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|Polity||mixed Presbyterian and Congregational polity|
|Associations||World Assemblies of God Fellowship, Pentecostal/Charismatic Churches of North America, National Association of Evangelicals|
|Geographical area||United States|
|Origin|| 1914 |
Hot Springs, Arkansas
|Merge of||Several smaller Pentecostal groups|
The General Council of the Assemblies of God in the United States of America or Assemblies of God USA (AG) is a Pentecostal Christian denomination in the United States. Founded in 1914 during a meeting of Pentecostal ministers at Hot Springs, Arkansas, it was the ninth largest denomination in the United States in 2010 with a membership of 2.9 million. The Assemblies of God USA is the US branch of the World Assemblies of God Fellowship, the world's largest Pentecostal body.
The Assemblies of God holds to a conservative evangelical and Arminian theology as expressed in the Statement of Fundamental Truths and position papers, which emphasize such core Pentecostal doctrines as the baptism in the Holy Spirit, speaking in tongues, divine healing and the Second Coming of Christ.
The fellowship's polity is a hybrid of presbyterian and congregational models. This tension between local and national boundaries is seen in the AG's historical reluctance to refer to itself as a denomination, preferring the terms fellowship and movement. National headquarters are in Springfield, Missouri, where the administration building, Gospel Publishing House, and International Distribution Center are located. The Assemblies of God publishes an official weekly magazine, Today's Pentecostal Evangel.
The Assemblies of God has roots in the Pentecostal revival in the early 20th century. The Pentecostal aspects of the revival were not generally welcomed by the established churches, and participants in the movement soon found themselves outside existing religious bodies. They were forced to seek their own places of worship, and soon there were hundreds of distinctly Pentecostal congregations.
After Charles Parham began promoting the idea that speaking in tongues was the initial evidence of the baptism in the Spirit around 1901, he began to attract a considerable following which he organized loosely as the Apostolic Faith Movement (AFM) in 1906. However with the rise of the Azusa Street Revival in Los Angeles, California, and an accusation of sodomy against him in 1907, he lost and never recovered his influence. After renouncing Parham, the severely weakened AFM regrouped around Howard Goss, L. C. Hall, D. C. O. Opperman, and A. G. Canada. They were later joined by Eudorus N. Bell, previously a Southern Baptist pastor. The AFM had its strength in the rural areas of Kansas, Texas, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri.
In Pentecostalism's early years, organizational affiliation was fluid, and many ministers of the AFM, which was a white organization, were also licensed by Charles Harrison Mason's predominantly African-American Church of God in Christ. In 1907, Goss had received a license to preach from Mason's group, and he claimed that Mason had given him permission to issue ministerial credentials under the Churches of God in Christ name for the "white work". Around 1910, the name Churches of God in Christ was seen as a more biblical name and began to be preferred over Apostolic Faith.
The AFM played a leading role in organizing and institutionalizing Pentecostalism in the Midwest and Southwest and from 1909–1912 absorbed smaller Pentecostal groups. It also established relationships with the Pentecostal missions in Chicago, Illinois. The Pentecostal movement in Chicago centered around the Stone Church, pastored by William Piper, and the North Avenue Mission, pastored by William Howard Durham. Durham was the lead promoter of the Finished Work doctrine which, in time, the AFM would adopt and in doing so discard the Wesleyan view of sanctification as a second work of grace.
Between 1906 and 1908, the Pentecostal message had spread among Christian and Missionary Alliance (CMA) churches and conferences. At first, it was greeted positively by the CMA leadership, but the doctrine of tongues divided the organization. Former CMA Pentecostal congregations in the Midwest and Northeast were left without oversight and began associating with the Apostolic Faith Movement and the Chicago Pentecostal missions.
Early history: 1914-1920s
General Council of 1914
AFM leaders Bell, Goss, Opperman, M. M. Pinson, and A. P. Collins issued the call for a general council to "Churches of God in Christ, and to all Pentecostal or Apostolic Faith Assemblies". What resulted was a merger of the AFM, Chicago, and CMA Pentecostals in 1914 at Hot Springs, Arkansas. The 1st General Council was attended by predominantly white representatives from 17 states and missions in Egypt and South Africa. The fellowship that emerged was incorporated as the General Council of the Assemblies of God. Bell was elected the first general superintendent. Five major reasons were given for calling the meeting:
- Create unity in doctrine and in identifying Pentecostal congregations.
