The Israeli-Palestinian conflict in Hebron is viewed as a microcosm of the wider Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Hebron is home to 160,000 Palestinians and 500-800 Israeli settlers associated with the right wing Gush Emunim movement. The Israeli settlers live in close proximity to the city boundary and require a constant Israeli military presence.[1]


In the mid-19th century, Hebron was small town with a population of around 10,000, the majority of whom were Muslims.[2] From December 1917, during World War I, the British occupied Hebron, a move sanctioned by the League of Nations. As a result of the 1929 Hebron massacre, the Jewish community of 750 people was disbanded. In 1931, 160 Jews returned to the town,[3] but after further Arab unrest, the British Government decided to move all Jews out of Hebron "to prevent another massacre".

At the beginning of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, Egypt took control of Hebron. By late 1948 part of the Egyptian forces had been isolated around Hebron and Bethlehem, Pasha Glubb sent 350 Arab Legionnaires and established a Jordanian presence in Hebron.[4] With the signing of the Armistice agreements the city fell exclusively under Jordanian control and in 1950 the West Bank was unilaterally incorporated into Jordan.[5]

Israeli rule and Jewish re-settlement

Following the June 1967 Six Day War, Hebron came under Israeli control with the rest of the West Bank. The vacillations in the Israeli cabinet after the Six Day War, over annexation and the political realism in wanting to maintain the majority Jewish demographic of Israel left the Israeli leadership in a quandary in ways to deal with the newly occupied territories.[6] Israel's position was that parts of the West Bank be traded for peace with Jordan.[7] In what was called the Allon Plan, Israel was to annex 45% of the West Bank and Jordan the remainder.[8]

In an interview with the BBC on July 12, 1967, Former Israeli Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion declared that: the cause of peace, Israel should take nothing in the conquered territories, with the exception of Hebron, which 'is more Jewish even than Jerusalem'. According to Randolph Churchill, he [Ben-Gurion] argued that "Jerusalem became Jewish three thousand years ago under King David. but Hebron became Jewish four thousand years ago under Abraham and included a number of settlements that were destroyed two days before Israel was established."[9]


Shavei Hebron yeshiva in the Beit Romano building of the Jewish quarter in old Hebron. The modern city is visible at the top.

In 1968, a group of Jewish settlers led by Rabbi Moshe Levinger, with the tacit support of Levi Eshkol and Yigal Allon,[10] rented out the main hotel in Hebron and refused to leave. This was short lived and through a government compromise the Jewish presence was moved east to a nearby abandoned army camp. The new settlement of Kiryat Arba was established.[11] According to the American Jewish historian Ian Lustik:

The government was caught by surprise. Internally divided, depending for its survival on the votes of the National Religious Party, and reluctant to forcibly evacuate the settlers from a city whose Jewish population had been massacred thirty-nine years earlier, the Labor government backed away from its original prohibition against civilian settlement in the area and permitted this group to remain within a military compound. After more than a year and a half of agitation and a bloody Arab attack on the Hebron settlers, the government agreed to allow Levinger's group to establish a town on the outskirts of the city.[12]

Beginning in 1979, some Jewish settlers moved from Kiryat Arba to found the Committee of The Jewish Community of Hebron in the former Jewish neighbourhood near the Abraham Avinu Synagogue, and later to other Hebron neighborhoods including Tel Rumeida. They took over the former Hadassah Hospital, Daboya Hospital, now Beit Hadassah in central Hebron, founding the Committee of The Jewish Community of Hebron. Before long this received Israeli government approval and a further three Jewish enclaves in the city were established with Israeli army assistance,[13][14] and settlers are currently reported to be trying to purchase more homes in the city.[15][16]


Star of David carved above entrance to a now Arab home in the old city of Hebron.[17][18]

Views on the re-settlement

The Jewish Sephardic community had been in Hebron continuously for approximately 800 years and the Ashkenazi community had roots there that went back at for about one century.[19] Jews living in the new settlements and their supporters claim that they are resettling areas where Jews have lived since time immemorial. However, some reports, both foreign and Israeli are sharply critical of the settlers.[20][21]

The sentiments of Jews who fled the 1929 Hebron massacre and their descendants are mixed. Some advocate the continued settlement of Hebron as a way to continue the Jewish heritage in the city, while others suggest that settlers should try to live in peace with the Arabs there, with some even recommending the complete pullout of all settlers in Hebron.[22] Descendants supporting the latter views have met with Palestinian leaders in Hebron.[23] The two most public examples of the descendants' views are the 1997 statement made by an association of some descendants dissociating themselves from the then-current Jewish settlers in Hebron and calling them an obstacle to peace,[23] and the May 15, 2006 letter sent to the Israeli government by other descendants urging the government to continue its support of Jewish settlement in Hebron in their names, and urged it to allow the return of eight Jewish families evacuated the previous January from the homes they set up in empty shops near the Avraham Avinu neighborhood.[22] Beit HaShalom, was established in 2007.[24][25][26] One of the purchasers is a descendant of Jews who fled Hebron during Arab massacres.[27]

A total of 86 Jewish families now live in Hebron.[28]

Post-Oslo Accord

Israeli soldiers on Palestine street

Open-air market in city being patrolled by Israeli troops (2004).

On 25 February 1994, Israeli physician Baruch Goldstein opened fire on Muslims at prayer in the Ibrahimi Mosque, killing 29, before the survivors overcame and killed him. In the ensuing riots in the West Bank, Jerusalem and Gaza Strip a further 25 Palestinians were killed.[29][30] This event was condemned by the Israeli Government.[31] The extreme right-wing Kach party was banned outright by the Israeli cabinet under 1948 anti-terrorism laws, following the groups support of Golstein's actions.[32][33]

Kach graf

Kahanist graffiti in Hebron on a Palestinian home. The words to the top right say "Kahane Chai". The fist inside the Star of David is the party logo. Below is the acronym for "Kahane Chai" which is also the Hebrew word for strength.

