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The Gospel according to the Hebrews, commonly shortened to the Gospel of the Hebrews, is a lost gospel preserved only in a few quotations of the Church Fathers (see "About titles" below). It was written in Aramaic,[citation needed] and was the most widely known of the non-canonical gospels. The Gospel of the Hebrews was the gospel in use among Hebrew Christian sects, which later separated from the Gentile Church. It enjoyed a good reputation but was later judged apocryphal.[1]

As there is no text or a copy of a text, Biblical Scholars have not been able to ascertain many facts regarding its authenticity or its content. The only source of information to date has been the Church Fathers. The two central areas of controversy have to do with composition and titles.[2]

It is important to note that scholars of the Early Church referred to it as the true Gospel of Matthew or "Matthaei Authenticum". If this were accurate, then this gospel would be important in understanding the Historical Jesus.[3] [1] [2]

CompositionEdit

Traditionally, it is thought that the Gospel of Matthew found in the Bible is authentic. It is believed to be composed in Hebrew by Matthew and to be the first gospel written. Some modern biblical research attempts to show that this is not the case. Therefore the origins of Matthew's true gospel are contested by some of this research.[4]

M source Edit

Streeter's the Four Document Hypothesis
The Streeter's Four Document Hypothesis

The two-source hypothesis was the most commonly accepted solution to the synoptic problem. It argued that Matthew borrowed from two Greek sources, the Gospel of Mark and a hypothetical sayings collection, known by scholars as Q. Therefore the Bible's Gospel of Matthew was composed in Greek at a later time than the Gospel of Mark. More importantly, scholars now believe it was not written by Matthew.[5]

Streeter argued that a third source, referred to as M, and also hypothetical, lies behind the material in Matthew that has no parallel in Mark or Luke.[6] [3]

Through the remainder of the 20th century there were various challenges and refinements of Streeter's hypothesis. In 1953, Parker posited an early version of Matthew (Aramaic M) as the primary source of both Matthew and Mark, and Q source used by Matthew. The Church Fathers also wrote of an early version of Aramaic Matthew called the Gospel of the Hebrews [7] [4]

Fathers of the Early ChurchEdit

In the time of Jerome (c. 347 – September 30, 420), most scholars believed that the Gospel of the Hebrews was the true Gospel of Matthew (or Mattheai Authenticum).[8] [5] Epiphanius of Salamis (ca. 310–320 – 403) confirms that Matthew wrote the Gospel of the Hebrews. In the Panarion in which Epiphanius discusses the gospel used by the followers of a Torah-observant Jewish Christian Cerinthus (c. 100 AD) , Merinthus and the Ebionites he wrote: "They too accept Matthew's gospel and like the followers of Cerinthus and Merinthus, they use it alone. They call it the Gospel of the Hebrews, for in truth, Matthew alone of the New Covenant writers expounded and declared the gospel in Hebrew using Hebrew script." [9]

Papias, Bishop of Hierapolis in Asia Minor during the first half of the second century, writes of the origination of the Gospel in the Hebrew language, and thus may allude to an early textual Gospel of the Hebrews. He starts by stating that Matthew composed the logia in the Hebrew tongue and each one interpreted them as he was able. He also notes that the story of the Sinful Woman was originally from the Gospel of the Hebrews.[10][11]

Apart from Papias' comment, we do not hear about the author of the Gospel until Irenaeus around 185 who remarks that Matthew also issued a written Gospel of the Hebrews in their own language while Peter and Paul were preaching at Rome and laying the foundations of the Church.[12]

Pantaenus, Origen and other Church Fathers also believed Matthew wrote the Gospel of the Hebrews.[13][14]. Also, not one of the Church Fathers asserted that Matthew wrote the Greek Gospel found in the Bible.[10]

Modern critical scholarsEdit

Scholars agree that there is a connection between the Gospel of the Hebrews and Matthew. A study of the external evidence regarding this gospel shows that there existed among the Nazarenes and Ebionites a gospel commonly called the Gospel of the Hebrews . It was written in Aramaic with Hebrew letters. Its authorship was attributed to St. Matthew. [15]

Indeed the Fathers of the Church, while the Gospel of the Hebrews was still being circulated and read, referred to it always with respect, often with reverence: They accepted it as being the work of Matthew. This applies with tenfold to Jerome.[16]

Matthew the EvangelistEdit

After the Crucifixion, James the Just succeeded his brother Jesus of Nazareth as the leader of a small Jewish sect. [6]

They were located in and about Jerusalem and proclaimed that Jesus was the promised Messiah. These early Jewish Christians were thought to have been called Nazarenes (Nazoreans).[17] The term Nazarene was first applied to Jesus.[18] After his death, it was the term used to identify the Jewish Sect that believed Jesus was the Messiah.[17]

It is close to a historical certainty that Matthew belonged to this group as both the Gospels (pro-Christian) and the early Talmud (anti-Christian) [19] affirm this to be true.

One account of the life and teachings of Jesus, dating from this time was written by a person named Matthew.[20]

According to the Church Fathers, he was the same person as the Apostle Matthew, and his account was written in Aramaic [21]

Origen explains, "The very first account to be written was by Matthew, once a tax collector, but later an apostle of Jesus Christ. Matthew published it for the converts from Judaism and composed it in Hebrew letters." [22] Eusebius adds insight by explaining that the apostles "were led to write only under the pressure of necessity. Matthew, who had first preached the Gospel in Hebrew, when on the point of going to other nations, committed the gospel to writing in his native language. Therefore he supplied the written word to make up for the lack of his own presence to those from whom he was sent." [23]

Irenaeus gives us further insight into the date and circumstances of this gospel by explaining, "Matthew also issued a written Gospel of the Hebrews in their own language while Peter and Paul were preaching at Rome and laying the foundations of the Church." [24]

Matthew's gospel reflects his occupation as a tax collector for it refers to money more often than any other, and does so using specific monetary terms [25] . A Roman tax collector such as Matthew would have been highly capable of writing accurate and detailed records. Matthew's humility is evident, as he refers to his feast for Jesus as a dinner,[26] while Luke calls it as a great banquet.[27] Instead of attempting to conceal his identity, which would be a sign of untrustworthiness, the Matthew admits that he was a tax collector, which was a highly unpopular job among first-century Jews, who often considered them as traitors and cronies of the Roman Empire.[28] [29] [7]

Matthew, the tax collector and later an Apostle, composed his gospel near Jerusalem for Hebrew Christians. It was then translated into Greek but the Greek copy was lost. The Hebrew original was preserved at the Library of Caesarea, which Pamphilus diligently gathered. The Nazarenes transcribed a copy for Jerome which he used in his work. [30] [8]