- Develop ways to conserve the work at home and abroad.
- Develop a workable system for the support of missionaries.
- Charter local churches under "one Bible name".
- Discuss the possibility of a Bible training school.
Other actions taken at the 1st General Council addressed women in ministry. The Pentecostals who founded the Assemblies of God had no objections to women being engaged in ministry. The Pentecostal belief in personal experience, Spirit baptism as empowerment for service, and the need for evangelists and missionaries encouraged women to be active in all types of ministry. What concerned some Pentecostal leaders, such as Bell, were women exercising independent authority over men. The council therefore approved of the granting of credentials to female evangelists and missionaries while restricting the office of pastor to men, and it was not until 1920 that female evangelists could vote at denominational meetings. By the fall of 1914, out of 512 credential holders, 142 were female missionaries and evangelists. 
Another matter of concern to participants was the issue of divorce and remarriage among converts. There was variety in Pentecostal opinion on the appropriate actions to take for those who had done so before conversion. The 1st General Council disapproved of divorce except for "fornication and adultery", and those who divorced for other reasons were advised to remain unmarried. Those who had divorced and remarried before conversion were advised to act according to their own conscience as to whether to remain in their current marriage or return to their original spouse; however, the disruption of families was not recommended. It denied ordination to those who were married while former spouses were living. The issue of divorce would resurface over the years.
"New Issue" and doctrinal clarity
The founders of the fellowship did not intend to create a denomination and originally had no creed or doctrinal statement. However in response to several doctrinal issues, the most important being the Oneness teaching, the AG felt the need for agreement on central doctrines and to reassure evangelical Christians of its adherence to orthodox belief. Oneness Pentecostalism rejected Trinitarian theology, instead identifying the Jehovah of the Old Testament with the Christ of the New. Furthermore, Oneness adherents believed that Christians, regardless of a previous baptism, should be baptized in the name of Jesus, rather than in the name of the Trinity. By 1915, it was adhered to by many in the fellowship, including founders such as Goss, Opperman, Hall, and Henry G. Rodgers.
In 1916, the 4th General Council met in St. Louis to resolve the "new issue". In a move that caused not a little anxiety, a committee introduced the Statement of Fundamental Truths. Oneness proponents and others saw this as an attack on the authority of the Bible, yet it was adopted along with a recommendation that AG ministers use the Trinitarian baptismal formula. Old preaching credentials were recalled and new ones issued with the Fundamental Truths included. Oneness believers, including a third of the fellowship’s ministers, were forced to withdraw, a loss especially felt in the South where the Oneness doctrine had the most influence. A side effect of this was a transition in leadership from former Apostolic Faith leaders, many of whom accepted the Oneness teaching, to men with Christian and Missionary Alliance backgrounds.
Among the Fundamental Truths was a statement regarding speaking in tongues as the initial physical evidence of Spirit baptism. Its inclusion was challenged by F.F. Bosworth, an executive presbyter, who argued that while for many speaking in tongues was an evidence of the baptism it was not the only evidence. The issue was decided at the General Council of September 1918 where Bosworth, who two months earlier had resigned so as not to damage the fellowship, was present and invited to address the council. Following debate two resolutions were passed which assured that initial evidence would remain an official teaching of the fellowship.
1930s through 1960s
Despite Pentecostalism's origins in a racially inclusive revival, it accommodated itself to America's culture of racial segregation rather early. The Assemblies of God was no different. As early as 1915, an executive presbyter wrote in an article in The Weekly Evangel that segregation was "ordained of God"; however, it was not until 1939 that the General Presbytery enacted a policy prohibiting the ordination of African Americans to the ministry. Districts were still allowed to license African Americans to preach but only in the district where the license was issued. Black Pentecostals seeking ordination were referred to "one of the colored organizations". This was especially true of the Church of God in Christ, which, despite the fact that it predates the Assemblies of God, was seen as a "younger sibling". It was not until 1962, under the leadership of General Superintendent Thomas F. Zimmerman, that the denomination finally began issuing ordinations without regard to race.
