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The Holy See
Emblem of the Papacy SE.svg

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
the Holy See



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The Holy See — which must be clearly distinguished from the city-state of Vatican City — has long been recognized as a subject of international law and as an active participant in international relations. It remains such, and indeed one observer has said that its interaction with the world has, in the period since the Second World War, been at the highest point it has ever had.[1]

The diplomatic activities of the Holy See are directed by the Secretariat of State (headed by the Cardinal Secretary of State), through the Section for Relations with States.

History

Since medieval times the episcopal see of Rome has been recognized as a sovereign entity. Earlier, there were papal representatives to the Emperors of Constantinople, beginning in 453, but they were not thought of as ambassadors [2] In the eleventh century the sending of papal representatives to princes, on a temporary or permanent mission, became frequent.[3] In the fifteenth century it became customary for states to accredit permanent resident ambassadors to the Pope in Rome.[4] The first permanent papal nunciature was established in 1500 in Venice.[5] Their number grew in the course of the sixteenth century to thirteen, while internuncios (representatives of second rank) were sent to less-powerful states.[6] After enjoying a brilliant period in the first half of the seventeenth century, papal diplomacy declined after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, being assailed especially by royalists and Gallicans, and the number of functioning nuncios was reduced to two in the time of Napoleon, although in the same period, in 1805, Prussia became the first Protestant state to send an ambassador to Rome.[5] There was a revival after the Congress of Vienna, which, while laying down that, in general, the order of precedence between ambassadors would be determined by the date of their arrival, allowed special precedence to be given to the nuncio, by which he would always be the dean of the diplomatic corps.[7]

In spite of the extinction of the Papal States in 1870, and the consequent loss of territorial sovereignty, and in spite of some uncertainty among jurists as to whether it could continue to act as an independent personality in international matters, the Holy See continued in fact to exercise the right to send and receive diplomatic representatives, maintaining relations with states that included the major powers of Russia, Prussia and Austria-Hungary.[8] Countries continued to receive nuncios as diplomatic representatives of full rank, and where, in accordance with the decision of the 1815 Congress of Vienna, the Nuncio was not only a member of the Diplomatic Corps but its Dean, this arrangement continued to be accepted by the other ambassadors.[8]

With the First World War and its aftermath the number of states with diplomatic relations with the Holy See increased. For the first time since relations were broken between the Pope and Queen Elizabeth I of England, a British diplomatic mission to the Holy See was opened in 1914.[9] The result was that, instead of diminishing, the number of diplomats accredited to the Holy See grew from sixteen in 1871 to twenty-seven in 1929, even before it again acquired territorial sovereignty with the founding of the State of Vatican City.[10]

In the same period, the Holy See concluded a total of twenty-nine concordats and other agreements with states, including Austro-Hungary in 1881, Russia in 1882 and 1907, France in 1886 and 1923.[10] Two of these concordats were registered at the League of Nations at the request of the countries involved.[11]

While bereft of territorial sovereignty, the Holy See also accepted requests to act as arbitrator between countries, including a dispute between Germany and Spain over the Caroline Islands.[10]

The Lateran Treaty of 1929 and the founding of the Vatican City State was not followed by any great immediate increase in the number of states with which the Holy See had official relations. This came later, especially after the Second World War.

Bilateral relations

Vatican relations

Foreign relations with the Holy See      Diplomatic relations      Other relations      No relations

The Holy See maintains formal diplomatic relations with 178 sovereign states, the European Union, and the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, and has relations of a special nature with the Palestine Liberation Organization.[12] The Holy See maintains 179 permanent diplomatic missions abroad, of which 73 are non-residential, so that it has in all 106 concrete missions, some of which are accredited not only to the country in which they are situated, but also to one or more other countries or international organizations.

There are sixteen internationally recognized states with which the Holy See does not have relations. Nine are Islamic (Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia, Brunei, Comoros, Malaysia, the Maldives, Mauritania, Oman, and Somalia), four are communist (the People's Republic of China, North Korea, Laos, and Vietnam), and the remaining three are Bhutan, Burma, and Tuvalu.[5] The Islamic states that have diplomatic relations with the Holy See are more numerous than those that do not.

The Holy See is the only European subject of international law to have diplomatic relations with the Republic of China (Taiwan), although informal talks between the Holy See and the government of the People's Republic of China on the reestablishment of diplomatic relations have been reported to be ongoing.