Matthew's gospel was called the Gospel of the Hebrews or sometimes the Gospel of the Apostles, and was written in the Chaldee and Syriac language but in Hebrew script. It was used by the Nazarene communities.[31] [9]

ReadershipEdit

Jerome identifies the writer and readers of this gospel as observant Jews, distinct from the culturally assimilated and Hellenized Jews, for whom the Greek Septuagint had been translated from Hebrew. It was used extensively by the followers of Hegesippus, Merinthus and Cerinthus as well as by the Ebionites and the Nazarenes. According to Pantaenus, it was also in circulation in India, having been brought there by Bartholomew.[32] Pantaenus became head of the School in Alexandria and was responsible for much of the Library in Caesarea. In this library was preserved a copy of the Gospel of the Hebrews. The Nazarenes of Beroea gave a copy to Jerome. [33]

Nazarene communitiesEdit

Early Jewish Christians were thought to have been called Nazarenes (Nazoreans). The term Nazarene was first applied to Jesus.[34]

After his death, it was the term used to identify the Jewish Sect that believed Jesus was the Messiah. When this group grew into the Gentile world, they became known as Christians. By the fourth century, Nazarenes were considered orthodox Christians who embraced the Jewish Law, but rejected Hebrew Heresies.

The Nazarenes are generally accepted as being the first Christians who were led by James the Just who was said to be the brother of Jesus. He led the Church from Jerusalem and had a special experience of the Risen Lord.[35]

The Fathers of the Church believed the Nazarenes used the Gospel of the Hebrews.[36][37]

Ebionite communitiesEdit

Irenaeus wrote that they used only one Gospel—Matthew's Gospel.[38] But, Eusebius writes that the Ebionites use only the Gospel of the Hebrews.[39]

This confusion is clarified by Epiphanius who explained that the Ebionites used the Gospel of the Hebrews written by Matthew. Although the Ebionites "edited it", they never composed a gospel of their own.[40]

At the beginning of the Christian era, Jewish Christian communities flourished throughout the Holy Land. The Ebionites were thought to be an offshoot of the Nazarenes. Their center was located east of the Jordan river near where John the Baptist had preached.

The origin of the name Ebionite (or Ebionaean) [41] is debated. Tertullian, Irenaeus, Hippolytus of Rome, Epiphanius, and Jerome ascribed the movement to a heretic named Ebion or Hebion.[42] Others claim the name Ebionite means "poor one" and is not derived from a person, but rather the Beatitude from Matthew 5:3. While some note they rejected material wealth, Eusebius and Origen both claimed the Ebionites' appellation was a term of derision indicating a poverty in intellect, rather than material possessions.[43] Conflict grew between them and other Christians when the Ebionites failed to embrace the Church doctrines of chastity or celibacy as well as the concept of the Virgin birth. They believed Jesus was begotten of God at his baptism.

Conflict also grew over the issue of the Mosaic law which the Ebionites believed remained in full force. They believed that by fulfilling the law, they are able to become Christs.[44] They are said to have rejected Paul's teachings and used only one Gospel, the Gospel of the Hebrews.[45] They also have John the Baptist and Jesus being vegetarians, and rendering him in the adoptionist form. Many of these differences are found in subtle variants of Greek words, such as a meal of egkris (cake), rather than akris (locusts) as in the Synoptic Gospels

Epiphanius, whose writing is the main source for finding fragments of the Gospel of the Ebionites, emphasises that the Nazoraeans were considered part of the Christian orthodoxy, whereas the Ebionites were considered heretics, and so there may have been theological and doctrinal differences between the two gospels, possibly over the Virgin Birth which the Ebionites rejected.[46]

ContentEdit

Although the Gospel of the Hebrews was not identical to the Greek Gospel of Matthew found in the Bible, they were similar. [10]

The Gospel of the Hebrews was 2200 lines, just 300 lines shorter than Greek Matthew. [11] Scholars have been able to study much of the theological structure because of the Fathers of the Early Church.

No Virgin Birth or genealogies Edit

The Gospel of the Hebrews like Mark and John does not contain the Virgin Birth and Genealogies, It commences as follows: '“In the days of King Herod of Judea, during the high-priesthood of Caiaphas, a certain man named John came baptizing with a baptism of repentance in the river Jordan. He was said to be of the family of Aaron the priest, son of Zechariah and Elizabeth, and all went out to him.” [47] [12]

Egypt Edit

It should be noted that wherever Matthew (whether on his own account or in the person of Jesus) quotes the testimony of the Old Testament he does not follow the authority of the language of the Septuagint but the Hebrew. Therefore these two forms exist, “Out of Egypt have I called my Son,” and, “For He will be called a Nazarene.” (See also margin of codex 1424 – This was to fulfill what the Lord had spoken by the prophets, “Out of Egypt have I called my Son.”) [30] [13]

Jesus began his ministry at thirty years of age Edit

In Matthew's Gospel that the Ebionites used called the Gospel of the Hebrews:

There was a certain man named Jesus, about thirty years old, who chose us. Coming to Capernaum, He entered the house of Simon, who is called Peter, and said, "As I passed by the Sea of Galilee, I chose John and James, sons of Zebedee, and Simon, and Andrew, Thaddaeus, Simon the Zealot, Judas Iscariot; and you Matthew, sitting at the tax office, I called and you followed me. You therefore, I want to be the Twelve, to symbolize Israel." And it so happened that John came baptizing, and Pharisees and all Jerusalem came out to him to get baptized. And John wore clothing made of camel hair and had a leather belt about his waist. His food, consisted of wild honey that tasted like manna, like sweet cake cooked in oil.”

[48] [14]

Baptism of Jesus Edit

In the Torah are different categories of sinful behavior. The sin of ignorance is a missing the mark, meaning that in order to learn from one's mistakes, one often misses the mark to the left or right hand through ignorance. When one has realized the mistake, one attempts to step back on the "way" or "path" of righteousness.

In the New Covenant this type of sin is often referred to as a "trespass". It is different than choosing evil or willful evil. In the Gospel of the Hebrews, the mother of Jesus and his brothers said to him that John the Baptist baptizes for the forgiveness of sins; let us go and be baptized by him. Jesus replies "In what way have I sinned that I should go and be baptized by him? Unless, perhaps, what I have just said is a sin of ignorance."

The Hebrew followers of Jesus believed that he was empowered by the Holy Spirit at his baptism, not at his birth. The important point in using the word "rest" above is that it refers to the Jewish belief that the Messiah's name will be called "Menachem", or "rest".