Around the same time African Americans were officially being barred from ordination, women were being given greater opportunities for leadership. Women formed an important part of the Assemblies of God's constituency, many being Sunday School workers and evangelists, most prominent being Aimee Semple McPherson who would later found the Foursquare Church. This made the issue of women's place in the movement important in the 1930s. It was also recognized that many congregations who could not afford male pastors relied on women preachers. Despite the fact that opposition to female pastors had been regularly affirmed since 1914, a 1935 General Council resolution allowed the ordaining of women as pastors.
Between the World Wars, the movement kept a relative isolation from other Pentecostal and evangelical groups, but after World War II, the AG started an approximation with Pentecostal groups overseas. Like the Federation of Pentecostal Churches in Germany and the Assemblies of God in Australia, at that time many national denominations came to affiliate with the US fellowship. These partnerships would later develop into the World Assemblies of God Fellowship. As well as establishing fellowships in other nations, the AG also began to communicate with other US churches through the Pentecostal Fellowship of North America (now Pentecostal/Charismatic Churches of North America) and the National Association of Evangelicals. By 1944, there were 5,055 Assemblies of God churches with 227,349 members in the US.
In the 1950's, the AG was influenced by the Latter Rain Movement. The "New Order" as it was known taught that the gifts of the Spirit are channeled through church elders and are given to others by the laying on of hands. However, the Assemblies of God and other classical Pentecostal groups maintained that the charismata are not personally received or imparted but are manifested as the Holy Spirit wills. In 1949 with a meeting of the General Council approaching, there were fears that the fellowship might split over the Latter Rain issue, but in the end, the General Council was united against what were seen as the excesses of the movement. A General Council resolution specified six errors, which included the overemphasis on and abuse of impartation by laying on of hands and the idea that the Church is built on modern-day apostles and prophets. The Latter Rain theology of no pre-tribulation rapture and the manifested sons of God teaching were condemned as heresy.
Prior to 1967, the Assemblies of God, along with the majority of other Pentecostal denominations, officially opposed Christian participation in war and considered itself a peace church. The official position of the church until 1967 encouraged Christian nonviolence: "We, as a body of Christians, while purposing to fulfill all the obligations of loyal citizenship, are nevertheless constrained to declare we cannot conscientiously participate in war and armed resistance which involves the actual destruction of human life, since this is contrary to our view of the clear teachings of the inspired Word of God, which is the sole basis of our faith". Most of the founders and first generation members of the denomination held to this view, and it was presented as official teaching throughout World War I and World War II. In 1940, The Pacifist Handbook listed the Assemblies of God as the third largest peace church in America.
The official pacifist position remained unchanged until 1967 when the present position was adopted: "As a Movement we affirm our loyalty to the government of the United States in war or peace. We shall continue to insist, as we have historically, on the right of each member to choose whether to declare their position as a combatant, a noncombatant, or a conscientious objector". This was the culmination of a process begun during World War I, when it was unpopular to hold antiwar views, in which AG adherents questioned their denomination's pacifist stance.
In recent years, the Assemblies of God has condemned racism in its churches and society as a whole, and increasing numbers of members are minorities. The AG and the Church of God in Christ reconciled in 1994 when the member denominations of the Pentecostal Fellowship of North America traveled to Memphis, Tennessee, to reconcile with black Pentecostals. This event was called the "Memphis Miracle". Both denominations currently operate the School of Urban Missions in Oakland, California, as a joint cooperative effort.
The AG experienced tremendous growth during the 20th century. In 1925, there were just 50,386 members in 909 churches. By 1950, there were over 300,000 members, and in the early 1970s membership reached 1 million. As of 2006, the AG had a constituency of over 2.8 million attending 12,311 churches. Members are fairly well distributed across the United States. California has the largest number of members, followed by Texas and Florida. However, the states with the highest membership rates are Oklahoma, Arkansas, Alaska, Montana, and Hawaii.
The ethnic diversity of the American AG is increasing; however, its constituency is still largely white. From 1990 to 2000, there was a slight decline in white AG churches while ethnic churches, mainly Hispanic, were responsible for much of the denomination's numerical growth. As of 2007, 1,804,519 adherents are white, a decrease of 1.1 percent or 20,447 people since 2006. The same year, there were 550,801 Hispanic and 249,905 African-American adherents, an increase of 10,370 and 23,517 people respectively. Overall in 2007, the AG grew by 1.0 percent or 27,091 people. In 2008, the AG grew by 1.3 percent or 36,437 people.
