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Feast of the Cross

Russian icon of Feast of the Exaltation of the Cross (icon from Yaroslavl by Gury Nikitin, 1680. Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow).

Liturgical year
Western
Eastern

In the Christian liturgical calendar, there are several different Feasts of the Cross, all of which commemorate the cross used in the crucifixion of Jesus. While Good Friday is dedicated to the Passion of Christ and the Crucifixion, these days celebrate the cross itself, as the instrument of salvation.

September 14Edit

This feast is called in Greek Ὕψωσις τοῦ Τιμίου Σταυροῦ (literally, "Raising Aloft of the Precious Cross"). In Latin it is called Exaltatio Sanctae Crucis (literally, "Raising Aloft of the Holy Cross". (The word "Exaltatio" is sometimes translated as "Exaltation", at other times, as in the 1973 ICEL translation, as "Triumph".) In some parts of the Anglican Communion the feast is called Holy Cross Day, a name also used by Lutherans. The celebration is sometimes called Feast of the Glorious Cross. [1]

The True Cross is said to have been discovered in 326 by the mother of the Roman Emperor Constantine I, Helena of Constantinople, during a pilgrimage she made to Jerusalem. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre was then built at the site of the discovery, by order of Helena and Constantine. The church was dedicated nine years later, with a portion [2] of the cross placed inside it. In 614, that portion of the cross was carried away from the church by the Persians, and remained missing until it was recaptured by the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius in 628. Initially taken to Constantinople, the cross was returned to the church the following year.

The date of the feast marks the dedication of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in 335. This was a two-day festival: although the actual consecration of the church was on September 13, the cross itself was brought outside the church on September 14 so that the clergy and faithful could pray before the True Cross, and all could come forward to venerate it.

Western practicesEdit

Folio 193r - The Exaltation of the Cross

Exaltation of the Cross from the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry (Musée Condé, Chantilly)

In Roman Catholic liturgical observance, red vestments are worn at church services conducted on this day, and if the day falls on a Sunday, its Mass is used instead of that for the occurring Sunday in Ordinary Time, what some would call a Sunday after Pentecost.

Until 1969, the Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday of the calendar week after the one in which 14 September falls were designated as one of each year's four sets of Ember days by the Church in the West. The organization of these celebrations is now he decision of Episcopal Conferences in view of local conditions and customs.

September 14 is the titular feast of the Congregation of Holy Cross and the Episcopal Church's Order of the Holy Cross. This date also marks the beginning of the period of fasting, stipulated in the Carmelite Rule of St. Albert. The fast ends Easter Sunday.

Eastern practicesEdit

In Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic practice, the Universal Exaltation of the Precious and Life-creating Cross commemorates both the finding of the True Cross in 326 and its recovery from the Persians in 628, and is considered to be one of the Great Feasts of the church year. September 14 is always a fast day, even if it falls on Saturday or Sunday, and the eating of meat, dairy products and fish is prohibited. The Feast of the Exaltation has a one-day Forefeast and an eight-day Afterfeast. The Saturday and Sunday before and after September 14 are also commemorated with special Epistle and Gospel readings about the Cross at the Divine Liturgy.

During the All-Night Vigil on the Eve of the Feast, a cross is placed on the Holy Table (altar) where it reposes during the Vigil. The cross is placed on a tray that has been covered with an Aër (liturgical veil) and decorated with fresh basil leaves and flowers, and a candle burns before it. The cross reposes on the "High Place" of the Holy Table, where the Gospel Book normally lies. Those portions of the Vigil which would normally take place before the Icon of the Feast (the chanting of the Polyeleos and the Matins Gospel) instead take place in front of the Holy Table.

One of the high points of the celebration is when, after the Great Doxology, the priest or bishop brings the Cross out of the sanctuary. He sets the cross on a table (tetrapod or analogion) in the center of the temple (nave of the church) as the choir sings of the festal Troparion of the Cross: "Save, O Lord, Thy people, and bless Thine inheritance, granting unto Orthodox Christians [sometimes translated as "Christians of the true faith"] victory over enemies, and by the power of Thy Cross, do Thou preserve Thy commonwealth."

In cathedrals and monasteries, a special "Exaltation" is performed by the bishop or abbot, standing in the center of the church. This consists of his taking the cross in his hands and raising it above his head. He makes an exclamation, to which the choir responds, chanting, Kyrie eleison ("Lord, have mercy") 100 times. As they chant, he makes the sign of the cross with it three times, then slowly bows down to the ground, and stands up again raising the cross above his head as before. This process is repeated four more times to the four points of the compass.[3]

Then, whether the special Exaltation has been performed or not, the clergy and the members of the congregation prostrate themselves on the ground as all sing, "Before Thy Cross, we bow down in worship, O Master, and Thy holy Resurrection we glorify" three times (at the words "Thy holy Resurrection" all stand up again). Then all come forward to venerate the cross and receive the priest's blessing (see Veneration of the Cross, below). During the veneration, stichera attributed to the Emperor Leo are chanted by the choir.