The 1994 Shamgar Commission of Inquiry concluded that Israeli authorities had consistently failed to investigate or prosecute crimes committed by settlers against Palestinians.[34] It was revealed in that inquiry that the IDF have 2 sets of instructions, one for dealing with settlers and one for dealing with Palestinians.[35]

The first Temporary International Presence in Hebron (TIPH) mission was established on May 8, 1994 as a UN response to the massacre. However the Palestinian Authority and the Israeli government could not reach an agreement on the extension of the mandate and the observers were therefore withdrawn on August 8, 1994.[36]

A year later, Hebron's mayor, Mustafa Abdel Nabi, invited the Christian Peacemaker Teams to assist the local Palestinian community in opposition to what they describe as Israeli military occupation, collective punishment, settler harassment, home demolitions and land confiscation.[37][38]

The redeployment of Israeli military forces in Hebron in accordance with the Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (the Interim Agreement or "Oslo II") of September 1995 was postponed on 28 March 1996.[39] Since 17 January 1997, following re-negotiation of the Hebron Agreement, the city has been divided into two sectors: H1 and H2. The H1 sector, home to around 120,000 Palestinians, came under the control of the Palestinian Authority, in accordance with Hebron Protocol, shortly afterwards, Israeli and Palestinian joint units began patrolling the sensitive parts of the city.[40][41] H2, which was inhabited by around 30,000 Palestinians,[42] remained under Israeli military control in order to protect some 500-800 Jewish residents living in the old Jewish quarter, now an enclave near the center of the town. Renovation work that was being carried out on Palestinian homes prior to the Hebron agreement was halted on Israeli military orders.[41] During the years since the outbreak of the Second Intifada, the Palestinian population in H2 has decreased greatly, the drop in large part having been identified with extended curfews and movement restrictions placed on Palestinian residents of the sector by the IDF for security needs, including the closing of Palestinian shops in certain areas. Settler harassment of their Palestinian neighbours in H2 was a reason for several dozen Palestinian families to depart the areas adjacent to the Israeli population.[42][43][44][45][46]

File:شارع عين سارة.jpg

The Hebron Jewish community has been subject to attacks by Palestinian militants since the Oslo agreement, especially during the periods of the Intifadas; which saw 3 fatal stabbings and 9 fatal shootings in between the first and second Intifada (0.9% of all fatalities in Israel and the West Bank) and 17 fatal shooting (9 soldiers and 8 settlers) and 2 fatalities from a bombing during the second Intifada.[47] and thousands of rounds fired on it from the hills above the Abu-Sneina and Harat al-Sheikh neighbourhoods. According to Human Rights Watch, Palestinian areas of Hebron are frequently subject to indiscriminate firing by the IDF, leading to many casualties.[48]

An international civilian observer force, the TIPH was subsequently re-established on 14 May 1996 to help the normalization of the situation and to maintain a buffer between the Palestinian Arab population of the city and the Jews residing in their enclave in the old city during the handing over period to the Palestinian Authority.[49][50] On February 8, 2006, TIPH temporarily left Hebron after attacks on their headquarters by some Palestinians angered by the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy. TIPH came back to Hebron a few months later.

The city of Hebron has been a major friction point, with Palestinians and Israeli human rights groups accusing the hard-line religious settlers of attacking the Palestinian population with impunity. According to Human Rights Watch, the settler bias of the IDF was confirmed and clarified by Hebron commander Noam Tivon when he stated in an Ha'aretz article:

Let there be no mistake about it. I am not from the UN. I am from the Israeli Defense Force. I did not come here to seek people to drink tea with, but first of all to ensure the security of the Jewish settlers.[51]

Tivon later suggested that the "Palestinian Authority is encouraging children to participate in clashes with the IDF by offering their families $300 per injury and $2,000 for anyone killed. He also said "the soldiers have acted with the utmost restraint and have not initiated any shooting attacks or violence."[52]

The Islamic movement Hamas won an overwhelming victory in the 2006 elections.[53]

The Israeli NGO Breaking the Silence, composed mostly of former soldiers, has documented abuses committed by Israeli soldiers guarding the Hebron settlers,[54] while Mario Vargas Llosa has written that local Arabs are "subjected to systematic and ferocious harassment by settlers, who stone them, throw rubbish and excrement at their houses, invade and destroy their homes, and attack their children when they return from school, to the absolute indifference of Israeli soldiers who witness these atrocities."[55]

The documentary Welcome to Hebron asserts that settlers often harass the local Palestinian population.[56][57] In the film, a former commander of the Israeli army, one of the leading figures in Breaking The Silence, shared his experiences as a soldier in Hebron.

In September and October 2008 reports stated to leak out about the possibility of a transfer of authority for security operations.[58]

List of incidents of Israeli-Palestinian conflict in Hebron


22 December 1953. 4 Soldiers of the Israeli commando unit 101 under Meir Ha Tzion, attacked a house on the outskirts of Hebron and killed 2 men and a woman occupant.[59]


2 May 6 Jews were murdered and 16 injured while walking home on the Sabbath returning from prayer. They were attacked from behind with gunfire and grenades from the rooftops around a small alley.[60]

2 June Israeli settler group based in Kiryat Arba set a bomb off in Hebron market 11 Palestinians are injured.[61]


July 3 Arab students killed in an attack on the Islamic College in Hebron.[62][63]

July 7 The commander of the central region ordered the dismissal of the municipal council of Hebron and of acting mayor Mustafa Natche (the Mayor, Fahd Al Kawasme, having been expelled from the OTP on 2 May 1980) and appointed a Jewish member of the civilian administration to the post of mayor of Hebron municipality.[64] Mustafa Natche was able to re-take his post again in April 1994.[65]


In September Zein Moh’d Ghazi Karaki was shot to death.[66]

September 30, Palestinian shoe store owner Kayed Hassan Salah was shot dead and a customer was wounded by Rabbi Moshe Levinger.[67]


28 August Bayiha Najar Nawaj'a was killed in the centre of Hebron, allegedly by Israeli settlers.[68]


4 February Mustafa Akawi died under interrogation in the GSS interrogation wing of the Hebron prison.[69]


March 23, Israeli settler Yoram Skolnik fired several shots from his Uzi submachine gun and killed Musa Abu Sabha, a Palestinian who lay face down, his hands tied behind him. Abu Sabha had been caught near the "Susia" settlement, south of Hebron, carrying a knife and a grenade, and had stabbed and slightly wounded a settler before he was subdued.[70]

September 16, Palestinians celebrating in support of the Israeli-Palestinian accord in Halhul village came under fire from Israeli troops and as a result, a young Palestinian was injured.[71]

October 5, Israeli troops shot and injured a Palestinian.[72]

