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A series of articles on

Fatimah callig
Fatimah


Life
Family tree · Descendants · Succession to Muhammad · Fadak · Book of Fatimah · Umar at Fatimah's house


Perspectives
Shi'a · List of Shi'a titles for Fatima Zahra · The Fourteen Infallibles

Fadak (Arabic: فدك‎) was a tract of land in Khaybar, an oasis in northern Arabia; it is now part of Saudi Arabia.

When the Muslims defeated the forces of Khaybar at the Battle of Khaybar; this land was one of the items seized as booty and given to the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. Upon his death, Fadak became the cause of a dispute between Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah, and the first caliph of the time, Abu Bakr.

Description

Fadak was a city, which was situated thirty miles from Medina.[1] There were wells of water and trees of dates in it.[2][3] Yaqut al-Hamawi states that this city was named Fadak, while Ham, the son of Noah, first came to this place and put the foundation of the city.[3]

History

Before the Islamic Conquest

In the 7th century, the Khaybar oasis was inhabited by the Jews, who pioneered the cultivation of the oasis and made their living growing date palm trees, as well as through commerce and craftsmanship, accumulating considerable wealth. Some objects found by the Muslims in a redoubt at Khaybar — a siege-engine, 20 bales of Yemenite cloth, and 500 cloaks — point out to an intense trade carried out by the Jews. [4]

The oasis was divided into three regions: al-Natat, al-Shikk, and al-Katiba, probably separated by natural diversions, such as the desert, lava drifts, and swamps. Each of these regions contained several fortresses or redoubts containing homes, storehouses and stables. Each fortress was occupied by a separate family and surrounded by cultivated fields and palm-groves. In order to improve their defensive capabilities, the fortresses were raised up on hills or basalt rocks.[4]

Islamic conquest (629)

The muslim forces attacked the Khaybar oasis in May 629 (7 AH). Thanks to the speed and secrecy of the march, the Muslims caught the Jews by surprise, and occupied the Jewish forts one after another. Ibn Ishaq, a 8th century Sunni Islamic scholar writes in his early Sirah Rasul Allah:

When the people of Fadak heard what was taking place they sent emissaries to Muhammad to ask him to spare them and they would abandon to him all their property. He agreed. After he had reached an understanding with the people of Khaybar, they asked to be allowed to cultivate their own lands, and to retain one‑half of the produce, saying, 'We know the estates better than thou, and how to cultivate them.' Muhammad concluded peace with them on this basis, but added, 'If we should find it convenient to expel you, we shall do so.' The people of Fadak made peace with him on the same terms [5]

Muhammad's era (629 – 632)

Since Muhammad was the leader of the Muslim community until his death, he was in charge of Fadak when it was seized by the muslim forces in year 629. Muslims disagree on how Muhammad handled this possession. Ibn Taimiyya wrote in his Minhaj al-Sunnah that Muhammad appointed Amr ibn al-As as the governor of the Khaybar oasis [6]

Fay

It is important to understand the difference between Ghanimah and Fay to understand the history and disputes regarding this land:

Ghanimah is that property (or money), in which Muslims had worked to get it, while Fay is that property (or money), in which Muslims didn't have to ride the horses and camels. [7]

Some Muslim sources state that the Qur'an in Sura Al-Hashr, 6 state that the property was the private property of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, received through fay. A minority of Sunni scholars reject these sources.[8]

Multiple scholars state:

When the Prophet (s) returned from Khaybar, he sent Muhisa bin Masood to propagate Islam to the people of Khaybar. The leader of the Jews of Khaybar at that time was Yusha bin Nun. The people of Fadak refused to accept Islam, but offered to give them half of their Land of Fadak. The Prophet (s) took half the land and allowed them to live there. This half Land of Fadak was property of the Prophet (s), as the Muslims didn't ride horses over it.[9]
There were eleven fruit trees in Fadak, that Rasulullah (s) planted with his own hand. The children of Fatima used to present them to Hajj pilgrims and they would give them Dinars and Dirhams for this service.[10]

Yahiya ibn Sharaf al-Nawawi, a 13th century Sunni Shafi'i Islamic scholar writes:

Half the Land of Fadak, which was given by Jews after the peace treaty, was purely the property of Rasool Allah (s). Similarly, 1/3rd of the Valley of Qari and 2 castles of Khaybar were the exclusive property of the Prophet (s) and no one else had a share of it.[11]

This view of Fadak being the exclusive property of Muhammad was also shared by

Template:QuoteHadith

Template:QuoteHadith

Fatimah

Some Muslim sources state that Muhammad gifted Fadak to his daughter Fatimah quoting the Qur'anic verse Al-Hashr, 7. There is a dispute between Muslim scholars at this point.