The cross will remain in the center of the temple throughout the Afterfeast, and the faithful will venerate it whenever they enter or leave the church. Finally, on the Apodosis of the Feast, the priest and deacon will cense around the cross, there will be a final veneration of the cross, and then they will solemnly bring the cross back into the sanctuary through the Holy Doors. This same pattern of bringing out the cross, veneration, and returning the cross at the end of the celebration is repeated at a number of the lesser Feasts of the Cross mentioned below.

Armenian Apostolic ChurchEdit

The Armenian Apostolic Church observes a five-day fast, called the Fast of the Holy Cross from September 10 through September 14, in preparation for the Feast of the Holy Church in view of the Holy Cross, which they celebrate on September 15. September 16 is observed as the Feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross (Khachverats in Armenian), a feast which continues for several days thereafter. It is counted as one of the five major feasts of the Armenian Church, and the most important of the four feasts of the Holy Cross. According to Armenian tradition, the first one to "exalt" the Cross was the Apostle James of Jerusalem, the "Brother of the Lord". On the Sunday nearest 14 September, the liturgy is marked with an antasdan service (blessing of the fields) during which the processional cross is adorned with basil (a symbol of royalty) and the four corners of the church are blessed as a sign of the sanctification of the world.

On the Sunday nearest September 28 (always two weeks after the Exaltation) the Armenian Church celebrates the Feast of the Holy Cross of Varak (Varaka Khach) commemorating the 3rd century placement of an authentic relic of the cross in Armenian soil at Varagavank. This is a cross feast unique to the Armenian Church.

On the Sunday closest to October 26, the Armenian Church celebrates the Discovery of the Holy Cross (Kyood Khach), commemorating the finding of the True Cross by Saint Helena (327 AD).

Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo ChurchEdit

The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, one of Oriental Orthodox Churches, commemorates the finding of the true cross on Meskerem 17 of the Ethiopian Calendar correspondng to September 27 in the Julian Calendar (or, in leap years, one day later. The eve of this day is popularly called "Demera" in Amharic - meaning Bonfire. The Patriarch of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church lights a large bonfire in Maskal Square, Addis Ababa's greatest open arena, and smaller bonfires are lit by individuals and local parishes throughout the country. Thousands attend the colourful and vibrant ceremony of religious chantings around the bonfire in Maskal Square, which owes its name to the ceremony, "maskal" meaning in Ge'ez "cross". According to tradition, the bonfire commemorates how Queen Helena, as legend has it, found with the smoke of a bonfire, where to search for the true cross in Jerusalem, or how, by a series of bonfires, she signalled to her son Constantine in Constantinople her success in finding it.

MalankaraEdit

In the Malankara Syrian Orthodox Church a special offering called panchasarayumanda is made on this day, in particular at the Akaparambu Mor Sabor-Mor Aphroth Church in the Ernakulam District, Kerala.

September 13Edit

The Assyrian Church of the East celebrates the finding of the Cross on September 13, and considers it to be a major feast. The Assyrian Church considers the Sign of the Cross to be a seventh Sacrament, by which all of the other Sacraments are sealed and perfected (it takes the place of Marriage, which they do not name in their traditional list of Sacraments).

October 12Edit

In the Russian Orthodox Church, October 12 is the commemoration of the Translation of a Portion of the Life-Giving Cross from Malta to Gatchina.

March 6 Edit

On the liturgical calendar of the Eastern Othodox Church, this day commemorates the Uncovering of the Precious Cross and the Precious Nails by Empress Saint Helen—that is to say, the anniversary of the actual discovery; the date for the September 14 feast was determined by the Consecration of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. This is a lesser feast, and does not have any of the liturgical peculiarities of the September 14 feast.

May 3Edit

In the Gallican usage, beginning about the seventh century, the Feast of the Cross was celebrated on May 3, and called "Crouchmas" (for "Cross Mass") or "Roodmas". When the Gallican and Roman practices were combined, the September date was assigned to commemorating the rescue of the Cross from the Sassanid Persians, and the May date was kept as the Finding of the Holy Cross or Invention of the True Cross to commemorate the finding. (In this context "invention" (from Latin invenire, "to find") does not have the modern sense of creating something new.) Pope John XXIII removed this duplication in 1960, so that the Roman Calendar now celebrates the Holy Cross only on September 14.

May 3 is the date given in the Church of England's Book of Common Prayer liturgy, but the new Common Worship liturgy, following the Roman Catholic Church's lead, celebrates Holy Cross Day on September 14.

August 1Edit

The Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholics commemorate the Feast of the Procession of the Venerable Wood of the Cross on 1 August. This day marks the beginning of the Dormition Fast. The propers of the feast are combined with those of the Holy Macabean Martyrs, the commemoration of whose endurance is deemed appropriate for the first day of a fast. Unlike the 14 September observance, this commemoration is considered to be a minor feast, but it does have the bringing out of the cross and veneration by the faithful like the September feast.