November 7, Efraim Ayubi of Kfar Darom, Rabbi Chaim Druckman's personal driver, was shot to death by Palestinian gunmen and the Rabbi wounded near Hebron. HAMAS publicly claimed responsibility for the murder.[73] Settlers then rioted wounding 3 Palestinians.[74]

November 14 Jewish settlers shot and killed a young Palestinian after he stabbed and injured a settler near the Ibrahimi Mosque.[74]

November 16, Jewish settlers overturned market stalls, smashed cars and broke car windshields.[74]

December 3 A young Palestinian was shot and injured by Jewish settlers in Hebron.[75]

December 5, A group of Jewish settlers from Kiryat Arba ambushed and killed a Palestinian resident from Hebron. The killing triggered demonstrations and protests all over the West Bank.[75]

December 6, 1993 Mordechai Lapid and his son Shalom Lapid, age 19, were shot to death by Palestinian gunmen near Hebron. HAMAS publicly claimed responsibility for the attack.[73]

December 10 Three Palestinians, two brothers and a cousin, were assassinated by Jewish settlers while sitting in a parked car near Hebron.[75]


January 13 Three Israeli soldiers were injured after been shot at by Palestinians in an ambush near Hebron.[76]

January 14, 1994 Israeli troops fired anti-tank rockets into a house near Hebron killing the four Palestinians who were barricaded in the house.[76]

January 18, Israeli troops opened fire during clashes with Palestinian demonstrators injuring 9 in Hebron.[76]

February 2, Three Israeli settlers were shot and injured by Palestinian gunmen in an ambush near Hebron.[77]

February 17, Yuval Golan, stabbed on December 29, 1993 by a Palestinian gunman near Adarim in the Hebron area, died of his wounds.[73]

February 18, An Israeli settler's car was ambushed by a Hamas unit near Hebron, killing a pregnant Jewish settler.[77]

February 25, The Goldstein attack on Muslims at prayer in the Ibrahimi Mosque, 29 Palestinians killed. 25 more Palestinians killed in the ensuing suppression by Israeli police of a demonstration of protest.

April 7 It was claimed that a settler deliberately ran his car into a Palestinian and his 5 year old son. Israeli police said that it was a car accident.[65]

May 17, Rafael Yairi (Klumfenbert), 36, of Kiryat Arba, and Margalit Ruth Shohat, 48, of Ma'ale Levona, were killed when their car was fired upon by gunmen in a passing car near Beit Haggai, south of Hebron.[73]

June 4 A home-made grenade was hurled at an Israeli army post injuring 6 Palestinians. The IDF opened fire at stone throwers and injured 8 of them. In a clash following this incident, 4 soldiers and 6 Palestinians were injured.[34]

June 17, Israeli troops shot and wounded four Palestinians during clashes.[34]

July 8, Drive by shooting of a settler school girl.[78]

July 18, Israeli troops shot and wounded two Palestinians.[78]

July 22 17 Palestinians were injured in clashes with Israeli troops.[78]

August 26 Israeli troops shot and wounded three Palestinians during a clash at the police square.[36]

September Members of the "The Jewish Underground of Revenge" are arrested by the Israeli secret police.[79]

September 22, Several thousand West Bank Jewish settlers and their supporters from Israel skirmished with Israeli border police for more than four hours before a group of religious Jews were able to brake into the Ibrahimi Mosque, which has been closed for 7 months after the massacre of 29 Muslims in February. At least four people were injured and 20 were arrested.[79]

October 1, Israeli soldiers shot and killed a Palestinian man who stabbed and wounded an Israeli soldier.[80]

October 7, Razi Haymouni, 23, a Palestinian was shot dead by Israeli border police after he tried to pour acid on two policemen near the Ibrahimi Mosque.[80]

October 16 Israeli troops shot dead Imad al-Adarba, 23 in Hebron.[80]

October 23, Nidal Said al-Tamimi, 22, shot dead after he reportedly tried to stab a soldier. He had been recently released from an Israeli jail.[81]

November 27, 1994 Rabbi Amiran Olami, 34, of Otniel was killed and an Israeli policeman wounded near Beit Hagai 10 km south of Hebron by shots fired from a passing car.[14][73]

November 29, Israeli police arrested 10 Jewish settlers as they attempted to invade the Moslem-designated area in the Ibrahimi Mosque. Among those arrested was Yehuda Etzion, who was jailed for attempting to blow up the Dome of the Rock in East Jerusalem in 1984 and was granted amnesty after four years in jail.[14]


January 15, A shoulder-held anti-tank missile (LAW) was fired at a Jewish apartment in Hebron, 10 LAW missiles had been taken from an Israeli Military base on the West Bank.[82]

March 14, 4 home made bombs were found by Israeli police on a road at the northern entrance to Hebron.[83]

March 19, Nahum Hoss, 32, of Hebron and Yehuda Fartush, 41, of Kiryat Arba, were killed and 5 settlers wounded when Palestinian gunmen fired on an Egged bus at a crossroads close to the Kiryat Arba settlement near the entrance to Hebron[73] Several settlers then went on a "rampage" in Halhul village, near Hebron, shooting one Palestinian.[83]

April 17, 3 Palestinians killed in IDF ambush.[84]

June 4 A 13-year-old Palestinian boy was killed and his eight-year-old brother was wounded in Hebron when an Israeli army bomb exploded near their home.[85]

June 29 Israeli special forces killed a senior member of Hamas movement in Hebron.[85]

July 2, A 17-year-old Palestinian was killed by an Israeli soldier.[86]

July 12 Settlers demonstrations against the expansion of self rule in the West Bank led to clashes, Israeli police arrested 38 Israeli settlers who blocked the main road leading from Jerusalem to Hebron in the West Bank. The spokesman of the Council of Jewish settlers in the West Bank, said this was the opening salve in a campaign of civil disobedience by the settlers to prevent the extension of Palestinian self-rule.[86]

September 8 Five armed men in Israeli army uniforms, some of them masked, forced their way into private homes in Halhoul town 5 kilometres North of Hebron and interrogated the residents. During the assault they shot dead a young Palestinian man as his father watched. A Jewish extremist organization claimed responsibility for the attack.[87]

September 9, Jewish settlers raided a Palestinian girls school and beat the schools headmistress also injured four pupils who had taken part in a street protest.[87]

September 14, Hundreds of Palestinians clashed with Israeli troops, a Palestinian girl and a cameraman from the International Network were injured.[87]