A narration present in Dur al-Manthur by Suyuti, a 16th century Sunni Islamic scholar states: Template:QuoteHadith It should be noted here that Dur al-Manthur is an objective narration index rather than an expression of Suyuti's own opinion.

Other sources writes in Tafsir on Al-Hashr, 7:

Jibrael (as) came to Prophet Muhammad (s) and told him that Template:Allah (swt) had ordered that he give the "Dhul Qurba" (close relatives) their rights. Rasulullah (s) asked who was meant from "Dhul Qurba" and what is meant from "Right".

Jibrael (as) replied that "Dhul Qurba" refers to Fatima Zahra (r), and from right it is meant the property of "Fadak".

The Prophet(s) called Fatima and presented Fadak to her. This is the same which was presented to Abu Bakr after the death of Rasool Allah (saww) by Fatima Zahra (as) and she said that it was the same written paper which the Prophet (s) wrote for her, Hasan and Husayn [15]

Shah Abdul Aziz, a 18th century Sunni Islamic scholar agrees on this. He further wrote that it's a sin to deny Fatimah's rights in Fadak. [16] However, these sources are rejected by some Sunni scholars. [8]

None of the major Sunni Tafsir works mention the Quranic verse Al-Hashr, 7 was referring to Fatimah and her rights in Fadak [17], thus denying that this verse makes Fadak a gift.

In fact, some of these Tafsirs state the opposite: Muhammad Assad, a 20th century Sunni Islamic scholar states in his Tafsir:

(This verse) relates to booty acquired in actual warfare, out of which only one-fifth is to be reserved for the above five categories (i.e. God and his Apostle, the near kin, the orphans, the needy and the wayfarers). In distinction from all such booty, the gains obtained through fay are to be utilized in their entirety under these five headings [18]

In Tanwir al-Miqbas min Tafsir Ibn Abbas we read:

'Uraynah, Qurayzah, Banu'l-Nadir, Fadak and Khaybar, (it is for Allah) specifically and there is nothing in it for you (and His messenger) the command of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) regarding this is permissible, and this is why he made the spoils of Fadak and Khaybar an endowment for the needy people; it remained under his control during his lifetime[19]

Abu Bakr's era (632 – 634)

After Muhammad's demise, Abu Bakr was elected as a Caliph (see Saqifah). Fatimah came to him, asking for her portion of Allah's Apostle's property remaining of what was bestowed on him by Allah from the Fai in Medina, and Fadak, and what remained of the Khumus of the Khaibar booty. Abu Bakr refused to let her have it, saying:

Allah's Apostle said, "Our property is not inherited. Whatever we leave, is Sadaqa, but the family of (the Prophet) Muhammad can eat of this property.' By Allah, I will not make any change in the state of the Sadaqa of Allah's Apostle and will leave it as it was during the lifetime of Allah's Apostle, and will dispose of it as Allah's Apostle used to do.[20]
Fatimah became angry with Abu Bakr. Sources report that Ali together with Umm Ayman testified to the fact that Muhammad granted it to Fatimah Zahra, when Abu Bakr requested Fatima to summon witnesses for her claim.[21]

Muslim scholars are divided regarding the exact course of events and Abu Bakr's legality to do what he did.