Europe

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
Template:FlagSee Foreign relations of Estonia.
Template:FlagSee European Union – Holy See relations.

Many of the founders of the European Union were inspired by Catholic ideals, notably Robert Schumann, Alcide de Gasperi, Konrad Adenauer, and Jean Monnet.[13][14]

Template:FlagSee France – Holy See relations.

Holy See–France relations are very ancient and have existed since the fifth century AD, and have been durable to the extent that France is sometimes called the eldest daughter of the Church. Areas of cooperation between Paris and the Holy See have traditionally included education, health care, the struggle against poverty and international diplomacy. Before the establishment of the welfare state, Church involvement was evident in many sectors of French society. Today, Paris's international peace initiatives are often in line with those of the Holy See, who favors dialogue on a global level.

Template:Flag1980See Greece – Holy See relations.

The Holy See established its Apostolic Nunciature to Greece in Athens in 1980. The Greek ambassador to the Holy See at first resided in Paris, where he was concurrently accredited to France; in 1988 a separate Greek embassy to the Holy See, situated in Rome, was established.

In May 2001, Pope John Paul II made a visit of pilgrimage to Greece.[15]

Template:FlagSee Holy See – Ireland relations.

The majority of Irish people are Roman Catholic. The Holy See has an embassy in Dublin. Ireland has an embassy to the Holy See.

Template:FlagSee Holy See – Italy relations.

Because of the small size of the Vatican City State, embassies accredited to the Holy See are based on Italian territory. Treaties signed between Italy and the Vatican City State permit such embassages. Like the Embassy of Italy, the Embassy of Andorra to the Holy See is also based on its home territory.

Template:Flag1927
Template:Flag1965
Template:Flag1920See Holy See – Romania relations.
  • The Holy See has an embassy in Bucharest.
  • Romania has an embassy to the Holy See.
Template:Flag2009See Holy See – Russia relations.

Russia has an embassy in Rome accredited to the Holy See. Holy See–Russia relations are largely linked to ecumenical relations with the Russian Orthodox Church.

Template:Flag1919-03See Holy See – Serbia relations.
Template:Flag1530See Holy See – Spain relations.
Template:Flag1868See Holy See – Turkey relations.
Template:Flag1992
Template:Flag1914See Holy See – United Kingdom relations.

Full relations were recognised in 1982 when Pope John Paul II visited the U.K. Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom became the first ever British monarch to visit the Vatican in 1980.[21]

Americas

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
Template:Flag 1940-04-17 See Argentina – Holy See relations.
Template:Flag See Canada – Holy See relations.
  • Although the Roman Catholic Church has been territorially established in Canada since the founding of New France in the early 17th century, Holy See–Canada relations were only officially established under the papacy of Paul VI in the 1960s.
Template:FlagSee Holy See – Mexico relations.

The Vatican assigned an Apostolic Nuncio to Mexico in 1904.[24] The Holy See has a nunciature in Mexico City. Mexico has an embassy in Rome. As of 1990 about 90 percent of Mexico's 86 million people declared themselves Roman Catholics.[24] In 1992 after more than 130 years the Mexican Government and the Holy See reestablished formal diplomatic relations and restored civil rights to the Roman Catholic Church in Mexico.[24][25]

Template:FlagSee Holy See – United States relations.

Holy See priorities for 2008 included freedom of religion, inter-religious dialogue (particularly with the Muslim world), ecumenism, protection for the traditional family, and peace (particularly for the Middle East). Pope Benedict XVI has also publicly expressed concern over the issue of climate change, describing the protection of the environment as a moral responsibility to safeguard God's creation.

The principal U.S. official is Ambassador Miguel H. Diaz. The Holy See is represented by Archbishop Pietro Sambi, who assumed office on December 17, 2005.

The U.S. Embassy to the Holy See is located in Rome in the Villa Domiziana. The Nunciature to the United States is located in Washington, D.C. at 3339 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.

Template:FlagSee Holy See – Venezuela relations.

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1869. The Holy See has a nunciature in Caracas. Venezuela has an embassy in Rome.

