17/07/2007
  2. Interview in Haaretz, 8/10/04.

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