At one occasion during Abu Bakr's reign as Caliph, a fornicator was banished to Fadak as a part of his punishment. [22]

Fatimah's anger

In a narration attributed to Ayesha recorded in Sahih Bukhari, Fatimah died six months after this incident, and during this period, she refused to talk to Abu Bakr.[23] Fatimah was buried at night by her husband Ali in a still unknown place. Ali did not inform Abu Bakr of the funeral, and he said the funeral prayer himself. Sahih Bukhari is considered authentic among Sunnis, meaning that Sunnis consider it to include authentic narrations only. According to another narration in Sahih Bukhari, Abu Bakr was saddened by Fatimah's anger, saying:

By Him in Whose Hand my soul is, to keep good relations with the relatives of Allah's Apostle is dearer to me than to keep good relations with my own relatives. [24]
Other Sunni sources state that Abu Bakrsought to reconcile with Fatimah, and that she became pleased with him again: Template:QuoteHadith The Sunni website AhlelBayt.com seeks to explain the differences in the above mentioned narrations in the following way:

The explanation is simple: Aisha (رضّى الله عنها) may not have known that Fatima (رضّى الله عنها) had reconciled with Abu Bakr (رضّى الله عنه). Aisha (رضّى الله عنها) was not present at that moment, so she was unaware of it. This does not mean that the event did not take place. Furthermore–and this point cannot be stressed enough–the Hadith narrated by Aisha (رضّى الله عنها) really means that Fatima (رضّى الله عنها) did not speak to Abu Bakr (رضّى الله عنه) again about the issue of Fadak, not necessarily that she did not speak to him again at all. [25]

Shi'a Muslims believe that Fatimah died unhappy with Abu Bakr, and deny that she was pleased with him before she died. They present the following tradition as a proof:

Abu Bakr and Umar went to Fatima's house to placate her and to seek her pardon. She said: "Allah be my witness that you two have offended me. In every prayer I curse you and will continue cursing you until I see my father and complain against you." [26]

Shias also say that Aisha lived near Fatimah and therefore must have known about the incident prior to Fatimah's death, and that if she was unaware of the alleged reconciliation at the time it would be unlikely for her to remain ignorant of it afterwards.

Umar's era (634 – 644)

When Umar became Caliph, the value of the land of Fadak along with its dates was 50,000 dirhams [10]. Ali again claimed her inheritance during Umar's era, but was denied with the same argument. Umar, the caliph who succeeded Abu Bakr, did restore the estates in Medina to `Abbas ibn `Abd al-Muttalib and Ali, as representatives of Muhammad's clan, the Banu Hashim. The properties in Khaybar and Fadak were retained as state property.[27]

Some sunni historical accounts mentions that both Ali and Abbas initially sought a portion of Fadak as inheritance [28]. According to these, Ali claimed a part of the property as his inheritance, since Muhammad has bestowed it on Fatimah during her lifetime, and because Fatimah was married to Ali until she died, thus he claimed himself to be the right inheritor. Abbas denied Ali's claims, he denied that Muhammad gave Fadak to his daughter Fatimah, and claimed that Fadak remained in Muhammad's until his demise. Abbas was the paternal uncle of Muhammad, and thus he felt that he was the right inheritor. Then they sought Umar to reconcile between them. Umar refused to let anyone have a portion of Fadak as inheritance, instead, as mentioned earlier, he made them trustees of Fadak.
According to Sahih Muslim, the second most trusted Hadith collection among Sunnis, another dispute arose among Ali and Abbas after they were made trustees of Fadak. They again asked Umar to adjudge between them, which he refused, saying:

No, by Allah. I will not give any other judgment except this until the arrival of the Doomsday. If you are unable to hold the property on this condition, return it to me

[29].

The fact that Ali and Abbas was in charge of the management of Fadak, is sometimes used by the Shi'a as an evidence, proving that Abu Bakr was wrong, and that Umar overturned his decision. Sunnis disagree with the Shi'a at this point, saying that Umar made Ali and Abbas trustees of the Fadak - NOT inheritors. At this time, parts of Fadak was still mainly populated by Jews, but this ended during Umar's rule. He heard that Muhammad once stated that two deens never shall co-exist in the Arabian peninsula. He searched for information about that until he was absolutely convinced that Muhammad actually said that, and then he expelled the Jews from the Khaybar oasis. [30] The Jews were given half of the land of Fadak in their treaty with Muhammad, so Umar gave them gold, silver, camels, ropes and saddle bags worth half the value of the fruit and land before he expelled them. [31]

Uthman's era (644 – 656)

During Uthman's caliphate, Marwan ibn al-Hakâm, who was his cousin, was made trustee of the Fadak [32]. The Shi'a accuse Caliph Uthman of wrongfully upholding Abu Bakr's unjust decision and withholding Fadak from Fatima's sons, Hasan and Husayn. The Sunnis believe that Uthman was correct in upholding Abu Bakr's decision since it was the will of Muhammad that prophets should not leave an inheritance.