Africa

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
Template:Flag See Algeria – Holy See relations.
  • During the Algerian War of 1954-1962 the Holy See accepted the occupation of Algeria by France, and did not speak out in favor of Algerian independence.[26] despite pleas from the Algerian rebels to mediate.[27]
  • After Algeria became independent, Algeria maintained diplomatic ties with the Holy See and allowed Roman Catholic priests to continue ministering to the remaining Catholics in Algeria.[28]
Template:Flag1960
Template:Flag
  • The Holy See has an nunciature in Kigali.[30]
  • Rwanda has an embassy to the Holy See.
  • Relations between the two States have been strained since the Rwanda genocide. Many bishops were under the ideological influence of the previous Hutu nationalist government, and the government of Paul Kagame has tried to purge the episcopacy of hostile elements.
  • Priests that participated in the killings behaved in a way no different from the majority of the population, a phenomenon which has led to a grave collective and spiritual guilt, and has led to the growth of Evangelical churches and Islamic organizations. In part, this has been attributed to an ethnic-based liberation theology, which was denounced by the Holy See in the 1970s and 1980s.
Template:Flag1969See Holy See – Sudan relations.

Middle East

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
Template:Flag1954See Holy See – Iran relations.

The two countries have had formal diplomatic relations since 1954, since the pontificate of Pius XII, and have been maintained during Islamic revolution.[32] Iran has a large diplomatic corps at the Vatican with only the Dominican Republic having more diplomats accredited to the Holy See.[32]

In 2008 relations between Iran and the Holy See were "warming", and Mahmoud Ahmadinejad "said the Vatican was a positive force for justice and peace" when he met with the Papal nuncio to Iran, Archbishop Jean-Paul Gobel.[33]

Template:Flag
Template:Flag1993See Holy See – Israel relations.

Holy See–Israel relations have officially existed since 1993 with the adoption of the fundamental agreement between the two parties. However, relations remain tense because of the non-fulfillment of the accords giving property rights and tax exemptions to the Church.

Template:Flag1994See Holy See – Jordan relations.

The Holy See has a nunciature in Amman. Jordan has an embassy in Rome. The Holy See has maintained comparatively good relations with Jordan. The name of the country comes from the Jordan River, which is significant to Christians because it was the place where Jesus was baptized by John the Baptist. Various Christian clerics in the Arab world have a Jordanian background, such as Maroun Lahham in Tunisia and Fouad Twal in Israel/Palestine.

Template:Flag1969
Template:Flag1947See Holy See – Lebanon relations.
Template:Flag

There have been some important high-level meetings between Saudi and Vatican officials in order to discuss issues and organize dialogue between religions.

Template:Flag1762
  • The Holy See has a nunciature in Damascus.[35]
  • Syria has an embassy in Rome.
  • At present, the Holy See has comparatively good relations with Syria. It has sought to foster ecumenism between rival Christian factions in Antioch and to ensure the survival of age-old Christian communities in the country. The declaration Nostra Aetate has made possible inter-faith dialogue and cooperation with Syrian Muslims.
  • Some Vatican leaders have also sought to foster greater political independence for Lebanon, which has been tied to Syria since the end of the Lebanese civil war. This call for Lebanese independence has traditionally been resisted by Syrian leaders.
  • "Assad Will Attend John Paul II's Funeral"

Rest of world

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
Australia Australia 1973
  • Since the establishment of diplomatic relations with the Holy See in 1973, Australia has maintained a non-resident Head of Mission, based in another European capital, as well as an office at the Holy See, headed by a Counsellor.
  • The Holy See has maintained an Apostolic Nunciature in Canberra since 1973.
  • On 21 July 2008, the Australian Government announced that it would appoint for the first time a resident Ambassador to the Holy See - the Hon Tim Fischer AC. According the Australian Foreign Ministry, this marked a significant deepening of Australia's relations with the Vatican since it would allow Australia to expand dialogue with the Vatican in areas including human rights, political and religious freedom, inter-faith dialogue, food security, arms control, refugees and anti-people trafficking, and climate change.[36] Mr Fischer commenced his appointment on 30 January 2009 and presented credentials to His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI on 12 February 2009.
  • The Australian Prime Minister, Mr Rudd, visited the Pope Benedict XVI and met the Vatican's Secretary of State on 9 July 2009.
  • The Australian Minister for Foreign Affairs, the Hon Stephen Smith MP, met HE Archbishop Dominique Mamberti, the Holy See's Secretary for Relations with States ( on 3 December 2008 during his visit to Oslo to sign the Convention on Cluster Munitions. The Holy See played a facilitating role in relation to the Oslo process as a member of the Core Group of States.
Template:Country data ROC Taiwan 1942 See China – Holy See relations.
Template:Flag1881

Holy See–India relations have officially existed since 1881, when the nunciature was established during the papacy of Leo XIII.