It should be noted that Greek Matthew does not include the idea of the "firstborn" son (implying that there will be others), while the Gospel of the Hebrews uses the second phrase as quoted in Psalm 2:7: "this day have I begotten you". In the Hebrew, as used in Zechariah 12:10, the word for "only" is yachid meaning "beloved" and implying the "firstborn" son, and as the Book of Hebrews states, that Yahvah would use Yahshua, His Firstborn, for "bringing many sons to glory" [49] as an "elder brother". Finally it is also important to remember that the following was written in Hebrew, according to the Church Fathers:

Behold the mother of the Lord and his brothers said to him, "John the Baptist baptizes for the forgiveness of sins. Let us go and be baptized by him." But Jesus said to them, "in what way have I sinned that I should go and be baptized by him? Unless perhaps, what I have just said is a sin of ignorance". After the people were baptized, Jesus also came and was baptized by John. And as Jesus came up from the water, Heaven was opened, and he saw the Holy Spirit descend in the form of a dove and enter into Him. And a voice from Heaven said, "You are my beloved Son; with You I am well pleased." And again, "Today I have begotten You. My Son, in all the prophets was I waiting for You that You should come and I might rest in You. For You are My rest. You are My first begotten Son that prevails forever" Immediately a great light shone around the place; and John, seeing it, said to him, ‘Who are you, Lord? And again a voice from Heaven said, ‘This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased.’ Then John, falling down before him, said, ‘I beseech You, Lord, baptize me!’ But He forbade him saying, ‘Let it be so; for thus it is fitting that all things be fulfilled.[50][51][52]

[15] [16] [17] [18]

"A bodiless demon" Edit

This very strange Gospel quotation found in the letter of Ignatius of Antioch to the Smyrnaeans may be one of the oldest recorded sayings of Jesus. An Exegesis of the Sayings of the Lord by means of an in-depth analysis of the available Patristic evidence as well as a comparison with the Hebrew Gospel tradition, leads to this conclusion.[53]

The Gospel of the Hebrews states that when Jesus came to those with Peter, Jesus said to them, “Take hold of me, handle me, and see that I am not a bodiless demon.”[53][54] Jerome also points out that the Apostles thought Jesus to be a spirit, for in the Gospel of the Hebrews Jesus says that he is not a “A bodiless demon” [55] [19]

Holy Spirit Edit

Within Judaism, the Shekinah (or "visible" cloud of the Presence) is a feminine word, thought to be Yahvah's feminine aspect; therefore, they called the Spirit the "mother". You will note, likewise, that the Renewed City of Jerusalem that "descends from heaven" is also referred to as female, as the "mother" of us all. Jewish studies have shown that this Heavenly Jerusalem is a "palace of overcomers" (the Overcomer's Palace), and is called by the ancient Jewish kabbalists Binah ("Understanding"), a house with "many rooms" (in the New Covenant it is translated "many mansions"). The following verse, the motif in the book of Ezekiel where it is stated: "And he put forth the form of an hand, and took me by a lock of mine head; and the spirit lifted me up between the earth and the heaven, and brought me in the visions of God to Jerusalem" [56], i.e. to a "holy mountain".

Thus in the Gospel of the Hebrews we should not be surprised that after the temptation of Jesus it says, “Even so did my Mother, the Holy Spirit, took me by one of my hairs, and carried me to the great mountain Tabor." It should also be noted that “Spirit” in Hebrew is feminine, while in Latin it is masculine and in Greek it is neuter.[57][58][59] [20] [21]

Brotherly love Edit

This is an important theme among Hebrew Christians. In Gospel of the Hebrews one of the greatest sins is "To grieve the spirit of one's brother." and we also read that the Lord spoke to his disciples saying "And never be joyful except when you look on your brother with love." [60] [61] [62] [22] [23]

Seek and you will find Edit

The Jews believed that when we seek ardently, we shall find, and when we find, we shall be in awe, and having come to an understanding, we shall be in the "house of understanding", reigning as priests and rulers with Yahshua, our Chief, and that will be our rest.

In the Gospel of the Hebrews this theology is summed up as follows: "He who seeks will not give up until he finds; and having found, he will marvel; and having marveled, he will reign; and having reigned, he will rest." [63] [64] [24] [25]

The rich young man Edit

In the Gospel of the Hebrews:

The second rich youth said to him, “Rabbi, what good thing can I do and live?” Jesus replied, “Fulfill the law and the prophets.” “I have,” was the response Jesus said, “Go, sell all that you have and distribute to the poor; and come, follow me.” The youth began to fidget, for it did not please him. And the Lord said, “How can you say, I have fulfilled the law and the prophets, when it is written in the law: You shall love your neighbor as yourself and many of your brothers, sons of Abraham, are covered with filth, dying of hunger, and your house is full of many good things, none of which goes out to them?” And he turned and said to Simon, his disciple, who was sitting by Him, “Simon, son of Jonah, it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for the rich to enter the Kingdom of Heaven.” [65]

[26] [27] [28]

The sinful women Edit

Papias tells us that the Gospel of the Hebrews also gives story of a woman accused of many sins before the Lord. Scholars have noted the connection to the sinful woman in John's Gospel. There has been much debate but some believe this narrative is historical[11] [29]

Levi Edit

Didymus actually held The Gospel of the Hebrews to be more authortative than the Scriptures.He explains that there are many people with two names. Scripture calls Matthew “Levi” in the Gospel of Luke, but they are not the same person. Rather Matthias who replaced Judas, and Levi are the same man with a double name. This is obvious in the Gospel of the Hebrews.[66] [30] [31]

The resurrection Edit

This Gospel puts a particular emphasis on James the Just,[32] as head of the Jerusalem church, and especially concentrates on arguing for obedience to Jewish law. James is portrayed in the Gospel as the first to have seen the Resurrection of Jesus. There was a belief among the Apostles that James, having been present at the Passover meal, did not believe his brother would be raised from the dead, but that Jesus visited him first after his resurrection.