Ali's era (656 – 661)

Fatima's husband, Ali, is revered by Shi'as. He became caliph after Uthman, but he did not return Fadak to Fatima's progeny; instead, he upheld the decision of Abu Bakr. He also maintained Marwan's position as trustee of the Fadak. Sunnis argue that this is strong evidence to support that Abu Bakr's decision was correct, since Fatima's own husband upheld this decision.

Muhammad Baqir as-Sadr, the revered Shi'a scholar, stated in his book "Fadak in History", that Imam 'Ali did not use Taqiyyah to deny ownership of Fadak. He states, that as Fadak was under the authority of the state, based on the decrees of the former Caliph Abu Bakr, Fadak during 'Ali's Caliphate came under the authority of 'Ali himself, and his two deputies, Imam al-Hasan and Imam al-Husayn, his sons.

Therefore, 'Ali deemed it satisfactory that Fadak was now under the control of the Prophet's family, and did not make a formal declaration of personal possession, to avoid resurrecting the old feud, and causing strife and fitna at the dishonouring of the legacy of the first Caliph.

Umayyad era (661 – 750)

Mu'awiyah, the first Umayyad Caliph did not return Fadak to Fatima's descendants. This way was continued by later Umayyad Caliphs until Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz seized power. When Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz, known as Umar II, became Caliph in 717, the income from the property of Fadak was 40,000 Dinars [33]. Fadak was returned to Fatima's descendants by an edict given by Umar II [34], but this decision was renounced by later caliphs and Fadak was once again converted into a public trust.

The sunni scholar Dr A. Rahim writes:

Umar II was very fair and generous to the member's of 'Ali's family. He restored to them the property of Fadak which was appropriated by Marwan" [35].

The shia scholar Abu Hilal al-Askari writes:

This was the first removal of oppresion by returning Fadak to the Children of Ali (as). [36]

Umar II's successor, Yazid ibn Abd al-Malik (known as Yazid II) overturned his decision, and Fadak was again made public trust. Fadak was then managed this way until the Ummayad Caliphate expired.

Abbasid era (750 – 1258)

In year 747, a huge revolt against the Umayyad Caliphate occurred. The Umayyad's were eventually defeated by the Abbasid army under the rule of Abu Abbas Abdullah al-Saffah (see Battle of the Zab) in year 750. The last Umayyad Caliph, Marwan II, was killed in a lesser battle a few months after the Battle of the Zab, thus ending the Umayyad Caliphate.

Historical accounts differs on what happened to Fadak under the early Abbasid caliphs. There is however consensus among Islamic scholars that Fadak was donated to the descendants of Fatimah during Al-Ma'mun's reign as Caliph (831-833). Ahmad Ibn Yahya al-Baladhuri, a 9th century Sunni Islamic scholar narrates following:

In 210 Hijri Ammerul Mmineen Manun gave an order that Fadak be given to the family of Fatima. This order was given to his representative in Medina Quthum bin Jafar. I Commander of the Faithful as the successor of the Prophet have a duty to follow the way of the Prophet in implementing Allah's laws. Anything or Sadaqah that the Prophet (s) gave must be given by the Commander of the Faithful, all his virtues come from Allah, and my aim is to do that which pleases my Creator. I have found that the Prophet (s) gave Fadak as a gift to his daughter and made her the sole owner and this is such a clear matter that carries no doubt amongst the Prophet's family. Verily the Commander of the Faithful deems it correct to return Fadak to the descendents of Fatima so as to implement the Justice of Allah (swt) and get closer to him in the process, and implement the order of the Prophet (s) and attain a good reward. The Commander of the Faithful gives order that the return of Fadak be recorded in a Register and that this Order be sent to employees. Since the death of the Prophet (s) the tradition has remained that Pilgrims on Hajj give an invitation to the People to claim anything Prophet (s) gave as Sadaqah or gift to the People, their words would be accepted, in this circumstance Sayyida Fatima has a greater right that her claim regarding the possession of Fadak after the Prophet (s) be accepted. The Khaleefa has told his Servant Mubarak Tabari "Return Fadak to the Waris of Fatima, all its boundaries, rights, production and Servants should be returned. Muhammad bin Yahya bin Husayn bin Zaid bin 'Ali bin Husayn bin 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib and Muhammad bin Abdullah bin Husayn bin Ali bin Abi Talib, have been appointed by the Commander of the Faithful as Agents over Fadak. Verily you should be made aware that this is the opinion of the Commander of the Faithful and this is that which has come to him from Allah (swt) so as to receive the blessing of Allah and his Prophet. Your subordinates should be informed that Muhammad bin Yahya and Muhammad bin Abdullah be treated in the same manner as you dealt with Mubarak Tabari, these two should be supported with the production processes, profits should given to them so as to attain reward from Allah (swt). Wasallam Wednesday 2nd Zeekat 210 Hijri [3][37]