Template:Flag1947
Template:FlagSee Holy See – Malaysia relations.

There are no diplomatic relations between the two.

Template:Flag1948
  • The Holy See has a nunciature in Wellington.[39]
  • New Zealand is represented in the Holy See through its embassy in Madrid (Spain).
  • In 1984, John Paul II gave a speech to the ambassador of New Zealand at the Holy See.[40] He later visited the country in 1986.[41][42]
Template:Flag1961
Template:Flag

An Apostolic Delegation (a non-diplomatic mission of the Holy See) denominated "Jerusalem and Palestine" has existed since 11 February 1948. The Palestine Liberation Organization has non-diplomatic but official relations with the Holy See, with an office in Rome. The Holy See, along with many other states, supports a two-state solution for Israel and Palestine.

Template:Flag1978

The Holy See has a nunciature in Colombo. Sri Lanka has an embassy in Rome.

Template:FlagSee Holy See – Vietnam relations.

Diplomatic relations have not been established with Vietnam. An Apostolic Delegation (a papal mission accredited to the Catholic Church in the country but not officially to the Government) still exists on paper and as such is listed in the Annuario Pontificio; but since the end of the Vietnam War admittance of representatives to staff it has not been permitted. Temporary missions to discuss with the Government matters of common interest are sent every year or two.

Multilateral politics

Participation in international organizations

The Holy See is especially active in international organizations and is a member of the following groups:

The Holy See is also a permanent observer of the following international organizations:

The Holy See is an observer on an informal basis of the following groups:

The Holy See sends a delegate to the Arab League in Cairo. It is also a guest of honour to the Parliamentary Assembly of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe.

Activities of the Holy See within the United Nations system

Since April 6, 1964, the Holy See has been a permanent observer state at the United Nations. In that capacity, the Holy See has since had a standing invitation attend all the sessions of the United Nations General Assembly, the United Nations Security Council, and the United Nations Economic and Social Council to observe their work., and to maintain a permanent observer mission at the UN headquarters in New York.[44] Accordingly, the Holy See has established a Permanent Observer Mission in New York, has sent representatives to all open meetings of the General Assembly and of its Main Committees and has been able to influence their decisions and recommendations.

Relationship with Vatican City

Although the Holy See is closely associated with Vatican City, the independent territory over which the Holy See is sovereign, the two entities are separate and distinct.

The State of the Vatican City was created by the Lateran Treaty in 1929 to "ensure the absolute and visible independence of the Holy See" and "to guarantee to it an indisputable sovereignty in international affairs" (quotations from the treaty). Archbishop Jean-Louis Tauran, the Holy See's former Secretary for Relations with States, said that the Vatican City is a "minuscule support-state that guarantees the spiritual freedom of the Pope with the minimum territory".[45]

The Holy See, not Vatican City, maintains diplomatic relations with states and participates in international organizations.[46] Foreign embassies are accredited to the Holy See, not to the Vatican City, and it is the Holy See that establishes treaties and concordats with other sovereign entities. When necessary, the Holy See will enter a treaty on behalf of the Vatican City.

Under the terms of the Lateran Treaty, the Holy See has extraterritorial authority over twenty-three sites in Rome and five Italian sites outside of Rome, including the Pontifical Palace at Castel Gandolfo. The same authority is extended under international law over the Apostolic Nunciature of the Holy See in a foreign country.

Diplomatic representations to the Holy See

Of the diplomatic missions accredited to the Holy See, 69 are situated in Rome, although those countries then have two embassies in the same city, since, by agreement between the Holy See and Italy, the same person cannot be accredited simultaneously to both. For reasons of economy, therefore, smaller countries accredit to the Holy See a mission situated elsewhere and accredited also to the country of residence and perhaps other countries. Dual accreditation with a country other than Italy is acceptable, whether the mission is situated in Rome or elsewhere.