September 30 (Saturday) Yigal Amir (Yitzhak Rabin's assassin) was in a group of 20 Israeli who attacked Kathleen Kern and Wendy Lehman of Christian Peacemaker Team on Duboya Street while the women were filming.[88] It was reported that the demonstrators were throwing stones, eggs and smashed the windows of 13 Palestinian cars and 5 houses.[89]

October 13 The Israeli army closed three offices of the Palestinian Authority in Hebron including the offices of information, municipality and national solidarity, which were located next to Jewish settlers homes in the town.[89]


January 16, Sgt. Yaniv Shimel and Major Oz Tibon, both of Jerusalem, were killed when Palestinian gunmen fired on their car on the Hebron-Jerusalem road, reportedly in revenge for the assassination of Yehiya Ayyash.[73][90]

March 22, The Israeli army arrested three Palestinians from Hebron believed to be involved in the suicide bombings in Israel.[39]

April 2, More than 700 Palestinian marched through the city of Hebron protesting the Israeli closure of the West Bank and Gaza from February.[91]

April 7 Two petrol bombs were thrown at an Israeli bus about 100 meters south of the entrance of Beit Omar near Hebron, injuring five Israelis.[91]


January 1, Hebron Market shot up by Israeli settler/soldier Noam Friedman, wounding seven Palestinians.[41][92][93]

January 31 Israelis beat a Palestinian youth and detained him while he was trying to force his way into the Ibrahimi mosque. The incident set off further scuffles.[41]

March 10 Israeli soldiers in Hebron beat Palestinians who tried to stop workers from opening a road for Jewish settlers through land claimed by the Palestinians.[94]

March 21 -April 11, 3 weeks of protests throughout the West Bank demonstrating against the Israeli settlement construction at Jabal Abu Ghneim (Har Homa), Jerusalem. The protests in Hebron alone led to 2 Dead, Kamal al-Zaro, shot dead at a road block into H2 area and an Israeli settler shot dead Asem Arafeh, 24, a shopkeeper, with 276 injured in the clashes.[94][95]


Aug. 20, Rabbi Shlomo Ra'anan, 63, was stabbed to death in the bedroom of his caravan in Hebron[73]

Oct. 26, Danny Vargas, 29, of Kiryat Arba was shot to death in Hebron.[73]


Jan. 13, Sergeant Yehoshua Gavriel, 25, of Ashdod, was killed when gunmen opened fire at the Othniel junction near Hebron.[73]

August 8, After a shooting at 2 settlers in Hebron city centre the Hamas military wing, the ‘Iz al-Din al-Qassam Brigades released a statement taking responsibility.[96]


February 10 A Palestinian woman from the West Bank town of Hebron died of a heart attack after Israeli soldiers delayed her transfer to a hospital while they were searching her house. Hebron municipal sources said Fatimah Abu Rmeileh, 62, began feeling ill and her husband asked for an ambulance, while 10 soldiers sealed and searched their house. The Army said it found weapons and anti-Israeli propaganda during routine checks.[97]

October 20, Jordanian citizen Walid J'afreh killed by IDF in Tarqumya, Hebron district[98]

On December 22, Muhammad Najib ‘Abido, killed by gunfire at Beit Hagai, near Hebron.[62]


February 1, Dr. Shmuel Gillis, 42, of Karmei Tzur, was killed by Palestinian gunmen who fired at his car near the Aroub refugee camp on the Jerusalem-Hebron highway.[73]

March 26, Shalhevet Pass, age 10 months, was killed by sniper fire at the entrance to the Avraham Avinu neighborhood in Hebron.[42][73][99][100][101]

July 19, Muhammad Helmi a-Tameizi along with Diaa' Marwan a-Tameizi Under 1 year-old and Muhammad Salameh a-Tameizi was shot dead by settlers while driving by Idhna, Hebron district.[102]


March 27, Two Temporary International Presence in Hebron observers were killed by Palestinian gunmen in a shooting attack on the road to Hebron, Cengiz Soytunc (Turkish) and Catherine Berruex (Swiss).[103][104]

April 2002, In violation of the Oslo accords the IDF took control of the whole city and set up permanent guard towers in H-1. The official TIPH Internet site notes: "Since then, the Israeli army operates over the entire area in violation of the agreements."[105]

April, Israeli raid on the West Bank city of Hebron. A least 1 Palestinian was killed early in the raid and then at an Israeli checkpoint 1 Palestinian policeman was killed and 4 others wounded.[106]

July 28, 14 year old Nivin Jamjum was shot dead in Hebron, when settlers rioted in Hebron.[20][102]

November 15, 12 Israelis were killed (Hebron Brigade commander Colonel Dror Weinberg, 8 soldiers and 3 civilians, members of the civil defense unit of Kiryat Arba) in an ambush of Israeli security personnel protecting settlers walking home from Sabbath prayers at the synagogue in the Cave of Machpelah, and of the policemen, security guards and soldiers who rushed to their rescue.[107] 3 Palestinian gunmen were also killed in the 90 minuet fire fight.[108]

November 16, Israeli forces re-enter H1 areas carrying out mass arrests (40) and demolishing 4 houses.[108]

November 28, there are conflicting reports about the death of a 4 year old Palestinian child. IDF reports said the child had been hit by splinters from a hand grenade thrown at soldiers by Palestinian youths.[108]


May 17, a pregnant Israeli woman and her husband were killed when a suicide bomber detonated himself next to them in a public square in Hebron. Hamas claimed responsibility.[109]

September 9, Thaer Monsur Noman al-Sayouri, aged 9, was killed by IDF tank fire to his head while in his home during an incursion in Hebron.[110]

September 26, Eyal Yeberbaum, 27, and 7-month old infant Shaked Avraham were shot dead by a Palestinian who knocked on the door of a home in Negohot, 9 km west of Hebron, during a celebratory Rosh Hashana (Jewish New Year holiday) dinner. Islamic Jihad took responsibility for the attack.[109]

In 2003 a company of Israeli border police was disbanded after an incident gained international notoriety where 2 border policemen beat a Palestinian and threw him from the back of the jeep which was traveling at approximately 80 km/h to celebrate their end of "tour of duty". In 2008 The 4 Israeli border guards involved in the incident were eventually convicted of the offences of falsifying records, robbery, abduction and the killing of Amran Abu Hamatiya.[111][112][113]