The central beliefs of the Assemblies of God are summarized in its Statement of Fundamental Truths. Numerous other Christian groups share some or all of these tenets, and some positions are considered more central to the faith than others. The following positions are considered non-negotiable:
- The Bible is inspired by God and is "the infallible, authoritative rule of faith and conduct".
- There is only one true God who exists as a Trinity.
- Jesus Christ is the Son of God and, as the second person of the Trinity, is God.
- Man was created good by God but was separated from God through original sin.
- Salvation "is received through repentance toward God and faith toward the Lord Jesus Christ". For more information, see the Core beliefs section below.
- There are two ordinances. Baptism by immersion is commanded in the Bible for all who have made Jesus lord and savior; it is a declaration to the world of the believer's faith in Christ. The Lord's Supper is a symbolic remembrance of Christ's suffering and death.
- Baptism in the Holy Spirit is a separate and subsequent experience following conversion. Spirit baptism brings empowerment to live an overcoming Christian life and to be an effective witness. For more information, see the Core beliefs section below.
- Speaking in tongues is the initial physical evidence of the baptism in the Holy Spirit.
- Sanctification is "an act of separation from that which is evil, and of dedication unto God". It occurs when the believer identifies with, and has faith in, Christ in his death and resurrection. It is not believed to be a "second definite work of grace" (see holiness movement), as in some other Pentecostal denominations, but is understood to be a process in that it requires continual yielding to the Holy Spirit.
- The Church's mission is to seek and save all who are lost in sin; the Church is the Body of Christ and consists of all people who accept Christ, regardless of Christian denomination.
- Divinely called and Scripturally-ordained ministers serve the Church.
- Divine healing of the sick is provided for in the atonement.
- The "imminent and blessed hope" of the Church is its rapture preceding the bodily return of Christ to earth.
- The rapture of the Church will be followed by the visible return of Christ and his reign on earth for a thousand years. For more information, see the Core beliefs section below.
- There will be a final judgment and eternal damnation for the "wicked dead".
- There will be future new heavens and a new earth "wherein dwelleth righteousness".
The AG considers salvation, baptism in the Holy Spirit with the evidence of speaking in tongues, divine healing and the Second Coming of Christ to be its four core beliefs.
The Statement of Fundamental Truths states, "Man's only hope of redemption is through the shed blood of Jesus Christ the Son of God". The Assemblies of God holds the Arminian position on salvation; while it agrees with the Calvinist position that God is sovereign, at the same time, it believes that mankind has free will—free to accept or reject God's gift of salvation and eternal life. Therefore, the Assemblies of God disapproves of the doctrines of double predestination and the unconditional security of the believer which holds that once saved it is impossible for a person to be lost. Instead, the Assemblies of God believes that salvation is received and kept by faith, if faith in Christ is lost, then salvation is lost.
Baptism in the Holy Spirit
According to the Statement of Fundamental Truths, "All believers are entitled to and should ardently expect and earnestly seek" the baptism in the Spirit. It also states, "This was the normal experience of all in the early Christian Church". It is a separate experience from and occurs after salvation. This baptism gives to the receiver an "enduement of power for life and service, the bestowment of the gifts and their uses in the work of the ministry". There are four experiences listed in the Fundamental Truths that result from Spirit baptism: "overflowing fullness of the Spirit", "a deepened reverence for God", intensified consecration and dedication to God and his work, and "a more active love for Christ, for His Word and for the lost". The "initial physical sign" of having received this baptism is "speaking with other tongues as the Spirit of God gives them utterance".
Neither baptism in the Holy Spirit or speaking in tongues is a requirement for membership or participation in an Assembly of God church. However, it is a requirement for ministerial licensing and ordination. The practical implication of this is that candidates for ministry who have not spoken in tongues or do not believe speaking in tongues is the initial evidence of Spirit baptism are not eligible for formal ministry. Given the congregational elements of AG polity, the culture of each Assembly of God church varies. In some churches, the practice of speaking in tongues is common while in others it rarely occurs.
