"Ottoman imperial anthem"
The Ottoman Empire, once the greatest empire in existence, spanning three continents and ruling over a multi-ethnic multi-religious hundreds of thousands of populace, the Ottoman Empire had declined by the late 19th century to the point of being known as the 'sick man of Europe'. An inability to effectively industrialize combined with the fierce conservative opposition to any reform whatsoever meant that the Ottoman Sultanate had dropped back well behind the European powers by 1876. When Abdul Hamid II came to the throne, attempts were made to change this, despite the failure of these efforts and the rise of the Committees of Union and Progress(AKA the Young Turks) as aresult however, they did lead to closer ties between Germany and the Empire. This can be shown by the start of construction of the Berlin-Baghdad railway in 1888. As the Weltkrieg began in Europe the Ottomans signed a treaty with the Germans and soon after joined the war against the Entente powers. Despite some initial promising advances, Ottoman forces had begun to collapse by 1918 under British and Arab Pressure and seemed likely to surrender. However, renewed offensives in western Europe by the Germans drew many allied soldiers away from the Middle Eastern theater. Finally, with the fall of France, Germany was finally free to send troops to reinforce their Ottoman Allies. Faced with superiorly trained, equipped and trained German Opposition, the British, along with their Arab Allies, were rapidly driven out of Baghdad and Jerusalem. When peace came in 1921 the Ottoman Empire gains constituted Cyprus directly and a set of puppet governments in Albania and Libya. The Berlin-Baghdad railway was finally completed and extended to Basra as well. However despite these victories the Sultanate remained in desperate need of reform. In 1936, the Sultanate is seemingly staggering and slipping, More and more groups demanding reforms are appearing to be joined by ever increasing ethnic tensions, economically too it is reliant on German support especially the oil trade from the Middle East.