Filippo Boncompagni (September 7, 1548 – June 9, 1586) was an Italian Cardinal, created by Pope Gregory XIII (his uncle) on June 2, 1572. He served as superintendent general of the Papal States (Cardinal-Nephew) during his pontificate (1572-85). He occupied several curial offices (grand penitentiary, prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council). He participated in the papal conclave, 1585 as a leader of the cardinals created by Gregory XIII. He was buried in the Liberian Basilica, of which he was archpriest.