An increasing minority of pastors has expressed concern that there is a lack of biblical support for the claim that Spirit baptism must always be accompanied with speaking in tongues. This concern corresponds with a decrease in the number of Assembly of God adherents reporting baptism in the Holy Spirit; according to the AG's Office of Statistics as of 2003 less than 50 percent of adherents had this experience. In 2009, the 53rd General Council passed a resolution reaffirming this doctrinal distinctive. These challenges to the AG's traditional position were noted in a 2007 report by the AG's Spiritual Life Committee:
Yet, the distinctive doctrine that once united us has, in some circles, become a point of contention. We lament the increasing rarity of the gifts of the Spirit in our worship setting. We wonder where, in our busy church schedules, will people have an opportunity to tarry at the altars for a transforming Pentecostal experience?
The AG understands divine healing to have been provided for in the atonement. Looking to scripture, such as James chapter 5 and Isaiah 53:5, the AG believes that Christians can pray for healing. Indeed, it believes scripture gives elders of the church the responsibility to pray "the prayer of faith" over the sick. It believes God can and does heal, but believes that God is soveriegn and that, whether one is healed or not, a person's trust must be in God. It does not advocate the practice of claiming one is healed when one still suffers from sickness, and it sees no conflict in trusting God for healing and receiving medical care.
Christ's Second Coming
The Statement of Fundamental Truths sections 13 and 14 articulate the Assemblies of God's official teaching on the return of Christ to Earth. It is a dispensationalist and premillennialist eschatology which includes the rapture of Church, the "imminent and blessed hope". The rapture of the Church will be followed by Christ's visible return to earth and his reign of 1,000 years. This millennial reign will usher in the salvation of the nation of Israel and universal peace.
The Assemblies of God has released statements on various issues not addressed in the Statement of Fundamental Truths. These position papers are usually written by the Doctrinal Purity Commission, a standing committee of the General Council, which reviews and responds to issues referred to it by the Executive Presbytery. Most position papers are not official positions of the Assemblies of God unless recommended by the Executive Presbytery and approved by the General Council. Only one, "Divorce and Remarriage", out of 22 has become an official AG statement.
While position statements touch on biblical and theological concerns, some have also dealt with social issues. The Assemblies of God affirms the leadership of women in the church and ordains women as pastors and ministers. Viewing all human life as sacred, the Assemblies of God opposes assisted suicide and abortion, unless the life of the mother is endangered; and it believes scripture is silent on the use of contraception and therefore takes no position. The fellowship takes the position that the biblical ideal of marriage is between one man and one woman and that the Bible condemns all sex outside of marriage, whether heterosexual or homosexual. Furthermore, it emphasizes that "believers who struggle with homosexual temptations must be encouraged and strengthened by fellow Christians" and that believers "must hold no malice toward, or fear, of homosexuals" but "reach out in humility and compassion". On the consumption of alcohol, the AG calls on its members and adherents to live life-styles of total abstinence.
Because of the congregational nature of the Assemblies of God, it is difficult to define a typical local church. Church identity is influenced by members' social class, ethnicity, and musical or worship style preferences. However, shared beliefs and values are reflected in local churches. The Assemblies of God is "experience-oriented", and the local church is where experience of the activity of the Holy Spirit will primarily occur.
Regular services are usually held on Sunday mornings and Sunday and Wednesday evenings. There is no formal liturgy or order of service; though, many churches have a familiar routine: opening prayer, congregational and special singing, an offering, a time of intercessory prayer, a sermon, and an altar call. This routine is subject to change spontaneously within a service—possibly being interrupted by an interpretation of a message in tongues, a prophecy, or a word of wisdom or word of knowledge—and this change is believed to be directed by the Holy Spirit. In addition, evening services may incorporate a time of prayer for those who are seeking something from God either around the altar or in an adjacent prayer room.
During praise and worship, a believer’s attitude of worship is often expressed through the raising of hands. The type of music sung is generally popular worship choruses, such as those by Calvary Chapel and Hillsong, but can also include urban gospel in some of the inner-city or more progressive churches. Worship is often characterized as intense and enthusiastic.
Prayer features prominently in services. Services may feature moments where special prayer is offered, often with laypersons leading the prayer and the rest of the congregation audibly participating. During these corporate prayers, some may pray in tongues. While not in every service, the pastor will pray for the sick. This prayer may include the pastor anointing the sick with olive oil and with the assistance of church elders along with pastoral associates laying hands on the one seeking healing.
The Assemblies of God has a representative form of government derived from presbyterian polity and organized in three levels of administration: congregations, district councils and the General Council. The AG has, however, elements of congregational polity which are limited by the powers of the districts and General Council to license and discipline ordained ministers.