A few portions of the Canonical Gospels would seem to give evidence that James and his brothers were not followers of Yahshua prior to the Resurrection; John 7:5 mentions such unbelief explicitly. At the Feast of Weeks, however, Judas the brother of James, is at least listed among the group of believers[67]. Jude, in his own epistle, claims that he is the same "brother of James" [68]. Paul would seem to provide the evidence that Jesus did, in fact, visit James after the resurrection [69] but after Cephas and the twelve, then more than five hundred "brethren" who were still alive at the time of Paul's writing: "After that, he was seen of James; then of all the apostles". During the beginning of Lord's ministry, James did not believe Jesus was the Messiah; however, there was some great catalyst that changed his mind, for he became the leader of the Nazaraean community in Jerusalem and produced the Epistle of James written before 61 C.E. When he was stoned by the Sanhedrin under the authority of Ananus, the son or grandson of Annas who had been responsible for bringing Jesus to trial;[70]

Eusebius quotes Hegesippus, who states: "This apostle was consecrated from his mother's womb. He drank neither wine nor fermented liquors, and abstained from anima food. A razor never came upon his head, he never anointed with oil, and never used a bath. He alone was allowed to enter the sanctuary. He never wore woollen, but linen garments [i.e. as the priests did]...And indeed, on account of his exceeding great piety, he was called the Just, and Oblias (or Zaddick and Ozleam) which signifies justice and protection of the people. Some of the seven sects [of Judaism], therefore, of the people, mentioned by me above in my Commentaries, asked him what was the door to Jesus? And he answered, 'that he was the Saviour.'. From which, some believed that Jesus is the Christ..." [71] .In the Gospel of the Hebrews it is written as follows:

Now the Lord, when he had given the linen cloth to the servant of the priest, went to James and appeared to him, for James had sworn that he would not eat bread from that hour in which he had drunk the Lord's cup until he should see him risen from among them that sleep. And Lord says, "Bring a table and bread." And it is added, "He took bread and blessed and broke and gave it to James the Just and said to him, "My brother, eat your bread, for the Son of man is risen from among them that sleep." [36]

[33] [34]

TitlesEdit

The name Gospel of the Hebrews appears to have also been a generic term, which has led to much confusion. The following is but a short list of its different names.

List of names Edit

  • Gospel of the Hebrews
  • Aramaic Matthew
  • The Authentic Gospel of Matthew
  • Gospel of the Apostles
  • The Gospel of the Twelve Apostles
  • The Hebrew Gospel
  • Aramic M (Modern Hypothetical title not found in the Early Church)
  • Gospel of the Nazarenes (Modern Hypothetical title not found in the Early Church)
  • Gospel of the Ebionites (Modern Hypothetical title not found in the Early Church)

The Early Church FathersEdit

According to the Church Fathers, there was only one Hebrew gospel in circulation during the time of the Early Church. In the Catalog of Eusebius, only one Hebrew gospel is listed: "And among these some have placed also the Gospel of the Hebrews with which those of the Hebrews that have accepted Christ are especially delighted." [72]

Epiphanius confirms that there was only one Hebrew gospel: "They call it the Gospel of the Hebrews for, in truth, Matthew alone in the New Covenant expounded and declared the Gospel in Hebrew using Hebrew script." [73] More importantly, no Church Father ever contended that there were several Hebrew gospels in circulation. [35]

Modern historical scholarship Edit

However, modern scholars have called this into question. After explaining in great detail why the Church Fathers such as Epiphanius and Jerome were in error, Wilhelm Schneemelcher reaches the following conclusion: there are three distinct Jewish Gospels.

1) The Gospel of the Nazarenes, which was read in Semitic speech and used among the Nazarenes and was similar to canonical Matthew.
2) The Gospel of the Ebionites, which was used by heretical Jewish Christians.
3) The Gospel of the Hebrews, which has no special relationship to any one of the canonical gospels, but contains syncretistic elements, and shows the heretical character of the Jewish Christian.

The position of Parker and his followers is that there is only one Hebrew gospel, the Gospel of the Hebrews but that there were several editions of this one gospel in the Early Church.[74] [36]

Although there is still ongoing debate about the Hebrew Gospel(s) and "only the very daring, nowadays, venture on speculations in regard to the Gospel of the Hebrews ", [37] most scholars agree with Schneemelcher when he says, "Thus the number of Jewish Gospels -- whether there be one, two or three such gospels -- is uncertain, the identification of the several fragments is also uncertain and, finally the character and the relationship to one another of the several Jewish gospels is uncertain."[75][38]

Non-canonical status Edit

One of the ongoing debates is why the Gospel of the Hebrews was left out of the Canon when the Church Fathers wrote that it was composed by Matthew.

Allegations of deliberate suppression of the Hebrew Gospel Edit

It has been claimed that rivalries among Christians and Jewish-Christian sects brought about the intentional destruction of Hebrew texts, in favor of variant Greek editions, for doctrinal reasons. The Roman Emperor Constantine, who converted to Christianity in the early 300s and fostered the faith as an imperial religion, is thought to have collaborated in allowing wholesale codification of Christian "orthodoxy," at the expense of alternative views which once held wide currency. Alleged attempts to obliterate The Gospel of the Hebrews, ultimately failed to eliminate all traces, because writings of the Church Fathers preserved at least some portions of texts which were otherwise destroyed or lost. [39] [40]

Argument of a "limited Hebrew sphere" Edit

It is true that this gospel should not to be classed with the heretical gospels such as Marcion, nor with apocryphal Gospels of James and Nicodemus. It differs from the former in that it does not deviate from any major mainstream Christian beliefs about Jesus. It differed from the latter in that it narrated particulars mostly relating to the public ministry of Jesus.

The Gospel of the Hebrews differs from the Biblical accounts only in that it is florid in style, diffuse in the relation of incidents, and inclined to sectional views of doctrine. Its sayings and incidents may have come from the oral tradition or from Matthew. There is still much uncertainty among scholars.

However, it is a stretch to say it belongs in the canon, but for some "conspiracy". The language the Gospel of the Hebrews confined it to a very limited Hebrew sphere, and its sectional character probably discouraged it from attaining a place in the Canon.

Highly negative conservative opponents arguing against a Hebrew Gospel say its Hebrew language necessarily gave it only an extremely limited readership, given the relatively minuscule Tiberian Hebrew-speaking Northern Judaean milieu from which it probably originated. Hence, there would be no good reason for including it in the Canon of the Church. [41]

However, the very inclusion of the Old Testament (a Hebrew document), and New Testament Books, such as Galatians, Ephesians, etc., into the Christian Canon, suggests that the Hebrew language or limited readership, were not precluding qualifiers.

Most recent scholarshipEdit

In October 2009, professor of theology James Edwards of Whitworth University, argued that the original Gospel was indeed written in Hebrew by Matthew. In The Hebrew Gospel & the Development of the Synoptic Tradition, Edwards offers evidence of it from early Christian writings in monasteries and libraries around the world. Edwards explained: “We know did exist because it was referred to about 100 times in the first nine centuries of Christianity.” He adds that about 40 quotations from the Hebrew Gospel can be found in pre-canonical Christian writings. The Hebrew Gospel “…was actually widely known in the early church.” [76] [77][42] [43]

Comparison Chart of the Major Gospels [78] Edit

The material in the Comparison Chart is from the Gospel Parallels by B. H. Throckmorton, The five Gospels by R. W. Funk, The Gospel According to the Hebrews, by E. B. Nicholson & The Hebrew Gospel and the Development of the Synoptic Tradition by J. R. Edwards.