March 10, Thaer Mohammad Harun Eid al-Halika, 15, of Shioukh al-Aroob, near Hebron, killed by IDF gunfire to his back at close range on his way home near Route 60.[110]

April 25, The Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades claimed responsibility for the attack in which killed Border Policeman Cpl. Yaniv Mashiah, 20, of Jaffa, and where three others were lightly wounded just an hour after the beginning of Memorial Day for Israel's fallen soldiers when shots were fired at their vehicle near Hebron.[109]

September 29, A group of five Israeli settlers attacked and seriously wounded two U.S. citizens, members of an NGO, who were escorting Palestinian children to school near Hebron. [114]


January 6, Hamzah Abdul-Minem Jaber 9 years old, killed by an IDF jeep on the main road near his home in Hebron.[110]

February 14, after being beaten Sabri Fayez Younis al-Rjoub, 17, of Dura, near Hebron was killed by IDF gunfire to his chest, abdomen, pelvis and right leg.[110]

21 May In Hebron, 10s of Jewish settlers attack Palestinian homes to protest a solidarity visit to the Palestinians by several Israeli peace activists; Jewish settlers from Beit Hadasah settlement, chase and throw stones, eggs, tomatoes at Palestinian girls at a nearby elementary school.[115]

26 May IDF soldiers break into, occupy a Palestinian home in Hebron to watch a soccer championship on the family's satellite TV. the IDF confirms the incident took place, says the cmdr. of the squad has been suspended.[115]

29 May The IDF fatally shoots a Palestinian with a hearing problem who fails orders to halt near Hebron's Ibrahimi Mosque/Tomb of the Patriarchs.[115]


January 14, The TIPH said dozens of Israeli settler youths attacked five of its members, mostly US citizens, near the "Beit Hadassah" settlement. The workers were slightly injured, and two required medical treatment. Police informed the organization that it would be required to leave the area by 22 January, as all Jewish sections of the city would be closed as a military zone. Israeli security forces were able to suspended the military closure on Jewish areas of Hebron, removed roadblocks at the entrances to settlements and eased identity checks when most of the non-residents, who entered Hebron to support the rioting settlers left.[116]

January 17, Amidst protests against an Israeli order to evict nine Jewish families squatting in an area taken from Palestinians in Hebron after the start of the intifada, Israeli police forcibly removed a handful of settler youths from the squat to try to end days of unrest. Late the previous day, the military had declared the area "a closed military zone" to non-residents.[116]

January 18, Olmert ordered the IDF to immediately remove nine Jewish families (some 50 people) squatting illegally on a Palestinian fruit and vegetable market in Hebron. The decision followed consultations with security officials and the new Foreign Minister, Tzipi Livni, who is also Justice Minister. The settlers have so far rejected the proposal. Five settlers there were arrested by security forces.[116]

January 19, Israeli troops had shot dead a Palestinian teenager near Hebron IDF and witnesses said he was trying to throw a fire bomb at an IDF patrol near one of the settlements.[116]


January 21, The Jewish settler Yifat Alkobi pressed her face while repeatedly hissing "sharmuta" – whore – at her married Palestinian neighbour, Abu Ayesha. A Video of Settler abusing Palestinians in Hebron received International media attention and her actions widely condemned. The Yad Vashem Council Chair slammed settlers for abusing Palestinians Yosef (Tommy) Lapid said in a weekly commentary on Israel Radio that the acts of some Hebron settlers reminded him of persecution endured by Jews in his native Yugoslavia on the eve of World War Two.

"It was not crematoria or pogroms that made our life in the Diaspora bitter before they began to kill us, but persecution, harassment, stone-throwing, damage to livelihood, intimidation, spitting and scorn,".... "In the years that preceded the Holocaust,"... "behind shuttered windows hid terrified Jewish women, exactly like the Arab woman of the Abu-Ayesha family in Hebron."

And where, according to testimony given by Taysir Abu Ayesha, Baruch Marzel broke into the house with 10 other settlers in the winter of 2002, beat him and attempted to drag him into the road before he was rescued by his stick-brandishing father.[117][118][119]

March Israeli settlers escorted in the 'House of Contention'[120]

June 8, Hijazi Muhammad Abdul-Aziz Rzaiqat, 17, of Taffouh, near Hebron, shot to death by IDF gunfire to his chest, abdomen, left shoulder and right thigh while hunting birds with a gun.[110]

July 3, Ahmad Abdul-Muhsen Abdul-Rahim al-Skafi, 15, of Hebron, killed by IDF gunfire to his head while carrying a toy gun.[110]

August Hillel Weiss, father of Tehila Yahalom, verbally abused Hebron Brigade commander Col. Yehuda Fuchs, while IDF troops evacuated 2 settler families from the Hebron wholesale market.[121][122] Bar-Ilan University, where Weiss is a professor, has publicly distanced itself from his remarks and criticized Weiss.[123]


February 13, the 15 month prison sentence and reduction to the rank of private of Lieutenant Ya'akov Gigi was confirmed for a "wild rampage" in the West Bank where Gigi and five of his soldiers hijacked a Palestinian taxi in July 2007 in the West Bank village of Dahariya, near Hebron. The version of events that Gigi gave was found to be false. First Sergeant Dror, who shot a Palestinian in the neck severely wounding him claims that the way the Palestinian looked at him was enough to classify him as a "suspect" and to justify opening fire.[124]

In February the IDF ordered an orphanage run by the Islamic Charitable Society (ICS), that houses 240 orphans, in Hebron closed, based on the ICS's alleged promotion of terrorism. The ICS disputes these charges.[125][126][127]

May 2, Khalil Ahmad Mahmoud a-Za'arir was killed after attempting to stab a soldiers at a Hebron checkpoint.[110]

July 9, Avner Inbar, an Israeli, taking a group of South African Human rights activists, that included Zackie Achmat and Edwin Cameronon, on a tour of Hebron reported that the group was verbally abused by settlers. Three Israelis were arrested for disturbing the peace.[128][129]

August, al-Ras Mosque, located next to al-Rajabi House settlement became the target of settler attacks during early August 2008 with large quantities of rubbish were placed at the entrance of the Mosque and was again attacked on August 11, 2008 when Israeli settlers from the al-Rajabi House settlement attempted to set fire to the mosque.[130]

During the second week of August a total of five civilians – three Palestinians and two foreigners, including two UNRWA staff and one child, were physically assaulted and injured.[130]

7 August Israeli settlers from Giv'at Ha'avot settlement (next to Kiryat Arba) attacked five nearby Palestinian houses with rocks and bottles.[130]

August Hebron settlers attacked a group of visiting UK diplomats.[131] Breaking the Silence only take small parties so as not to constitute a "group" as settlers regularly attacked "Breaking the Silence" tours.[132]

October 25 Settlers destroyed Muslim graves and 80 Palestinian cars during a riot against the IDF, as the army dismantled a new setlement near Hebron.[133]

6 December The Israeli settlers from the 'House of contention' are evicted by Israeli police.

The settlers at the Hebron house - called the House of Peace by settlers but the House of Contention by the media - claimed they had bought the building legally two years ago from a Palestinian. The Palestinian has denied selling the building to the settlers, and last month the Israeli supreme court said the house should be evacuated until the ownership dispute was settled.