Congregations and districts
At the congregational level, churches affiliated with the General Council are "sovereign" and self-governing, but in matters of doctrine local assemblies are subordinate to districts and the General Council. Each church creates its own constitution and bylaws. The pastor is elected by the local congregation and conducts the day-to-day operations of the church. A board of deacons is elected to assist the pastor. A church which is newly established or if its membership is unable to maintain it may be given the temporary status of "district affiliated assembly". District affiliated assemblies are under the direct supervision of district councils.
Churches are organized into sections and sections into districts. The 58 districts oversee "all the ecclesial and sacerdotal activities" within their jurisdiction, which includes recommending ministers for national credentialing and mediating disputes within local congregations. There are two types of districts. Geographical districts serve areas corresponding to state boundaries, and ethnic districts are non-geographical and serve an ethnic group, such as African-American or Hispanic communities. Districts are governed by representative bodies called district councils, and when they are not in session, districts are led by superintendents and presbyteries (boards of directors) whose members are elected by and represent the sections.
At the top of this organizational framework is the biennial General Council, the highest governing body of the Assemblies of God. All ordained and licensed ministers and one delegate per Assembly of God church are entitled to attend and participate at the General Council. The General Council credentials ministers, oversees the national and worldwide missions programs, and directs the church’s colleges and seminary. In addition, the Council also elects the General Superintendent, the chief executive officer of the national organization.
The General Superintendent and 18 other elected executive officers are the Executive Presbytery which the constitution designates as the Assemblies of God's board of directors. In between sessions of the General Council, the Executive Prebytery is responsible to the General Presbytery. The Executive Presbytery, three representatives from each district, and other officers and representatives of Assemblies of God missions and institutions comprise the General Presbytery. The General Presbytery executes the policies established by the General Council and when it is not in session, the General Presbytery is the official policy-making body of the Assemblies of God.
The current General Superintendent of the General Council is Dr. George O. Wood. Wood's tenure began October 8, 2007, when the previous General Superintendent, Dr. Thomas E. Trask stepped down after 14 years of leadership. The following is a list of General Superintendents and their tenures:
- Eudorus N. Bell 1914, 1920–23
- John W. Welch 1914–1919, 1923
- W.T Gaston 1924–1929
- Ernest S. Williams 1929–1949
- Wesley R. Steelberg 1949–1952
- Ralph M Riggs 1953–1959
- Thomas F. Zimmerman 1959–1985
- G. Raymond Carlson 1986–1993
- Thomas E. Trask 1993–2007
- George O. Wood 2007–present
Ministries and educational institutions
The following are ministries and programs of the US Assemblies of God:
- Boys and Girls Missionary Crusade
- Chi Alpha Campus Ministries
- Convoy of Hope
- Character Connex School: program developed specifically to teach good character traits to students
- Dream Center
- Girl's Ministry
- HealthCare Ministries
- Marriage Encounter
- Marriage Restored Program: ministry for couples who have experienced adultery, pornography addiction, separation or other marriage-threatening issues
- Royal Rangers
- Rural Compassion: ministry helping break and prevent cycles of poverty
- Single Adult/Young Adult Ministries
- Shapes Mentoring Program
- Speed The Light: teenager's missions giving program
- Teen Challenge
- Teen and Junior Bible Quiz
Some or all of this article is forked from Wikipedia. The original article was at General Council of the Assemblies of God in the United States of America. The list of authors can be seen in the page history.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 Roozen, David A.; James R. Nieman, Editors (2005). Church, Identity, and Change: Theology and Denominational Structures in Unsettled Times. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 100. ISBN 0-8028-2819-1.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Assemblies of God USA. "Welcome to Our Community".
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 "2008 Yearbook of American & Canadian Churches". The National Council of Churches. http://www.thearda.com/Denoms/D_1021.asp. Retrieved 2009-12-09.
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 National Council of Churches (2010-02-12). [http://www.ncccusa.org/news/100204yearbook2010.html "Catholics, Mormons, Assemblies of God growing; Mainline churches report a continuing decline"]. http://www.ncccusa.org/news/100204yearbook2010.html. Retrieved 2010-03-08.
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 "Assemblies of God Statement of Fundamental Truths". Assemblies of God. http://ag.org/top/Beliefs/Statement_of_Fundamental_Truths/sft_full.cfm.