Item Matthew, Mark, Luke John Thomas Gospel of the Hebrews
New Covenant The central theme of the Gospels - Love God with all your heart and your neighbor as yourself [79] The central theme - Love is the New Commandment given by Jesus [80] Secret knowledge, love your friends [81]The central theme - Love one another [82]
Forgiveness Very important - particularly in Matthew and Luke [83] Assumed [84] Not mentioned Very important - Forgiveness is a central theme and this gospel goes into the greatest detail [85]
The Lord's Prayer In Matthew & Luke but not Mark [86] Not mentioned Not mentioned Important - “mahar” or "tomorrow" [87] [88]
Love & the poor Very Important - The rich young man [89] Assumed [90] Important [91]Very important - The rich young man [92]
Jesus starts his ministry Jesus meets John the Baptist and is baptized [93] Jesus meets John the Baptist [94] N/A- Speaks of John the Baptist [95] Jesus meets John the Baptist and is baptized. This gospel goes into the greatest detail [96]
Disciples-inner circle Peter, Andrew, James & John [97] Peter, Andrew, James & the Beloved Disciple [98] Peter, Andrew James & John [99] Peter [100]
Disciples-others

Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Thomas, James, Simon the Zealot, Jude Thaddaeus, & Judas[101]

Philip, Nathanael, Matthew, Thomas, James, Simon the Zealot, Jude Thaddaeus & Judas [102]

Matthew, James the Just (Brother of Jesus), Simon the Zealot, Thaddaeus, Judas [103]

Matthew, Thomas, James the Just (Brother of Jesus) [104]

Possible Authors Unknown; [105] Mark the Evangelist & Luke the Evangelist The Beloved Disciple [106] Thomas [107] Matthew the Evangelist [108]
Virgin birth account In Matthew & Luke, but not Mark [109] Not mentioned Not mentioned Not mentioned
Jesus' baptism Described [110] Not Mentioned [111] N/A Described great detail [112]
Preaching style Brief one-liners; parables[113] Essay format, Midrash[114] Sayings [115] Brief one-liners; parables [116]
Storytelling Parables [117] Figurative language & Metaphor [118] Gnostic, hidden [119] Parables [120]
Jesus' theology 1st Century liberal Judaism. [121] Critical of Jewish Authorities [122] Gnostic [123] 1st Century Judaism [124]
Miracles Many miracles Seven Signs N/A Fewer but more credible miracles [125]
Duration of ministry 1 year [126] 3 years (Multiple Passovers) N/A 1 year [127]
Location of ministry Mainly Galilee Mainly Judea, near Jerusalem N/A Mainly Galilee
Passover meal Body & Blood = Bread and wine Interrupts meal for foot washing N/A Hebrew Passover is celebrated but details are N/A Epiphanius [128]
Burial shroud A single piece of cloth Multiple pieces of cloth [129] N/A Given to the High Priest [130]
Resurrection Mary and the Women are the first to learn Jesus has arisen [131] John adds detailed account of Mary's experience of the Resurrection [132] Not Applicable as Gospel of Thomas is a collection of the "sayings" of Jesus, not the events of his life In the Gospel of the Hebrews is the unique account of Jesus appearing to his brother, James the Just. [133]

AppendixEdit

The writings of the Early Church Fathers

The following are excerpts from the Church Fathers regarding the Gospel according to the Hebrews. Following each quote is a link showing the full text in context.

Clement of Alexandria

Also in the Gospel according to the Hebrews it is written, the saying, “He that is amazed will prevail, and he that prevails shall rest in peace.” Miscellanies (II ix )[44]

Epiphanius

They too accept Matthew's Gospel and like the followers of Cerinthus and Merinthus, they use it alone. They call it the Gospel according to the Hebrews, for in truth Matthew alone in the New Testament expounded and declared the Gospel in Hebrew using Hebrew script. (Panarion XXX iii 7) [45]

They have Matthew's Gospel in its entirety in Hebrew, for this Gospel was preserved among them as it was first written in Hebrew script.( Panarion XXIX ix 4)[46]

Their Gospel commences as follows: “In the days of King Herod of Judea, a certain man named John came baptizing with a baptism of repentance in the river Jordan. He was said to be of the family of Aaron the priest, son of Zechariah and Elizabeth, and all went out to him.” ( Panarion XXX xiii 6)[47]

Didymus the Blind

There are many people with two names. Scripture calls Matthew “Levi” in the Gospel of Luke, but they are not the same person. Rather Matthias who replaced Judas, and Levi are the same man with a double name. This is obvious in the Gospel according to the Hebrews . (Didymus the Blind's Commentary on Psalm)[48]

Eusebius

They (the Apostles) were led to write only under the pressure of necessity. Matthew, who had first preached the Gospel in Hebrew, when on the point of going to other nations, committed the Gospel to writing in his native language. Therefore he supplied the written word to make up for the lack of his own presence to those from whom he was sent. (Church History III xxiv 6)[49]

. . . which some reject, but which others class with the accepted books. And among these some have also placed the Gospel according to the Hebrews , with which those Hebrews who accept Christ are especially delighted. All these may be reckoned among the disputed books. ( C. H. III xxv 5) [50]

They [Ebionites] used only the so-called Gospel according to the Hebrews making little account of the others. (C.H. III xxvii 4.) [51]

But concerning Matthew, Papius writes as follows: "So then Matthew wrote the oracles in the Hebrew language, and every one interpreted them as he was able." [And the same writer uses testimonies from the first Epistle of John and from that of Peter likewise.] And he relates another story of a woman, who was accused of many sins before the Lord, which is contained in the Gospel according to the Hebrews . (C.H. III xxxix 16) [52]

And from the Syriac Gospel according to the Hebrews , Hegesippus quotes some passages in the Hebrew tongue, showing that he was a convert from the Hebrews, and he mentions other matters as taken from the oral tradition of the Jews. (C.H. IV xxii 7) [53]

Pantaenus was one of those, and is said to have gone to India. It is reported that among the Christians there that he had found Matthew's Gospel. This had anticipated his own arrival, for Bartholomew, one of the Apostles, had preached to them, and left with them the writings of Matthew in Hebrew, which they had preserved till that time. After many good deeds, Pantaenus finally became the head of the School in Alexandria, and expounded the treasures of divine doctrine both orally and in writing. ([C. H.] V x 3) [54]