The many Israeli settlers then go on a rampage as part of a 'price' policy.[134] An Israeli soldier, Corporal Avraham Schneider of the elite Givati Brigade and settler from Kiryat Arba, was arrested for taking part in the settler riots.[135]

See also

Israeli–Palestinian conflict
Violence in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict
Media coverage of the Arab–Israeli conflict

Timeline of violence in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict

Violence in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict: 2000 - 2001 - 2002 - 2003 - 2004 - 2005 - 2006 - 2007 - 2008 - 2009


  1. Quandt, William B. (2005) Peace Process: American Diplomacy and the Arab-Israeli Conflict Since 1967 University of California Press, ISBN 0520246314 p 365
  2. Robinson, p.88
  3. Tom Segev (2000) p 347
  4. Wilson, Mary Christina. (1990) King Abdullah, Britain and the Making of Jordan Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521399874 p 181
  5. Peter Bouckaert, Human Rights Watch, Human Rights Watch (Organization), Clarisa Bencomo (2001) Center of the storm: a case study of human rights abuses in Hebron district Published by Human Rights Watch, ISBN 1564322602 p 15
  6. Golda Meir (2007) ISBN 978-1906142131 p. 293
  7. Chaim Herzog Heroes of Israel p.253.
  8. He [Allon] proposed that Israel annex a strip of land 6-9 miles wide along the Jordan River, most of the sparsely populated Judean desert along the Dead Sea, and a wide swath of land around Greater Jerusalem. The Heart of the West bank - its great Arab cities and most densely populated towns - could be returned to Jordan. Elinor Burkett (2007) Golda Meir; The Iron Lady of the Middle East ISBN 978-1906142131 pp 295-296
  9. Randolph Churchill and Winston S. Churchill, The Six Day War,1967 p.199 citing 'The World at One' BBC radio, July 12, 1967
  10. Gershom Gorenberg, The Accidental Empire: Israel and the Birth of the Settlements, 1967-1977, Times Books, Henry Holt & Co., New York 2007 ISBN 978-0-8050-8241-8 pp.137ff.
  11. ""Among The Settlers"". , by Jeffrey Goldberg (The New Yorker, May 2004)
  12. Ian S. Lustick, (1988) For the Land and the Lord: Jewish Fundamentalism in Israel Council on Foreign Relations, ISBN 0876090366 and ISBN 9780876090367 p 42
  13. Anita Shapira, (2007) Yigal Allon, Native Son: A Biography Translated by Evelyn Abel, University of Pennsylvania Press, ISBN 0812240286 p 315
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 UN Docs Chronological Review of Events November 1994 2 November Speaking in Jerusalem to a young leadership of the United Jewish Appeal, Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin said that the Likud government made a major mistake by establishing settlements of 30 to 80 families in areas densely populated by Palestinians. As a result the bulk of the army is stationed in the West Bank for the purpose of protecting Jewish settlers, he concluded. According to Rabin, in order to protect 450 Jewish settlers in Hebron, which has a Palestinian population of 100,000, there was a need for three Israeli army battalions to be there at all times.
  15. Yaakov Katz and Tovah Lazaroff (April 14, 2007). "Hebron settlers try to buy more homes". The Jerusalem Post. 
  16. Tovah Lazaroff (April 15, 2007). "Hebron settlers give up comfort to expand Jewish holdings". The Jerusalem Post. 
  17. Christian Peacemaking Teams. update July 11 to 16 2004
  18. Christian Peacemaking Teams. Hebron Update: August 17-23, 2004, 2004-9-1.
  19. Segev, Tom (1999). One Palestine, Complete. Metropolitan Books. pp. 314–327. ISBN 0805048480. 
  20. 20.0 20.1 Boston Globe. A top Israeli Says Settlers Incited Riot In Hebron 2002-7-31. (was here)
  21. The Scotsman. "Settlers’ revenge leaves Hebron bleeding", 2002-7-30.
  22. 22.0 22.1 The Jerusalem Post. "Field News 10/2/2002 Hebron Jews' offspring divided over city's fate", 2006-05-16.
  23. 23.0 23.1 The Philadelphia Inquirer. "Hebron descendants decry actions of current settlers They are kin of the Jews ousted in 1929", 1997-03-03.
  24. Ha'aretz 26 September 2007 Gov't bans Hebron settlers from winterizing controversial house By Nadav Shargai
  25. 19 March, 2007 The Jewish Community of Hebron
  26. Jpost 17 April 2007 Hebron settlers try to buy more homes By yaakov Katz And Tovah Lazaroff
  27. Shragai, Nadav (2007-12-26). "80 years on, massacre victims' kin reclaims Hebron house". Haaretz. Retrieved 2008-02-07. 
  29. Israeli Ministry of Foreign affairs Preliminary Report on the Events in Hebron as presented by Commanding Officer of the Central Command General Dani Yatom Before the Diplomatic Corps
  30. PHRIC: Details of Hebron Massacre List of victims of the incident and subsequent disturbances
  31. Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs -- Excerpts from the report of the Commission of Inquiry Into the Massacre at the Tomb of the Patriarchs in Hebron (aka the "Shamgar Report")
  32. Key Issues: Protecting Charitable organizations US Department of the Treasury
  33. In the Spotlight: Kach and Kahane Chai Center for Defense Information, 1 October 2002
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 UN Docs Chronological Review of Events June 1994
  35. Brown, Cynthia G. (Human Rights Watch) and Karim, Farhad (Human Rights Watch) (1995) pp 38-39
  36. 36.0 36.1 UN Docs Chronological Review of Events August 1994
  37. "History/Mission of CPT". Christian Peacemaker Teams. 
  38. BBC In pictures: Christian Peacemakers, Hebron. The members - wearing distinctive red caps - believe that they must devote the same discipline and self-sacrifice to peacemaking and non-violence that armies devote to war.
  39. 39.0 39.1 UN Docs Chronological Review of Events March 1996
