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Hiri-ottappa: 'moral shame and Fear of Wrongdoing', are associated with all kammically advantageous consciousness see: Tab. II.

To be ashamed of what one ought to be ashamed of, to be ashamed of performing evil and disadvantageous things: this is called moral shame. To be in dread of what one ought to be in dread of, to be in dread of performing evil and disadvantageous things: this is called Fear of Wrongdoing; Pug, 79, 80.

Two lucid things, o Bhikkhus, protect the world: moral shame and Fear of Wrongdoing. If these two things were not to protect the world, then one would respect neither one's mother, nor one's mother's sister, nor one's brother's wife, nor one's teacher's wife. ; A. II, 7.


Maha Thera Nyanatiloka. Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines, Buddhist Publication Society, first edition 1952.

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