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Hippolytus (son of Theseus)

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HippolytusAlmaTadema

The Death of Hippolytus, 1860 painting by Sir Lawrence Alma Tadema.

In Greek mythology, Hippolytus (Ancient Greek Ἱππόλυτος meaning "unleasher of horses"[1]) was a son of Theseus and either Antiope or Hippolyta. He was identified with the Roman forest god Virbius.

The most common legend regarding Hippolytus states that he was killed after rejecting the advances of Phaedra, the second wife of Theseus and Hippolytus's stepmother. Spurned, Phaedra convinced Theseus that Hippolytus had raped her. Infuriated, Theseus believed her and, using one of the three wishes he had received from Poseidon, cursed Hippolytus. Hippolytus' horses were frightened by a sea monster and dragged their rider to his death. Alternatively, Dionysus sent a wild bull that terrified Hippolytus' horses, causing them to drag Hippolytus to his death.

The story of Phaedra and Hippolytus is told, in somewhat different versions, by Euripides' play Hippolytus and Seneca the Younger's play Phaedra.

Phaedra's suicide

Additional depictions such as the surviving version of Euripides and the French dramatist Racine, stated that Phaedra's nurse told Hippolytus of Phaedra’s love. Hippolytus swore that he would not reveal the nurse as a source of information – even after Phaedra killed herself and falsely accused him of raping her in a suicide note, which Theseus read.

Alternatively, it is stated that Phaedra simply killed herself out of guilt for Hippolytus’ death and that the goddess Artemis subsequently told Theseus the truth.

Hippolytus as Virbius

According to some sources, Hippolytus had scorned Aphrodite in order to become a devotee of Artemis, devoting himself to a chaste life in pursuit of hunting.[2] In retaliation, Aphrodite made Phaedra fall in love with him. Hippolytus’ rejection of Phaedra led to his death in a fall from a chariot.

As a result, a cult grew up around Hippolytus, associated with the cult of Aphrodite. His cult believed that Artemis asked Asclepius to resurrect the young man since he had vowed chastity to her.

He was brought to Latium, Italy, where he reigned under the name of Virbius or Virbio. After his resurrection, he married Aricia. According to another tradition, he lived in the sacred forests near Aricia in Latium. Girls who were about to be married offered locks of their hair to him as a sign of their virginity.

References

  1. More precisely, the meaning of Hippolytus' name is ironically ambiguous. The element -λυτος (from λύω "loosen, destroy") suggests the adjective λυτός, -ή, -όν "which may be undone, destroyed."[1]. His name thereby takes on the prophetic meaning "destroyed by horses".[2][3]
  2. Frazier, James. "The Golden Bough" (Chapter 1-2, particularly)
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This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original article was at Hippolytus (son of Theseus). The list of authors can be seen in the page history.

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