  40. "Protocol Concerning the Redeployment in Hebron". United Nations Information System on the Question of Palestine. Non-UN document.. January 17, 1997. 
  41. 41.0 41.1 41.2 41.3 UN Doc Chronological review of Events January 1997
  42. 42.0 42.1 42.2 Rapoport, Meron (November 17, 2005). "Ghost town". Haaretz. 
  43. "Israeli NGO issues damning report on situation in Hebron". Agence France-Presse (ReliefWeb). August 19, 2003. 
  44. "Hebron, Area H-2: Settlements Cause Mass Departure of Palestinians" (PDF). B'Tselem. August 2003.  "In total, 169 families lived on the three streets in September 2000, when the intifada began. Since then, seventy-three families—forty-three percent—have left their homes."
  45. "Palestine Refugees: a challenge for the International Community". United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East. ReliefWeb. October 10, 2006. "Settler violence has forced out over half the Palestinian population in some neighborhoods in the downtown area of Hebron. This once bustling community is now eerily deserted, and presents a harrowing existence for those few Palestinians who dare to remain or who are too deep in poverty to move elsewhere." 
  46. "Ghost Town: Israel's Separation Policy and Forced Eviction of Palestinians from the Center of Hebron". B'Tselem. May 2007. 
  47. "Fatal Terrorist Attacks in Israel Since the DOP (Sept 1993)". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 24 September 2000. Retrieved 2007-04-13. 
  48. Bouckaert, Peter (2001). Center of the Storm: A Case Study of Human Rights Abuses in Hebron District. Human Rights Watch. pp. 5, 40–43, 48, 71–72. ISBN 1564322602. 
  49. UN Doc Chronological Review of Events May 1996
  50. UN Docs Chronological Review of Events January 1997 The Palestinian Authority and Israel invited Denmark, Italy, Sweden, Switzerland and Turkey to join the 30-member unarmed Norwegian contingent of the Temporary International Presence in Hebron (TIPH) force already stationed in Hebron.
  51. Center of the Storm: A Case Study of Human Rights Abuses in Hebron District By Human Rights Watch, Peter Bouckaert, Human Rights Watch, Human Rights Watch (Organization), Clarisa Bencomo Published by Human Rights Watch, 2001 ISBN 1564322602 and ISBN 9781564322609 pp 30-31
  52. Jerusalem Post, October 6, 2000 "IDF: Palestinians offer $2,000 for 'martyrs'"
  53. Palestine information centre Angry Hebronites stone Fatah’s police headquarters, demand release of relatives
  54. Our reign of terror, by the Israeli army Donald Macintyre, 19 April 2008, The Independent
  55. Mario Vargas Llosa: How Arabs have been driven out of Hebron 19 April 2008, The Independent
  56. [film]=vaelkommen_till_hebron Welcome to Hebron Stockholm International Film Festival
  57. Youtube 3 1/2 minute clip of Welcome to Hebron
  58. Ha'aretz 7 october 2008 Settlers to Barak: Don't give PA security control of Hebron By Nadav Shragai,
  59. Derori, Zeʼev Derori (2005) Israel's Reprisal Policy, 1953-1956: The Dynamics of Military Retaliation Routledge, ISBN 0714656321 p 126
  60. UN Doc A/35/207 S/13923 5 May 1980 Letter dated 4 May 1980 from the Permanent Representative of Israel to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General
  61. WRMEAJewish Settler Terror Groups Have a Long History in Hebron By Steve Sosebee
  62. 62.0 62.1 B'Tselem Tacit Consent: Israeli Policy on Law Enforcement toward Settlers in the Occupied Territories by Rona Dudai
  63. ha'aretz 15 March 2008 Rightist rabbis urge 'measure for measure' revenge on foes
  64. UN Doc A/41/680 20 October 1986 Report of the Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Population of the Occupied Territories
  65. 65.0 65.1 UN Docs Chronological Review of Events April 1994
  66. Zachary Lockman, Joel Beinin (1989) Intifada: The Palestinian Uprising Against Israeli Occupation South End Press, ISBN 0896083632 and ISBN 9780896083639
  67. WRMEA Mainstream Media Mideast Slanters April/May 1994, Page 30 Media Watch
  68. UN Doc A/45/84 dated 26 January 1990 Report of the Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Palestinian People and other Arabs of the Occupied Territories'
  69. Human Rights Watch (1994) Torture and Ill-treatment: Israel's Interrogation of Palestinians from the Occupied Territories Published by Human Rights Watch, ISBN 1564321363 p 265
  70. UN Doc Chronological Review of Events March 2000
  71. UN Docs Chronological Review of Events September 1993
  72. UN Docs Chronological Review of Events October 1993
  73. 73.00 73.01 73.02 73.03 73.04 73.05 73.06 73.07 73.08 73.09 73.10 73.11 Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs - Fatal Terrorist Attacks in Israel Since the Declaration of Principles (September 1993-July 24, 2008)
  74. 74.0 74.1 74.2 UN Docs Chronological Review of Events November 1993
  75. 75.0 75.1 75.2 UN Doc Chronological Review of Events Relating to the Question Of Palestine December 1993
  76. 76.0 76.1 76.2 UN Docs Chronological Review of Events January 1994
  77. 77.0 77.1 UN Docs Chronological Review of Events February 1994
  78. 78.0 78.1 78.2 UN Docs Chronological Review of Events July 1994
  79. 79.0 79.1 UN Docs Chronological Review of Events September 1994
  80. 80.0 80.1 80.2 UN Docs Chronological Review of Events October 1994
  81. UN Doc A/50/170 2 May 1995
  82. UN Docs Chronological Review of Events January 1995
  83. 83.0 83.1 UN Docs Chronological Review of Events March 1995
  84. New York Times April 17, 1995 Israeli Army Kills 3 Palestinians It Says Were En Route to Attack.
  85. 85.0 85.1 UN Docs Chronological Review of Events June 1995
  86. 86.0 86.1 UN Docs Chronological Review of Events July 1995
  87. 87.0 87.1 87.2 UN Docs Chronological Review of Events September 1995