This is also confirmed by the Sunni scholar al-Ya'qubi [38] and the Shi'a book al-Awail.[36]

While traditional Shi'a history works states that the Caliph Al-Mutawakkil (847-861) recaptured Fadak from the progeny of Fatimah [39], no sunni account confirms this. It is however agreed upon that his son and successor, Al-Muntasir (861-862), maintained the decision of Al-Ma'mun, thus letting Fatimah's progeny manage Fadak. [40]

What happened hereafter is uncertain, but Fadak was probably seized by the Caliph again and managed exclusively by the ruler of the time as his private property.

Muslim View

Sunni Muslims and Shia Muslims highly disagree about this event.

Shi'a view

The Shi'a believe that Fadak was wrongfully withheld from Fatimah, Muhammad's daughter, by Caliph Abu Bakr, Muhammad's father-in-law, whom the Shi'a consider to be a tyrant. According to the Shia, Fatima would die forever cursing the Caliph for wrongfully converting her personal land into a public trust. The Shi'a believe that Fatima possess ismah, or infallibility, and that she is immune from sin and incapable of mistake; it is thus a logical extension that Abu Bakr must be in error. Furthermore, Muhammad stated that whoever makes Fatima angry makes him angry as well. This hadith is included in the two main Sunni sources, Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim, in a report which ironically relates to al-Imam Ali, her husband. Hence, Muslims unanimously must agree that Abu Bakr and Umar made Muhammad and Allah angry, the Shi'a claim.

They also deny Sunni claims that prophets do not leave inheritances. They argue that the Qur'an clearly states that Dawud (David) made Sulayman (Solomon) his heir, even though David is, according to Muslim belief, a prophet. Another argument is Qur'an [Qur'an 19:6] in which Zakariya asks God to give him a child that inherits him. However normally, in the Shia Fiqh, wives cannot inherit land [41], however they believe that daughters can inherit land, but in this case, the Shia also argue that inheritance is out of the question because Fadak was given to Fatima during the life of Muhammad — so there was no question of inheritance.

The popular Shi'a website Answering-Ansar.org argues:

There are several more references which show clearly that no battle was fought to conquer Fadak. The fathers of Hadhrat Ayesha and Hadhrat Hafsa neither rode their horses over this land, nor displayed their legendary bravery to acquire the land. The Prophet (s) acquired this land from the Jewish occupants who gave it to him in return of not being fought against.. He (s) presented it to his daughter Sayyida Fatima (as). It is indeed sad that after his death, the Shaykhayn failed to display their exemplary mercy and snatched it away from her. [42]

Furthermore, regarding the Sunni claim that Fatimah sought Fadak as an inheritance rather than a gift, Answering-Ansar.org argues:

There is no contradiction over Sayyida Fatima (as) claiming Fadak as a gift and inheritance. The initial demand of Sayyida Fatima (as) was that Abu Bakr returns the land that had been gifted to her by her father. Sayyida Fatima (as) had the land in her possession but Abu Bakr ignored this and the written bequest of her father (s) and refused to return the land. Abu Bakr deemed the land as that of the Prophet which was in possession of his daughter held on trust as long as he (s) lived and which reverted back to the State upon his death. Sayyida Fatima (as) used this assertion to challenge Abu Bakr's right to control the land. After all he usurped the land on the basis that it belonged to the Prophet (s). Sayyida Fatima (as) was still entitled to the land as the Legal Heir so she had every right to make a claim on this basis. Abu Bakr refused her claim that the land was under her control, and he also rejected her claim that she was her father's Waris (legal heir).