The very first account to be written was by Matthew, once a tax collector but later an apostle of Jesus Christ. Matthew published it for the converts from Judaism and composed it in Hebrew letters. (C. H. VI xxv 4) [55]

Irenaeus

The Ebionites use Matthew's Gospel only, and repudiate the Apostle Paul. (Against Heresies I xxvi 2) [56]

Matthew also issued a written Gospel according to the Hebrews in their own language while Peter and Paul were preaching at Rome and laying the foundations of the Church. (Against Heresies III i 1) [57]

For the Ebionites, who use only Matthew's Gospel, are convicted out of that very book as not holding right views about the Lord. (Against Heresies III xi 7) [58]

Origen

It is written in a certain Gospel that is called according to the Hebrews: The second rich youth said to him, (Origen's Commentary on Matthew XIX) [59]

And if any accept the Gospel according to the Hebrews, in which the Savior says . . . (Origen's Commentary on John III ) [60]

Jerome

Also, the Gospel called the Gospel according to the Hebrews, recently translated by me into Greek and Latin, which Origen often uses, states, after the resurrection of the Saviour: “Now the Lord, after he had given His grave clothes to the servant of the priest, appeared to James, for James had sworn that he would not eat bread from that hour in which he had drunk the Lord’s cup until he should see Him risen from the dead.” And a little further on the Lord says, “‘bring a table and bread.’” And immediately it is added, “He took bread and blessed and broke and gave it to James the Just and said to him, ‘My brother, eat your bread, for the Son of Man is risen from the dead.’” (On Illustrious Men, II) [61]

Matthew, also called Levi, who used to be a tax collector and later an apostle, composed the Gospel of Christ, which was first published in Judea in Hebrew script for the sake of those of the circumcision who believed. This Gospel was afterwards translated into Greek (and the Greek has been lost) though by what author uncertain. The Hebrew original has been preserved to this present day in the library of Caesarea, which Pamphilus diligently gathered. I have also had the opportunity of having this volume transcribed for me by the Nazarenes of Beroea, Syria, who use it. It should be noted that wherever the Evangelist—whether on his own account or in the person of our Lord and Saviour—quotes the testimony of the Old Testament he does not follow the authority of the language of the Septuagint but the Hebrew. (On Illustrious Men III) [62]

I now speak of the New Testament, which is undoubtedly Greek, except for the Apostle Matthew, who had first set forth the Gospel of Christ in Hebrew letters in Judea. (Jerome's Letter to Pope Damasus)[63]

And whoever accepts the Gospel circulating under the title Gospel according to the Hebrews which we most recently translated, in which it is said by the Saviour, “Even now my mother, the Holy Spirit, carried me away by one of my hairs.” (Jerome's Commentary on Micah VII vi) [64]

In the Gospel according to the Hebrews that the Nazarenes read there is counted among the most serious offences, "He that has grieved the spirit of his brother." (Jerome's Commentary on Ezekiel VI) [65]

In the Gospel according to the Hebrews that the Nazarenes read, the Saviour indicates this by saying, “Even now my mother, the Holy Spirit, carried me away.” (Jerome's Commentary on Ezekiel XVI iii) [66]

In the so-called Gospel according to the Hebrews, for “bread essential to existence,” I found “mahar”, which means “of tomorrow”; so the sense is: our bread for tomorrow, that is, of the future, give us this day. (Jerome's Commentary on Matthew I) [67]

In the Gospel which the Nazarenes and the Ebionites use which we have recently translated from Hebrew to Greek, and which most people call the Authentic Gospel of Matthew, the man who had the withered hand is described as a mason who begged for help in the following words: “I was a mason, earning a living with my hands. I beg you, Jesus, restore my health to me, so that I need not beg for my food in shame.” (Jerome"s Commentary on Matthew II) [68]

In the Gospel according to the Hebrews, Barabbas is interpreted as “son of their master”. He was condemned because of insurrection and murder. (Jerome's Commentary on Matthew IV) [69]

In the Gospel I so often mention we read, “A lintel of the Temple of immense size was broken.” (Jerome's Commentary on Matthew XXVII) [70]

In the Gospel according to the Hebrews, written in the Chaldee and Syriac language but in Hebrew script, and used by the Nazarenes to this day (I mean the Gospel of the Apostles, or, as it is generally maintained, the Matthew's Gospel, a copy of which is in the library at Caesarea), we find, “Behold the mother of the Lord and his brothers said to him, ‘John the Baptist baptizes for the forgiveness of sins. Let us go and be baptized by him.’ But Jesus said to them, ‘in what way have I sinned that I should go and be baptized by him? Unless perhaps, what I have just said is a sin of ignorance.’” ( Against Pelagius III ii) [71]

For when the apostles thought Him to be a spirit, or in the words of the Gospel according to the Hebrews, which the Nazarenes read, “A bodiless demon” (Jerome's Commentary on Isaiah, Preface to Book XVII) [72]

In the Gospel written in the Hebrew script that the Nazarenes read, the whole fount of the Holy Spirit descends upon Him, for God is Spirit and where the Spirit resides, there is freedom. Further in the Gospel which we have just mentioned we find the following written: “When the Lord came up out of the water the whole fount of the Holy Spirit descended upon Him and rested on Him saying, ‘My Son, in all the prophets was I waiting for You that You should come and I might rest in You. For You are My rest. You are My first begotten Son that prevails forever.’ ” (Jerome's Commentary on Isaiah IV) [73]