  88. Christian Peacemaker Team Palestine Projects; About CPT Palestine
  89. 89.0 89.1 UN Docs Chronological Review of Events October 1995
  90. UN Docs Chronological Review of Events January 1996
  91. 91.0 91.1 UN Docs Chronological Review of Events April 1996
  92. Israeli MFA PM Netanyahu Responds Following Shooting at Arabs in Hebron Market
  93. CNN Second arrest made in Hebron market shooting
  94. 94.0 94.1 Un Doc Chronological Review of Events March 1997
  95. UN Doc Chronological Review of Events April 1997
  96. MERIA Hamas’ Terrorism Strategy: Operational Limitations and Political Constraints By Ely Karmon
  97. UN Doc Chronological Review of Events February 2000
  98. B'Tselem west Bank Statistics
  99. Casualties of War The Jerusalem Post.
  100. "Victims of Palestinian Violence since September 2000". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2007-04-13. 
  101. "Major Terrorist Attacks in Israel". Anti-Defamation League. Retrieved 2007-04-13. 
  102. 102.0 102.1 B'Tselem West Bank Statistics
  103. Two Norwegian observers killed near Hebron: Israeli TV, ABC News online, March 27, 2002.
  104. Two TIPH members killed near Hebron, Temporary International Presence in the City of Hebron website, March 27, 2002.
  105. Haaretz Observance of the lawless By Akiva Eldar 25 November 2008
  106. BBC News 25 April 2002 Violence erupts in Hebron and Gaza
  107. New York Times 16 November 2002 12 Israelis Killed in Hebron Ambush Near Prayer Site
  108. 108.0 108.1 108.2 UN Docs Chronological Review of Events November 2002
  109. 109.0 109.1 109.2 JVL
  110. 110.0 110.1 110.2 110.3 110.4 110.5 110.6 B'Tselem West Bank Statistics
  111. Ha'aretz Two Border policemen convicted of manslaughter in killing of Palestinian teen
  112. B'Tselem 29 April 2008: Policeman sent to prison for killing Palestinian in incident exposed by B'Tselem
  113. BBC
  114. Anthony H. Cordesman, Arab-Israeli Military Forces in an Era of Asymmetric Wars, Center for Strategic and International Studies (Washington, D.C.), Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006 p.135
  115. 115.0 115.1 115.2 Palestine studies (PCHR 5/26)
  116. 116.0 116.1 116.2 116.3 UN Doc Chronological Review of Events January 2006
  117. Ha'aretz
  118. Youtube
  119. Youtube
  120. settlers originally escorted into building
  121. Jpost 13 August 2008 Hillel Weiss indicted for incitement
  122. Ynet News 08.09.07 Cursing professor to be probed by Efrat Weiss
  123. Arutz Sheva 13 August 2008 Prof. Hillel Weiss Indicted for Incitement
  124. Ha'aretz 13 February 2008 Court okays soldier's 15-month jail term for Hebron rampage By Yuval Azoulay
  125. IPS
  126. Guardian Thursday May 01 2008 Hebron Orphanage by Seth Freedman
  127. Christian peacemaker teams 7 July 2008 Hebron Reflection: The Islamic Charitable Society and the Salvation Army by Kathleen Kern
  128. Ha’aretz 9 July 2008, South African rights group says harassed by settlers in Hebron
  129. JPost South African team to probe 'IDF abuses' By Asaf Shalev 6 July 2008
  130. 130.0 130.1 130.2 UN Doc Protection of Civilians Weekly Report 6 August - 12 August 2008
  131. Ha'aretz 7 August 2008 British consulate: Settlers attack U.K. diplomats on Hebron tour By Reuters
  132. Christian peacemaker teams 15 August 2008 Hebron: Delegation meets with Breaking the Silence by Tim Bowman
  133. Rioting by Kiryat Abra settlers just outside Hebron,' Haaretz 26/10/2008 ‘During the rioting, settlers hurled abuse at the members of the security forces, called for a "revenge attack" against them. "We hope they will be defeated by their enemies, that they will all be [kidnapped IDF soldier] Gilad Shalit, that they will all be killed and all slaughtered because this is what they deserve," they said.In addition to vandalizing the graves, settlers also damaged over 80 Palestinian vehicles by smashing windows and puncturing tires. Two police cars were damaged during the altercations.’
  134. Guardian Saturday December 6, 2008 Footage shows settlers shooting two Palestinians Rory McCarthy in Jerusalem the footage Ha'aretz Israel braces for settler violence in wake of Hebron house evacuation By Nadav Shragai and Amos Harel Ha'aretz IDF declares Hebron area closed military zone after settler rampage By Amos Harel and Avi Issacharoff, Haaretz Correspondents and Agencies. pogrom ANALYSIS / Hebron settler riots were out and out pogroms By Avi Issacharoff Ha'aretz IDF probes soldier's alleged attack on Haaretz photographer in Hebron By Fadi Eyadat and Amos Harel Ha'aretz ANALYSIS / Nothing justifies striking a photographer armed only with a camera By Amos Harel VIDEO / Settlers filmed shooting at Palestinians turn themselves in By Jonathan Lis Daily Star Lebanon's take on Hebron from Hebron colonists attack Palestinians after eviction By Agence France Presse (AFP) Price tag eviction 2006 BBC in Hebron
  135. Ha'aretz 23/12/2008 IDF soldier detained for firing gun alongside rioting settlers By Amos Harel


  • Burkett, Elinor Golda Meir: The Iron Lady of the Middle East ISBN 978-1906142131
  • Gorenberg, Gershom The Accidental Empire: Israel and the Birth of the Settlements, 1967-1977, Times Books, Henry Holt & Co., New York 2007 ISBN 978-0-8050-8241-8
  • Zachary Lockman, Joel Beinin (1989) Intifada: The Palestinian Uprising Against Israeli Occupation South End Press, ISBN 0896083632 and ISBN 9780896083639
  • Brown, Cynthia G. (Human Rights Watch) and Karim, Farhad (Human Rights Watch) (1995) Playing the "communal Card": Communal Violence and Human Rights Human Rights Watch, ISBN 1564321525 and ISBN 9781564321527

Coordinates: 31°32′00″N 35°05′42″E / 31.5333333°N 35.095°E / 31.5333333; 35.095

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