Israel Friedlander (or Friedlaender), (6 September, 1876-5 July, 1920) was a rabbi, educator and biblical scholar. He was born in Kovel, then in the Russian Empire, now Ukraine. He attended Berlin University and the University of Strasbourg where in 1901 he received his PhD. He received ordination at the Hildesheimer Rabbinical Seminary in Berlin.
A translator and Arabist, he was Professor of Biblical Literature at the Jewish Theological Seminary teaching Bible, Philosophy and History.
He was part of the Governing Board of the Intercollegiate Menorah Society, the Executive Committee of Bureau of Education of the Jewish Community of New York City and the Executive Committee of the Federation of American Zionists. He is known for his ardent support of Zionism.
In 1912 he created the Young Israel movement of Modern Orthodox Judaism with Rabbi Mordecai Kaplan. In 1920 his life was cut short when, distributing funds for the American Joint Distribution Committee to help Jews in Poland and Ukraine, he and two others were murdered by bandits near Kamenetz-Podolsk, Ukraine.
- Past and Present: A Collection of Jewish Essays (1905)
- The Problem of Judaism in America (1909)
- The Problem of Jewish Education in America, and the Bureau of Education of the Jewish Community of New York City (1913)
- The Present Crisis in American Jewry (1915)
- The Jews of Russia and Poland: A Bird's-eye View of Their History and Culture (1915)
- Zionism and the World Peace (1919)
- Round, S.B Practical Dreamer: Israel Friedlaender and the Shaping of American Judaism (Jewish Theological Seminary, 1985)
- Kiling, S The People and Its Land (United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism, 1988)
- "Report: Prof. Israel Friedlander Killed, With Rabbi Cantor, by Bandits in Ukraine" http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9B0CE3DD103FE432A25752C1A9619C946195D6CF
- Memorial meeting: Israel Friedlaender, Bernard Cantor,(Jewish Theological Seminary, 1920), http://www.archive.org/stream/memorialmeetingi00amerrich
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