In the Gospel according to the Hebrews that the Nazarenes read, it says, “Even now my mother the Holy Spirit carried me away.” This should upset no one because “spirit” in Hebrew is feminine, while in our language it is masculine and in Greek it is neuter. In divinity there is no gender. (Jerome's Commentary on Isaiah XL ix) [74]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Adeney, W.F. (1904–1905) The Gospel According to the Hebrews. The Hibbert Journal 3.
  • Barnes, A.S. (1905) The Gospel According to the Hebrews. JTS 6.
  • Beatrice, P.F. (2006) Novum Testamentum, Volume 48, Number 2,Brill Pub.
  • Brock, S. (1971–1972) A New Testimonium to the 'Gospel according to the Hebrews' , NTS 18.
  • Cameron, R. (1982) The Other Gospels: Non-canonical Gospel Texts, Westminster John Knox Press
  • Cross, F.L. and E.A. Livingston (1988–92) The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, Oxford University Press.
  • Crump, F.J. (1939) The Gospel according to the Hebrews Catholic University of America.
  • Dodd, J. (1933) The Gospel According to the Hebrews, Search publishing company,.
  • Epiphanius, Panarion.
  • Ehrman, B. (1999) Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium, Oxford University Press.
  • Eusebius' Church History.
  • Fisher, G.P. (1866) Essays on the Supernatural Origin of Christianity. Scribner & co.
  • Flournoy, P.P. (1903) The Gospel according to the Hebrews, Whittet & Shepperson Pub.
  • Irenaeus, Against Heresies.
  • Jerome, Against Pelagius.
  • Lillie, A. (2005) The Gospel According to the Hebrews, Kessinger Publishing.
  • Nicholson, E.B. (2009) The Gospel According to the Hebrews, BiblioBazaar, LLC.
  • Parker, P. (1933) Ancient citations of the gospel according to the Hebrews: a critical study, Pacific School of Religion.
  • Parker, P. (1934) A partial reconstruction of the Gospel according to the Hebrews, Pacific School of Religion.
  • Parker, P. (1953) The Gospel Before Mark, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Pick, B. (2005) The Gospel According to the Hebrews, Kessinger Publishing.
  • Schneemelcher, Wilhelm (1991) New Testament Apocrypha, Vol. 1, James Clarke & Co. Ltd.
  • Schonfield, H.J. (1984) According to the Hebrews, Georg Olms Verlag Pub.
  • Streeter, B.H. (1924) The Four Gospels. A Study of Origins Treating the Manuscript Tradition, MacMillian and Co., Ltd.