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 "Assemblies of God Position Papers and other statements". Assemblies of God. 2006. http://ag.org/top/Beliefs/topic_index.cfm.
- ↑ Roozen. pp. 104–105.
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 Blumhofer, Edith L. (1993). Restoring the Faith: The Assemblies of God, Pentecostalism, and American Culture. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press. pp. 81–84. ISBN 978-0-252-06281-0. http://books.google.com/?id=tKuTIfCPeJwC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Restoring+the+Faith&cd=1#v=onepage&q.
- ↑ Robeck Jr., Cecil M. (May 2005). "THE PAST: Historical Roots of Racial Unity and Division in American Pentecostalism". Cyberjournal for Pentecostal-Charismatic Research. Pentecostal-Charismatic Theological Inquiry International. http://pctii.org/cyberj/cyberj14/robeck.html. Retrieved 2009-03-02.
- ↑ Creech, Joe (1996), "Visions of Glory: The Place of the Azusa Street Revival in Pentecostal History", Church History 65 (3): 413
- ↑ Blumhofer, Edith L. Restoring the Faith. pp. 79–81.
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 Creech, Joe. "Visions of Glory". pp. 415–417.
- ↑ Blumhofer, Edith L. Restoring the Faith. p. 116.
- ↑ ""The Call" to Hot Springs, Arkansas: 5 Men Risked Their Ministries by Calling 1st Council", Assemblies of God Heritage 2 (1): 1, 1982
- ↑ Blumhofer, Edith L. Restoring the Faith. pp. 120-121, 123, 174.
- ↑ Blumhofer, Edith L. Restoring the Faith. p. 122. "Some demanded that converts whose spouses had previously been divorced separate. Some had instructed them to return to their original marriage partner. Some made participation in the local church dependent on a remarried individual's willingness to separate from his or her spouse. Others took a strict stand against divorce and remarriage but refused to interfere with situations that had developed before the individual had embraced Pentecostalism."
- ↑ Roozen. pp. 35–36.
- ↑ 18.0 18.1 Blumhofer, Edith L. Restoring the Faith. p. 127-135.
- ↑ Robeck, Cecil M. (2003), "An Emerging Magisterium? The Case of the Assemblies of God", Pneuma: The Journal of the Society for Pentecostal Studies 25 (2): 172
- ↑ Robeck, Cecil M. (2003), "An Emerging Magisterium? The Case of the Assemblies of God", Pneuma: The Journal of the Society for Pentecostal Studies 25 (2): 181–186
- ↑ History of Central Bible College
- ↑ 22.0 22.1 Rodgers, Darrin J. (2009), "Seize the Moment", Assemblies of God Heritage, http://rss.ag.org/articles/detail.cfm?RSS_RSSContentID=11038&RSS_OriginatingChannelID=1184&RSS_OriginatingRSSFeedID=3359&RSS_Source=search
- ↑ Macchia, Frank D. (Fall), "From Azusa to Memphis: Evaluating the Racial Reconciliation Dialogue Among Pentecostals", Pneuma: The Journal of the Society for Pentecostal Studies 17 (2): 208
- ↑ Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center. "Pentecostals and Racial Reconciliation", December 12, 2007. Accessed July 19, 2010.
- ↑ Blumhofer, Edith L. Restoring the Faith. p. 171.
- ↑ Blumhofer, Edith L. Restoring the Faith. p. 174.
- ↑ Holdcroft, L. Thomas (1980), "The New Order of the Latter Rain", Pneuma: The Journal of the Society for Pentecostal Studies 2 (2): 48
- ↑ Patterson, Eric; Rybarczyk, Edmund (editors) (2007). The Future of Pentecostalism in the United States. New York: Lexington Books. pp. 173. ISBN 978-0-7391-2102-3.
- ↑ Jay Beaman, Pentecostal Pacifism: The Origin, Development, and Rejection of Pacific Belief Among the Pentecostals (Hillsboro, KS: Mennonite Brethren Historical Society, 1989)
- ↑ Paul Alexander, An Analysis of the Emergence and Decline of Pacifism in the History of the Assemblies of God, PhD dissertation, Baylor University, 2000. See also Paul Alexander, (2008), Peace to War: Shifting Allegiances in the Assemblies of God. Telford, PA: Cascadia Publishing/Herald Press.