The history of this feast begins in Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, Turkey). It was the custom there to carry the relic of the True Cross through the streets and squares of the city to ask for God's blessing, and for relief from sickness. On the eve of the feast (31 July), which is observed as a Forefeast, it was taken out of the imperial treasury, and laid upon the altar of the "Great Church" (Hagia Sophia). On 1 August it was solemly placed in the center of the Great Church for all the faithful to venerate. The relic was taken in procession daily throughout the city, offering it to the people to venerate until the Feast of the Dormition of the Theotokos (August 15), when it was returned again to the imperial treasury.

In commemoration of this tradition, it is customary to have a crucession (a procession headed by the cross) and celebrate the Lesser Blessing of Water on 1 August. It is the first of three "Feasts of the Saviour" in the month of August, the other two being the Transfiguration (6 August) and the Icon of Christ "Not Made by Hands" (16 August). Because of the blessing of holy water, this holy day is sometimes called "Savior of the Water." There may also be celebrated on this day the Rite of Blessing New Honey, for which reason the day is also referred to as "Savior of the Honey."

According to Saint Nikolaj Velimirović, this feast was instituted by mutual agreement of the Greeks and Russians to commemorate the simultaneous victories of the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Komnenos over the Bulgarians and the Russian Prince Andrei Bogolyubsky over the Saracens in the 12th century.[4]

In the Russian Orthodox Church, this feast also celebrates the Baptism of Rus, which occurred on 1 August 988.

Moveable FeastsEdit

In addition to celebrations on fixed days, there are certain days of the variable cycle when the Cross in celebrated.

The Roman Catholic Church, the Orthodox Churches, and some Anglican churches have a formal Adoration of the Cross during the services on Good Friday.

In the Roman Breviary before the 1961 reform, a Commemoration of the Cross was made during Eastertide except when the Office or Commemoration of a Double or Octave occurs, replacing the Suffrage of the Saints said outside Eastertide.

Eastern Christians celebrate an additional Veneration of the Cross on the third Sunday of Great Lent. The services for this day are modelled on the Feast of the Exaltation (14 September), including bringing the cross out into the center of the church and its veneration by the faithful. It remains in the center of the church until Friday of the week following (the Fourth Week of Great Lent). On Monday and Wednesday of the Fourth Week, a Veneration of the Cross takes place at the First Hour (repeating a portion of the service from the All-night Vigil of the previous Sunday). On Friday of that week, the veneration takes place after the Ninth Hour, after which the cross is returned to the sanctuary by the priest and deacon.

Wednesday and FridayEdit

In addition to all of the above commemorations, Orthodox also hold Wednesday and Friday throughout the year as a commemoration of the Cross.

Veneration of the CrossEdit

Feast DaysEdit

In the Eastern Orthodox Church, on several of the feast days mentioned above, there is a public veneration of the cross. It may take place at Matins, after the cross is brought out, at the end of the celebration of the Divine Liturgy, or at the end of one of the Little Hours, depending upon the particular feast, and local custom.

The faithful come forward and make two prostrations, make the sign of the cross on themselves, and kiss the feet of Christ on the cross, and then make a third prostration. After this, they will often receive a blessing from the priest, and bow towards their fellow worshippers on each side of the church (this latter practice is most commonly observed in monasteries).

End of ServicesEdit

At the end of the Divine Liturgy, and at some other services as well, it is customary for the faithful to come forward and venerate the "Blessing Cross" (hand-cross) which is held by the bishop or priest, and to kiss his hand. This practice is also called the "Veneration of the Cross", though it does not involve making prostrations. The cross which is venerated is small (typically 10-16 inches). This cross is usually metal, often gold or gold-plated, and can be enameled and/or decorated with jewels. The figure of Jesus on the Cross (the soma) is usually engraved, enameled, or painted on the cross, rather than being a separate three-dimensional figure as is found on a crucifix. This is due to the Orthodox practice of using icons rather than statues in church.


External linksEdit

References Edit

  1. Glorious Cross
  2. One-third remained in Jerusalem, one-third was brought to Rome and deposited in the Sessorian basilica Santa Croce in Gerusalemme (Holy Cross in Jerusalem), and one-third was taken back to Constantinople.
  3. Mother Mary, Archimandrite Kallistos Ware (1969), The Festal Menaion, London: Faber and Faber, Ltd., pp. 154, ISBN 0-571-11137-8 
  4. Velimirovic, Bishop Nikolai (1985), "August 1: The Procession of the Honorable Cross", Prologue from Ochrid, 4, Lazarica Press, ISBN 978-0948298028, http://www.westsrbdio.org/prolog/my.html?month=August&day=1, retrieved 2007-08-14 
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