NotesEdit

  1. G.P. Fisher, (1866) Essays on the Supernatural Origin of Christianity, Scribner & co., p 167
  2. Ron Cameron, (1982) The Other Gospels: Non-canonical Gospel Texts, Westminster John Knox Press, pp 83-86
  3. Jerome, Commentary on Matthew2.
  4. Bart Ehrman (1999) Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium, Oxford University Press, p 40-45
  5. Bart Erhman (1999) Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium, Oxford University Press, pp. 43, 78-83
  6. Burnett H. Streeter (1924) The Four Gospels. A Study of Origins Treating the Manuscript, MacMillian and Co., Ltd.
  7. Pierson Parker (1953) The Gospel Before Mark, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  8. Jerome, Commentary on Matthew 2 . 12
  9. Epiphanius, Panarion, 30 . 3 . 7
  10. 10.0 10.1 Bart Ehrman (1999) Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium, Oxford University Press, p.43
  11. 11.0 11.1 Eusebius, Church History 3 . 39 . 16
  12. Irenaeus Against Heresies 3 . 1 . 1
  13. Eusebius, Church History 5 10 3
  14. Eusebius, Church History 6 . 25 . 4
  15. Nicholson (2009) The Gospel According to the Hebrews, BiblioBazaar, LLC, pp 1 - 26
  16. Nicholson (2009) The Gospel According to the Hebrews, BiblioBazaar, LLC, p 82
  17. 17.0 17.1 F.L. Cross and E.A. Livingston (1988-92)The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, Oxford University Press, p 597&722.
  18. Gospel of Matthew 2:23
  19. Bernhard Pick (2006) The Talmud: What It Is and What It Knows of Jesus and His Followers, Kessinger Publishing, p 116
  20. Bernhard Pick, (2006)The Talmud: What It Is and What It Knows of Jesus and His Followers, Kessinger Publishing, pp 122, 125-129
  21. Eusebius Church History 3 . 39 . 14.
  22. Eusebius Church History, 6 . 25 . 4
  23. Eusebius Church History, 3 . 24 . 6
  24. Irenaeus, Against Heresies, 3 . i . 1
  25. Werner G. Marx, (1979) Money Matters in Matthew, Bibliotheca Sacra 136 . 542 April-June 148 p 57
  26. Gospel of Mathew 9:9-10
  27. Gospel of Luke 5:29
  28. Thomas L. Constable (2000) Notes on Matthew, Garland, TX: Sonic Light, pp 3 - 5
  29. Eusebius of Caesarea who was born in Palestine in 275, and became Bishop of Caesarea. He was an important early historian of the Christian faith and is best known for his Church History in which he chronicles what he believed were important events starting with the birth of Jesus up to his own era. At the time of Eusebius there existed several different gospels recording the life of Jesus. Eusebius cataloged these writings and it is because of this catalog that we know of those early works (many of which were subsequently lost). His catalog consisted of three sections:
    • The Spurious Works (rejected books):These were gospels that the Church unanimously rejected as heretical. They were Gospel of Thomas, Gospel of Peter, Gospel of Matthias]]
    • The Homologoumena (accepted books):These works were accepted as authentic. Eventually they would be included in what would be called the New Testament Gospels. They were, Gospel of Matthew, Gospel of Mark, Gospel of Luke, Gospel of John
    • The Controversial Works (disputed books): At the time of Eusebius there were also works that were controversial in the church. Although accepted by many, some early church leaders voiced concerns: The Didache, Diatessaron, Epistle to the Hebrews, Epistle of James, 2 Peter, 2 John , 3 John, Epistle of Jude, Revelation and the Gospel of the Hebrews
  30. 30.0 30.1 Jerome, On Illustrious Men 3
  31. Jerome, Against Pelagius 3 .2
  32. Eusebius, Church History 5 . 10 . 3
  33. Jerome, On Illustrious Men 3
  34. Gospel of Matthew 2 . 23
  35. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, F.L. Cross and E.A. Livingston (1988-92)The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, Oxford University Press p 597&722.
  36. 36.0 36.1 Jerome, On Illustrious Men, 2
  37. Epiphanius, Panarion 30
  38. Irenaeus, Against Heresies, 1 . 26 . 2
  39. Eusebius, Church History, 3 . 27 . 4
  40. Epiphanius, Panarion, 30
  41. Hippolytus Refutation of All Heresies 7 . 22
  42. Tertullian The Prescription Against Heretics 33, On the Flesh of Christ 14.18.; Irenaeus Against Heretics 5.1.3.; Hippolytus of Rome Refutation of All Heresies 7.23. - Heresy of Theodotus; and Epiphanius Heresies 30.
  43. Eusebius Church History 3.27.; Origen Origen de Principiis 4.22.
  44. Hippolytus Refutation of All Heresies 7.22.
  45. F.L. Cross and E.A. Livingston (editors), The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, Oxford University Press, 1990 p.438
  46. Peter Kirby. Gospel of the Ebionites. http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/text/gospelebionites.html. Retrieved 2007-12-20. 
  47. EpiphaniusPanarion 30 . 13
  48. Epiphanius, Panarion 30 . 13 . 2
  49. Hebrews 2:10
  50. Jerome's Commentary on Isaiah 4
  51. Jerome, Commentary on Isaiah 11.2
  52. Jerome, Against Pelagius 3.2
  53. 53.0 53.1 P.F. Beatrice, P.F. (2006) Novum Testamentum, Volume 48, Number 2, Brill Pub pp. 147-195
  54. Ignatius, Epistle to the Smyrnaeans
  55. Jerome, Commentary on Isaiah.
  56. Ezekiel 8 . 3
  57. Origen's Commentary on John 2:12
  58. Origen’s Homily on Jeremiah 15.4
  59. Jerome's Commentary on Isaiah 40 . 9
  60. Jerome Commentary on Ezekiel 18.7
  61. Jerome's Commentary on Ephesians 5.4
  62. Jerome's Commentary on Ephesians 3
  63. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies 5 . 14 . 96
  64. Clement, Stromateis 2 . 9 . 45
  65. Origen, Commentary on Matthew 15 . 14
  66. Didymus the Blind, Psalm Commentary 3
  67. Acts 1:14
  68. Jude 1
  69. 1 Corinthians 15:7
  70. Josephus, Antiquities 20 . 9 . 200
  71. Eusebius, Church History, 2 . 23
  72. Eusebius, Church History, Eusebius, 3 . 25 . 5
  73. Epiphanius, Panarion, 30 . 3 . 7
  74. Pierson Parker (1940) A Proto-Lukan Basis for the Gospel According to the Hebrews Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 59, No. 4 (Dec., 1940) , pp. 471
  75. Wilhelm Schneemelcher, (1991) New Testament Apocrypha, . Vol. 1, James Clarke & Co. Ltd. p 135
  76. James R. Edwards, The Hebrew Gospel & the Development of the Synoptic Tradition, © 2009, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.pp. 1-376
  77. Pierson Parker A Basis for the Gospel According to the Hebrews Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 59, No. 4 (Dec., 1940), pp. 471.
  78. See Chart
  79. "In the Synoptic Gospels this is the "Greatest" Commandment" that sums up all of the "Law and the Prophets"
  80. Jn 31:34
  81. Log 25
  82. The Lord says to his disciples: ”And never be you joyful, except when you behold one another with love.” Jerome, Commentary on Ephesians
  83. Matt 18:21, Lk 17:4
  84. Jn 20:23
  85. In the Gospel of the Hebrews, written in the Chaldee and Syriac language but in Hebrew script, and used by the Nazarenes to this day (I mean the Gospel of the Apostles, or, as it is generally maintained, the Gospel of Matthew, a copy of which is in the library at Caesarea), we find, “Behold the mother of the Lord and his brothers said to him, ‘John the Baptist baptizes for the forgiveness of sins. Let us go and be baptized by him.’ But Jesus said to them, ‘in what way have I sinned that I should go and be baptized by him? Unless perhaps, what I have just said is a sin of ignorance.’” And in the same volume, “‘If your brother sins against you in word, and makes amends, forgive him seven times a day.’ Simon, His disciple, said to Him, ‘Seven times in a day!’ The Lord answered and said to him, ‘I say to you, Seventy times seven.’ ” Jerome, Against Pelagius 3.2
  86. Trite
  87. In the so-called Gospel of the Hebrews, for “bread essential to existence,” I found “mahar”, which means “of tomorrow”; so the sense is: our bread for tomorrow, that is, of the future, give us this day. Jerome, Commentary on Matthew 1
  88. In Matthew's Hebrew Gospel it states, ‘Give us this day our bread for tomorrow.” Jerome, On Psalm 135
  89. Matt 19:16, Mk 10:17 & Lk1 8:18
  90. Jn 12:8
  91. Jesus said "Blessed are the poor, for to you belongs the Kingdom of Heaven" Log 54
  92. The second rich youth said to him, “Rabbi, what good thing can I do and live?” Jesus replied, “Fulfill the law and the prophets.” “I have,” was the response. Jesus said, “Go, sell all that you have and distribute to the poor; and come, follow me.” The youth became uncomfortable, for it did not please him. And the Lord said, “How can you say, I have fulfilled the Law and the Prophets, when it is written in the Law: You shall love your neighbor as yourself and many of your brothers, sons of Abraham, are covered with filth, dying of hunger, and your house is full of many good things, none of which goes out to them?” And he turned and said to Simon, his disciple, who was sitting by Him, “Simon, son of Jonah, it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for the rich to enter the Kingdom of Heaven. ”Origen, Commentary on Matthew 15:14
  93. Matt 3:1, Mk 1:9, 3:21
  94. Jn 1:29
  95. Gospel of Thomas, Logion 46
  96. Epiphanius, Panarion 30:13
  97. Matt 10:1, Mk 6:8, Lk 9:3
  98. Jn 13:23, 19:26, 20:2, 21:7, 21:20
  99. Epiphanius, Panarion 30:13
  100. Log 13
  101. Jn 13:23, 19:26, 20:2, 21:7, 21:20
  102. Jn 13:23, 19:26, 20:2, 21:7, 21:20
  103. Epiphanius, Panarion 30:13, Jerome, On Illustrious Men, 2
  104. Log 1- 114
  105. Although several Fathers say Matthew wrote the Gospel of the Hebrews they are silent about Greek Matthew found in the Bible. Modern scholars are in agreement that Matthew did not write Greek Matthews which is 300 lines longer than the Hebrew Gospel (See James Edwards the Hebrew gospel)
  106. Suggested by Irenaeus first
  107. Preface to the Gospel of Thomas
  108. They too accept Matthew's gospel, and like the followers of Cerinthus and Merinthus, they use it alone. They call it the Gospel of the Hebrews, for in truth Matthew alone in the New Testament expounded and declared the Gospel in Hebrew using Hebrew script. Epiphanius, Panarion 30:3
  109. Matt 1:18
  110. Trite
  111. Trite
  112. Epiphanius, Panarion 30:13
  113. Trite
  114. Trite
  115. Trite
  116. Trite
  117. Parables
  118. Language in the Gospel of John
  119. Log 109
  120. Parables of Jesus
  121. Similar to beliefs taught by Hillel the Elder. (eg. "golden rule")Hillel Hillel the Elder
  122. Jn 7:45 & Jn 3:1
  123. Trite
  124. Similar to beliefs taught by Hillel the Elder. (eg. "golden rule")Hillel Hillel the Elder
  125. Jerome, Commentary on Matthew 2
  126. Events leading up to Passover
  127. Events leading up to Passover
  128. Epiphanius, Panarion 30:22
  129. As was the Jewish practice at the time. (John 20:5-7)
  130. Jerome, On Illustrious Men, 2
  131. Matt 28:1 Mk16:1 Lk24:1
  132. Jn 20:11
  133. Jerome, On Illustrious Men, 2

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