The Holy See only accepts foreign ambassadors that meet the moral requirements of the Church, in what it calls "gospel diplomacy". Abortion, divorce and homosexuality are all taboo in the Church's diplomatic norms.

Massimo Franco, author of "Parallel Empires", asserted in April 2009 that the Obama administration had put forward three candidates for consideration but each of them have been deemed insufficiently pro-life by the Vatican.[47] This claim was denied by the Holy See's spokesman Federico Lombardi, and was dismissed by Thomas Patrick Melady, former United States Ambassador to the Holy See, as being in conflict with diplomatic practice. Vatican sources said that it is not the practice to vet the personal ideas of those who are proposed as ambassadors to the Holy See, though in the case of candidates who are Catholics and who are living with someone, their marital status is taken into account. Divorced people who are not Catholics are in fact accepted, provided their marriage situation is in accord with the rules of their own religion.[48]

In September 2008, French and Italian press reports likewise claimed that the Holy See had refused the required diplomatic approval of several candidates proposed by Paris for the job, which has been vacant since the previous ambassador died in December 2007.[49]

According to press accounts in Argentina in January 2008, the country's nominee as ambassador to the Holy See, Alberto Iribarne, a Catholic, was rejected on the grounds that he was living with a woman other than the wife from whom he was divorced.[50]

Bilateral Treaties and Concordats

For the participation of the Holy See in Multilateral Treaties see: Activities of the Holy See within the United Nations system

Treaty Date of conclusion Date of entering into force
1122 Concordat of Worms between Pope Calixtus II and Holy Roman Emperor Henry V 23 Sep 1122
1516 Concordat of Bologna between King Francis I of France and Pope Leo X Sep 1516
1753 Concordat between the Holy See and Spain 1753
1801 Concordat between Pope Pius VII and Napoléon 1801
1813 Concordat of Fontainebleau between Pope Pius VII and Napoléon 1813
1817 Concordat between the Holy See and Bavaria 5 Jun 1817
1817 Concordat between the Holy See and France 11 Jun 1817
1847 Concordat between the Holy See and Russia 3 Aug 1847
1851 Concordat between the Holy See and Spain 16 Mar 1851 11 May 1851
1855 Concordat between the Holy See (Pope Pius IX) and Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph 1855
1882 Concordat between the Holy See and Russia 23 Dec 1882
1886 Concordat between the Holy See and Portugal 23 Jun 1886
1925 Concordat between the Holy See and Poland 10 Feb 1925
1929 Lateran Treaty[51] between the Holy See and Italy 11 Feb 1929 7 Jun 1929
1932 Agreement between the Holy See and Romania regarding the Interpretation of Article IX of the Concordat of May 10, 1927, and Statutes of the Council of the Catholic Diocese of Latin Rite of Alba-lulia 30 May 1932 30 May 1932
1933 Reichskonkordat between the Holy See and the Germany 20 Jul 1933
1940 Concordat between the Holy See and Portugal 7 May 1940
1941 Agreement between the Holy See and Spain relating to the modes of exercise of the privilege of presentation 07 Jun 1941 07 Jun 1941
1946 Agreement between the Holy See and Spain concerning appointment to non-consistorial benefices. 16 Jul 1946 16 Jul 1946