- ↑ Constitution and Bylaws with 2009 Minutes of the General Council of the Assemblies of God in the United States, Article XVII Military Service of Bylaws, pg. 146.
- ↑ Blumhofer, Edith L. Restoring the Faith. pp. 142-149.
- ↑ Assemblies of God Perspective on Racism". Accessed July 19, 2009.
- ↑ 34.0 34.1 "2000 Religious Congregations and Membership Study". Glenmary Research Center. http://www.thearda.com/mapsReports/maps/map.asp?variable=63&state=101&variable2=. Retrieved 2009-12-09.
- ↑ Roozen. pp. 82–83.
- ↑ 36.0 36.1 2007 Summary AG Statistical Report page 2
- ↑ 2008 Summary AG Statistical Report
- ↑ Our Core Doctrines. Assemblies of God official website. Accessed August 1, 2010.
- ↑ "Security of the Believer (Backsliding)", a paper endorsed by the Assemblies of God's Commission on Doctrinal Purity and the Executive Presbytery. Accessed August 1, 2010
- ↑ "The Security of the Believer", statement adopted by the Assemblies of God General Presbytery, August 21, 1978. Accessed August 1, 2010.
- ↑ Roozen. p. 73.
- ↑ Robeck, Cecil M. (2003), "An Emerging Magisterium? The Case of the Assemblies of God", Pneuma: The Journal of the Society for Pentecostal Studies 25 (2): 213
- ↑ Resolution 21 Reaffirmation of Pentecostal Distinctive. 53rd General Council of the Assemblies of God. 2009.
- ↑ Minutes of the 52nd Session of the General Council of the Assemblies of God, August 8–11, 2007, with revised Constitution and Bylaws, p. 9
- ↑ Trask, Thomas. "Defining Truths of the AG: Divine Healing". Enrichment, 2007. Accessed August 1, 2010.
- ↑ "Divorce and Remarriage". A Position Statement of the General Council of the Assemblies of God. August 1973, revised August 2008.
- ↑ Roozen. pp. 112–113.
- ↑ "The Role of Women in Ministry as Described in Holy Scripture", official statement of the General Presbytery of the Assemblies of God USA, August 14–16, 1990.
- ↑ Sanctity of Human Life Including Abortion and Euthanasia", statement of the General Presbytery of the Assemblies of God USA, 2002.
- ↑ "Homosexuality", statement of the General Presbytery of the Assemblies of God USA, August 14, 1979 and revised August 6, 2001.
- ↑ "Abstinence", official statement of the General Presbytery of the Assemblies of God USA, August 6, 1985.
- ↑ Roozen. p. 100, 103.
- ↑ Roozen. p. 100.
- ↑ 54.0 54.1 Roozen. p. 101.
- ↑ "Healing: Laying on of Hands and Anointing the Sick", a paper endorsed by the Assemblies of God's Commission on Doctrinal Purity and the Executive Presbytery. Accessed August 1, 2010.
- ↑ 56.0 56.1 56.2 56.3 56.4 "Assemblies of God Structure". Assemblies of God. 2006. http://ag.org/top/About/structure.cfm.
- ↑ Constitution and Bylaws with the 2009 Minutes of the General Council of the Assemblies of God, Article XI Local Assemblies, Section 1c-d of the Constitution, pg. 99.
- ↑ Constitution and Bylaws with the 2009 Minutes of the General Council of the Assemblies of God, Article X District Councils Section 2 of Constitution, pg. 97.
- ↑ See for example the Southern Missouri District Council's Constitution and Bylaws, p. 19. Accessed June 12, 2010.
- ↑ 60.0 60.1 Constitution and Bylaws with the 2009 Minutes of the General Council of the Assemblies of God, Article IX Officers and Presbyteries of the General Council Section 2 and 3a of the Constitution, pg. 96–97.
- ↑ "Assemblies of God". The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2008. http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-Assembli.html.
- ↑ Brief History of the Assemblies of God. Accessed June 3, 2010.
- Menzies, William . Anointed to Serve: The Story of the Assemblies of God
- Official site
- Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center (Assemblies of God archives), one of the largest collections of materials documenting the global Pentecostal movement; website contains free research tools, including over 200,000 digitized pages of periodicals and online catalog with over 50,000 entries.