The Great Pyramid of Giza (constructed circa 2650 BCE) is the largest of the Egyptian pyramids, and is believed to have been the final resting place of the Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu, although his remains were never located. It is one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World and is the only member of that list that is still mostly intact.
The structure It originally stood 481 feet high and was the tallest, and overall largest structure on Earth until the 19th century, and with the exception of certain dams, remains one of the largest man-made structures on the planet in terms of mass. It consists of approximately 2 million blocks of stone, each weighing more than two tons. Each side of the pyramid measures 751 feet across, and the lengths of the sides vary less than 0.1%. Each corner of the pyramid is precisely lined up with cardinal directions of the compass.
As a single project, the Great Pyramid was the most ambitious attempted by the Egyptians during the Old Kingdom, and was undoubtedly a triumph of engineering, mathematics, organisation and planning. It is considered by many to be a testament to the power, stability , beliefs and skills of the Old Kingdom state, and its ability to harness and deploy resources on a massive scale in a highly integrated operation spanning a huge area.
The exact means of construction remain extremely contentious, but it is now accepted within the academic community that construction took around twety years, meaning that it was both begun and completed within Khufu's reign. The workforce is estimated to have been around 20,000 strong, consisting of a mixture of full time professionals, administrative staff and temporary labourers who worked for approximately three months per year during the inundation. Khufu set up local limestone quarries on-site to obtain the internal limestone blocks, though the fine, white limestone used for the outer casing stones (now robbed) had to be shipped across the Nile from Tura.Various other stones were also used in the paving, causeway, valley and pyramid temples, including granite and travertine, shipped in from as far afield as Aswan and Hatnub.
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