...

The greatest proof that Fadak had been given as a gift to Sayyida Fatima (as) by Rasulullah (s), lies in the fact that she already had possession of the land at the time of her father's death. This would not have been the case if the land belonged to Rasulullah (s). Property which is given as a gift is handed over to the transfree at the time when gift is made (even before the death of the testator). Whereas the share in estate of deceased is taken hold of only after the death of the deceased. The fact that Syeda Fatima was already in possession of the land of fadak at the time of The Prophets death clearly shows that this land was given to her as a gift in the lifetime of her father and there was no question of its being treated as a share in inheritance.

...

If it was not in her possession then why didn't Abu Bakr point this out to Sayyida Fatima (as)? Al Mihal proves that Sayyida Fatima (as) had the land in her possession. Why didn't Abu Bakr dismiss this claim straight away, stating 'You never had possession of Fadak'? The fact that he didn't challenge this aspect of Sayyida Fatima (as)'s claim serves as proof that the land was in her possession.

...

(Umar II) can only restore something to someone who had an existing control, and that is why Umar Ibn Abdul Aziz returned Fadak to the descendants of Sayyida Fatima (as).

...

If Abu Bakr was indeed the rightful Khaleefa of Rasulullah (s), then he only had a right to control those lands that were in the possession of Rasulullah (s) prior to his death. This was not the case with Fadak; it was in the hands of Sayyida Fatima (as), so what right did he have to interfere in land that was in her possession? Hadhrat Abu Bakr should have had a different approach, enquiring into the matter and then deciding 'if the truth is established then I shall seize the land'. Abu Bakr's failure to make a claim, in the absence of proof, and decision to annex the land of another person cannot be deemed appropriate behaviour by the State. [43]

Sunni view

Sunnis believe that prophets do not leave inheritances, based on Muhammad's sayings:

"I heard the Prophet of Allah saying, 'We do not leave inheritance. What we leave behind is charity.'" [44]
"We, the Prophets, do not leave heirs." [45]

Sunnis also cite a Shi'a tradition supporting this position:

According to Abu 'Abdillah (Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq), the Prophet of Allah said: "The scholars are the heirs to the Prophets and the Prophets did not leave dinars and dirhams as inheritance, but they left knowledge." [46]

This Shi'ite tradition is widely considered Sahih by shi'ite ulema. Thus, Ayatollah Khomeini, a 20th century Shia Twelver Islamic scholar, said about the hadith:

The narrators of this tradition are all reliable and trustworthy. The father of ‘Ali ibn Ibrahim [namely Ibrahim ibn Hashim] is not only reliable, [but in fact] he is one of the most reliable and trustworthy narrators[47]

Based on these sayings of Muhammad, Sunnis believe that Fatimah was mistaken in her claim to Fadak as inheritance. However the shia reject those sunni hadith and say that the shia one is specific to islamic scholars and does not apply to the children of prophets. Shias also point out that the contrasting of money and knowledge was mainly a stylistic aspect of the hadith to show the great value of knowledge compared to material possessions.

Sunnis also reject that Muhammad gifted Fadak to Fatimah. They point out the fact that Fatimah never sought Fadak as a gift - in every single narration about this incident, Fatimah spoke about her inheritance. They point out that it was immediately after the Muhammad's death that Fatimah came to claim Fadak, and argues that if it had been a gift during the lifetime of Muhammad, then it would have already been in her possession at the time of the Muhammad's death, and there would have been no reason to go to Abu Bakr for it. Sunnis further argue that it is impossible that Muhammad gifted Fatimah the property as inheritance that she would assume after his death, since this would be a violation of the Quranic rules about inheritance.

Furthermore, regarding Abu Bakr angering Fatimah, Sunnis point out a couple narrations from Shi'a sources that can be seen to indicate that Ali angered her too on several occasions, see Hadith of Fatimah's anger with Ali.
The sunnis argues that getting in arguments is no more than normal, and thus you cannot condemn anyone for getting in arguments which each other.

