Born in Kiev in the family of general, Vinberg studied in high school in Kiev and in Alexander Lyceum. In years 1891-1892 he worked in the ministry of internal affairs. In 1893 he entered military service. Serving in cavalry, he rose to the rank of colonel in 1911.
During the first world war he commanded 2nd Baltic cavalry regiment. After the February Revolution he left the army.
After the October revolution he was imprisoned by Bolsheviks for his role in alleged plot to overthrow the provisional government. He pleaded not guilty and pointed out to the absurdity of such charges by Bolsheviks, who have overthrown Provisional government themselves. He was sentenced to one year imprisonment by the revolutionary tribunal, but released in early 1918. In prison he kept notes, which he published later.
In 1919 he found his way to Berlin, where he published short-lived right-wing newspaper Prizyv ("The Call") and Luch Sveta ("A Ray of Light") magazine. He was a friend and colleague of Piotr Shabelsky-Bork, with whom he collaborated. In his magazine he republished Protocols of the Elders of Zion.
Walter Laqueur describes his ideas as "a half-way house between the old Black Hundred and National Socialism". Vinberg distinguished two kinds of anti-semitism: the "higher", concerned with restrictive laws against the Jews, and the "lower", the brutal and homicidal behaviour of the lower classes, which was terrible but essential if the Jewish menace, recently responsible for communist revolution, is finally to be laid to rest. Their task would be the complete annihilation of the Jews.
- Taĭnyĭ vozhdʹ īudeĭskīĭ.: Perevod s frantsuzskago
- [of Miss L. Fry by Th. Vinberg, being an attempt to prove
- the "Protokoly Sīonskikh Mudret︠s︡ov"
- published in a work by S. A. Nilus
- to be a work by U. Ginzberg].
- by Leslie Fry; Thedor Viktorovich Vinberg Berlin, 1922.
- OCLC: 84780936
- Krestny Put (Via Dolorosa)- 1921
- L'Apocalypse de notre temps; les dessous de la propagande allemande d'après des documents inédits by Henri Rollin (Paris: Gallimard, 1939) pp. 153 seq.
- Russia and Germany, A Century of Conflict by Walter Laqueur (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1965) pp. 109 seq.
- Warrant for Genocide by Norman Cohn (London: Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1967) pp. 90, 139-140, 155-156, 184.