1946 Agreement between the Holy See and Spain on seminaries and universities of ecclesiastical studies 08 Dec 1946 08 Dec 1946
1950 Agreement between the Holy See and Spain concerning military jurisdiction and religious assistance to the Armed Forces. 05 Aug 1950 13 Nov 1950
1953 Concordat.between the Holy See and Spain 27 Aug 1953 27 Oct 1953
1954 Concordat between the Holy See and the Dominican Republic16 Jul 1954
1955 Exchange of notes constituting an agreement between Italy and the Holy See concerning tax exemption for diplomatic agents of Italian nationality accredited to the Holy See by other States 16 Dec 1955 16 Dec 1955
1972 Agreement between the Holy See and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons 26 Jun/1972 01 Aug 1972
1976 Agreement between the Holy See, the Holy See and Spain concerning mutual relations. 28 Jul 1976 20 Aug 1976
1979 Agreement between the Holy See and Spain concerning legal matters. 03 Jan 1979 04 Dec 1979
1979 Agreement between the Holy See and Spain concerning religious assistance to the Armed Forces and concerning the military service of members of the clergy and members of religious orders (with final protocol and annexes). 03 Jan 1979 04 Dec 1979
1979 Agreement between the Holy See and Spain concerning education and cultural matters. 03 Jan 1979 04 Dec 1979
1979 Agreement between the Holy See and Spain concerning economic matters. 03 Jan 1979 04 Dec 1979
1982 Exchange of notes constituting an agreement on the establishment of diplomatic relations. between Sweden and the Holy See 12 Jul 1982 – 26 Jul 1982 02 Aug 1982
1984 Concordat between the Holy See and Italy 18 Feb 1984
1993 Fundamental Agreement between the Holy See and Israel 30 Dec 1993 10 Mar 1994
1993 Concordat between the Holy See and Poland 28 Jul 1993
1994 Agreement between the Holy See and Spain on matters of common interest in the Holy Land. 21 Dec 1994 04 Jul 1995
1995 Exchange of letters between the Holy See and Israel constituting an agreement on the waiver of the visa requirement for holders of diplomatic passports 10 Apr 1995 – 05 Jul 1995 05 Oct 1995
1997 Agreement between the State of Israel and the Holy See (Legal Personality Agreement)[52] 10 Nov 1977
1998 Protocol additional to the Agreement between the Holy See and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons 24 Set 1998 24 Set 1998
1998 Agreement between the Republic of Estonia and the Holy See on juridical status of the Catholic Church in Estonia 23 Dec 1998 12 Mar 1999
2000 Agreement between the Republic of Latvia and the Holy See 08 Nov 2000 25 Oct 2002
2000 Monetary Agreement between the Italian Republic, on behalf of the European Community, and the Vatican City State and, on its behalf, the Holy See 29 Dec 2000 not yet into force
2004 Treaty between the Holy See and Slovakia Mar 2004
2004 Concordat between the Holy See and Portugal 18 May 2004
2006 Exchange of letters constituting an agreement amending the protocol to the Agreement of 26 June 1972 between the Holy See and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons 09 Sep 2006 – 05 Sep 2006 11 Sep 2006
2006 Basic Agreement between the Holy See and Bosnia and Herzegovina 19 Apr 2006 25 Oct 2007
2008 Agreement between France and the Holy See on the recognition of degrees and diplomas in higher education 18 Dec 2008 01 Mar 2009
2008 Concordat between the Holy See and Brazil 13 Nov 2008