See also

References

  1. Imam Malik's Muwatta, Book 41, Number 41.2.13
  2. *Tarikh Khamis, v2, p88
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Kitab mu'jam al-buldan by Yaqut al-Hamawi, v14, p238
  4. 4.0 4.1 Veccia Vaglieri, L. "Khaybar". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Ed. P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912
  5. Sirat Rasulullah, Chapter 'Khaybar'
  6. Minhaj as-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah by Ibn Taimiyya, volume 4 page 460
  7. We read in Tafsir Kabir, v8, p125, and Tafsir Muraghi, under the commentary of Sura Al-Hashr
  8. 8.0 8.1 AShah Waliullah in Quratul Ain p228 and Ibn Taymiyyah in Minhaj al-Sunnah, Dhikr of Fadak, do not accept that Fadak was in possession of Muhammad
  9. *Fath al-Buldan, p46, by Ahmad Ibn Yahya al-Baladhuri.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Sharh Ibn Abi Al-Hadeed, v4, p108
  11. Al Minhaj bi Sharh Sahih Muslim Volume 2, p92
  12. Wafa al-Wafa, v4, p1280
  13. Sirah Rasul Allah by Ibn Hisham, v3, p353
  14. The Concise History of Humanity or Chronicles, p140, Dhikr Ghazwa Khaybar
  15. *Ruzatul Safa as quoted in Tashdheed-ul-Mathaeen page 102
  16. Fatawa Azizi, page 165
  17. Tafsir ibn Kathir, Muhammad Assad, Tafhim al-Quran, Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Tafsir al-Kabir and Tanwir al-Miqbas do not mention Fatimah in this connection
  18. The Message of the Qur'ân, by Muhammad Assad, commentary of verse 59:7
  19. Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs, Tafsir on Surat Al-Hashr verse 7
  20. Sunni source:Sahih Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 59, Number 546
  21. * Ordoni (1990) p. 211
  22. Al-Muwatta Book 41, Number 41.2.13, by Imam Malik
  23. Bukhari 4:53:325
  24. Bukhari 59:546
  25. Ahlel Bayt » Articles » Fadak, Part V: Fatima’s Anger (رضّى الله عنها)
  26. Peshawar Nights 7.5
  27. Mujam al Buldan (vol 4 p 238-9), Wafa al Wafa (3:999), Tadhib al Tadhib, (10:124), Lisan al Arab (vol 10 p 473)
  28. Sahih Muslim Book 019, Number 4349
  29. Al-Muwatta by Imam Malik, Book 45, Number 45.5.18
  30. Al-Muwatta by Imam Malik, Book 45, Number 45.5.19
  31. Wafa al Wafa (vol 3 p 1000), Tarikh Abu al-Fida (vol 1 p 168)
  32. Sunan Abu Dawud, v3, p144, Dhikr Fa'y
  33. Wafa al-Wafa, page 99
  34. Rahim, A short history of Islam, page 168, Chapter Umar II
  35. 36.0 36.1 al Awail, Abu Hilal al Askari, p 209
  36. See also Wafa al-Wafa page 999
  37. at Tarikh, al Yaqubi, vol 3 p 195-96
  38. *Kashf al Ghumnah vol 2 p 121-122 *Bihar al-Anwar by Allamah al-Majlisi, vol 8 p 108
  39. As stated in Tarikh Yaqubi (2:199, 3:48), Wafa al Wafa vol 3 p 999-1000, Tarikh ul Khulafa, p 231-32
  40. *Tahdhib al-Ahkam by Tusi, vol. 9 p. 298
  41. www.answering-ansar.org Fadak, chapter 2
  42. www.answering-ansar.org Fadak, chapter 3
  43. Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Jihad was-Siyar, no 49
  44. Musnad Ahmad ibn al-Hanbal, vol. 2 p. 462
  45. Usul al-Kafi, vol. 1 p. 42
  46. Ayatollah Khomeini, al-Hukumat al-Islamiyyah, p. 133, published by Markaz Baqiyyat Allah al-A’zam, Beirut

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