Bibliography

Cardinale, Hyginus Eugene (1976). The Holy See and the International Order. Colin Smythe, (Gerrards Cross). ISBN 0-900675-60-8.

References

  1. Thomas, Gordon. Gideon's Spies.
  2. Cardinale, p. 64.
  3. Cardinale, p. 65.
  4. Cardinale, p. 68.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 "Mission Impossible: Eject the Holy See from the United Nations". www.chiesa:News, analysis, and documents on the Catholic Church, by Sandro Magister. 2007-08-21. http://chiesa.espresso.repubblica.it/articolo/162301?eng=y. Retrieved 2007-10-03. 
  6. Cardinale, p. 70.
  7. Boczek, Boleslaw Adam (2005). International Law: A Dictionary. p. 47. Scarecrow Press (Lanham, Maryland). ISBN 0810850788, ISBN 9780810850781).
  8. 8.0 8.1 Lecture by Archbishop Giovanni Lajolo, 16 February 2006
  9. [dead link]Previous ambassadors
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Philippe Levillain, John W. O'Malley, The Papacy: Gaius-Proxies (Routledge, 2002 ISBN 0415922305, 9780415922302), p. 718
  11. J.K.T. Chao, The Evolution of Vatican Diplomacy p. 27
  12. Holy See Press Office, 11 January 2010 access date 11 January 2010
  13. [dead link]"Vatican Resists Drive to Canonise EU Founder", by Ambrose Evans-Pritchard, 19/08/2004
  14. Jonathan Luxmoore, "Finding Catholic Inspiration in the European Union", The Pilot 22 May, 2009, 17.
  15. "Almanac". United Press International. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1-52755180.html. Retrieved 2009-05-07. "In 2001, Pope John Paul II flew to Greece to begin a journey retracing the steps of the Apostle Paul through historic lands. ..." 
  16. Lithuania (nunciature)
  17. Malta (nunciature)
  18. Serbian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: direction of the Holy See’s embassy in Belgrade
  19. Serbian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: direction of the Serbian embassy to the Holy See
  20. Ukraine (nunciature)
  21. "Pope Welcomes Queen to the Vatican". BBC. 1980. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/october/17/newsid_3966000/3966411.stm. Retrieved 2008-09-17. "The Queen has made history after becoming the first British monarch to make a state visit to the Vatican. Pope welcomed Her Majesty and the Duke of Edinburgh, for what was described as a "warm and relaxed" encounter." 
  22. Argentine Ministry of Foreign Relations and Cult: direction of the Argentine embassy to the Holy See
  23. "Argentine Ministry of Foreign Relations and Cult: Direction of the Holy See’s embassy in Buenos Aires"
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 Rohter, Larry (1990-02-15). "Mexico and Vatican Move Toward Restoring Ties". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1990/02/15/world/mexico-and-vatican-move-toward-restoring-ties.html. Retrieved 2009-06-12. "After more than a century of estrangement, the Mexican Government and the Vatican are suddenly moving toward re-establishing formal diplomatic relations and are also having informal talks on restoring some civil rights to the Roman Catholic Church here." 
  25. Golden, Tim (1992-09-22). "Mexico and the Catholic Church Restore Full Diplomatic Ties". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1992/09/22/world/mexico-and-the-catholic-church-restore-full-diplomatic-ties.html. Retrieved 2009-09-02. "Mexico and the Vatican re-established full diplomatic relations today after a break of more than 130 years, completing a reconciliation based on the Government's restoration of legal rights to religious groups earlier this year." 
  26. Lazreg, Marnia (2007). Torture and the Twilight of Empire: from Algiers to Baghdad. Princeton University Press. ISBN 069113135X. 
  27. Hofmann, Paul (1958-03-12). "Algerians Appeal to Vatican; New Peace Bid Made to Paris; Algeria Rebels in Plea to Pope". The New York Times. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F70D1FFF3B5D1A7B93C0A81788D85F4C8585F9. Retrieved 2009-05-02. 
  28. Horne, Alistair (1978). A Savage War of Peace: Algeria, 1954-1962. Viking Press. ISBN 0670619647. 
  29. Madagascar (nunciature)
  30. Nunciature to Rwanda
  31. Sudan (nunciature)
  32. 32.0 32.1 Israely, Jeff (2007-11-26). "Iran's Secret Weapon: The Pope". Time. http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1687445,00.html. Retrieved 2009-06-14. "... Iran, which has had diplomatic relations with the Holy See for 53 years ..." 
  33. "Pope Avoids Iran's Mahmoud Ahmadinejad". Daily Telegraph. 2008-06-01. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/iran/2061633/Pope-avoids-Irans-Mahmoud-Ahmadinejad.html. Retrieved 2009-06-15. "Relations between Iran and the Holy See are warming, and Mr Ahmadinejad said the Vatican was a “positive force for justice and peace” in April after meeting with the new nuncio to Iran, Archbishop Jean-Paul Gobel. Benedict is also thought to have the support of several leading Shia clerics, including Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani in Iraq." 
  34. Kuwait (nunciature)
  35. Syria (nunciature)
  36. Australian Government, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Holy See Brief, http://www.dfat.gov.au/GEO/holy_see/holy_see_brief.html
  37. Reynolds, James (2008-05-09). "China-Vatican relations". BBC.
  38. Indonesia (nunciature)
  39. New Zealand (nunciature)
  40. Address to the Ambassador of New Zealand, 12 January 1984
  41. 24 November 1986, Lancaster Park in Christchurch - New Zealand
  42. "Pope in New Zealand"
  43. Pakistan (nunciature)
  44. UN site on Permanent Missions
  45. Lecture by Archbishop Jean-Louis Tauran, 22 April 2002
  46. Bilateral and Multilateral Relations of the Holy See
  47. Vatican Unhappy with Obama Ambassador Picks
  48. Thavis, John (2009-04-04). "Vatican Dismisses Report That It Rejected US Ambassador Picks. Catholic News Service. Accessed 2009-04-15.
  49. "Vatican Rejects France's New Gay Ambassador
  50. "Vatican Nixes Argentina's Ambassador on Grounds of Divorce"
  51. For the text of the Lateran Treaty see:Lateran Treaty
  52. Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Legal Personality Agreement