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Emor (אמור — Hebrew for "speak," the fifth word, and the first distinctive word, in the parshah) is the 31st weekly Torah portion (parshah) in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the eighth in the book of Leviticus. It constitutes Leviticus 21:1–24:23. Jews in the Diaspora generally read it in late April or early May.

Jews also read parts of the parshah, Leviticus 22:26–23:44, as the initial Torah readings for the second day of Passover and the first and second days of Sukkot.

The parshah provides purity rules for priests, recounts the holy days, provides for lights and bread in the sanctuary, and tells the story of a blasphemer and his punishment.

Blake The Blasphemer

The Blasphemer (ink and watercolor by William Blake)


Rules for priests

God told Moses to tell the priests these laws for the priests. (Leviticus 21:1.) None were to come in contact with a dead body except for that of his closest relatives: his parent, child, brother, or virgin sister. (Leviticus 21:1–4.) They were not to shave any part of their heads or the side-growth of their beards or gash their flesh. (Leviticus 21:5.) They were not to marry a harlot or divorcee. (Leviticus 21:7.) The daughter of a priest who became a harlot was to be executed. (Leviticus 21:9.)

The High Priest was not to bare his head or rend his vestments. (Leviticus 21:10.) He was not to come near any dead body, even that of his father or mother. (Leviticus 21:11.) He was to marry only a virgin of his own kin. (Leviticus 21:13–15.)

No disabled priest could offer sacrifices. (Leviticus 21:16–21.) He could eat the meat of sacrifices, but could not come near the altar. (Leviticus 21:22–23.) No priest who had become unclean could eat the meat of sacrifices. (Leviticus 22:1–9.) A priest could not share his sacrificial meat with lay persons, persons whom the priest had hired, or the priest’s married daughters, but the priest could share that meat with his slaves and widowed or divorced daughters. (Leviticus 22:10–16.) Only animals without defect qualified for sacrifice. (Leviticus 22:17–25.)

Liten askenasisk sjofar 5380

a shofar

Holy days

God told Moses to instruct the Israelites to proclaim the following sacred occasions:

Hoet The Blasphemer Stoned

The Blasphemer Stoned (engraving by Gerard Hoet and Abraham de Blois)

Lights and bread in the sanctuary

God told Moses to command the Israelites to bring clear olive oil for lighting the lamps of the Tabernacle regularly, from evening to morning. (Leviticus 24:1–4.) And God called for baking twelve loaves to be placed in the Tabernacle every Sabbath, and thereafter given to the priests, who were to eat them in the sacred precinct. (Leviticus 24:5–9.)

Abbate The Blasphemer

The Blasphemer (drawing by Niccolò dell'Abbate)

A blasphemer

A man with an Israelite mother (from the tribe of Dan) and an Egyptian father got in a fight, and pronounced God’s Name in blasphemy. (Leviticus 24:10–11.) The people brought him to Moses and placed him in custody until God’s decision should be made clear. (Leviticus 24:11–12.) God told Moses to take the blasphemer outside the camp where all who heard him were to lay their hands upon his head, and the whole community was to stone him, and they did so. (Leviticus 24:13–14, 23.)

God instructed that anyone who blasphemed God was to be put to death. (Leviticus 24:15–16.) Anyone who killed any human being was to be put to death. (Leviticus 24:17.) One who killed a beast was to make restitution. (Leviticus 24:18.) And anyone who maimed another person was to pay proportionately (in what has been called lex talionis). (Leviticus 24:19–20.)

In inner-biblical interpretation

Leviticus chapter 23

In the Hebrew Bible, Sukkot is called:

Sukkot’s agricultural origin is evident from the name "The Feast of Ingathering," from the ceremonies accompanying it, and from the season and occasion of its celebration: "At the end of the year when you gather in your labors out of the field" (Exodus 23:16); "after you have gathered in from your threshing-floor and from your winepress." (Deuteronomy 16:13.) It was a thanksgiving for the fruit harvest. (Compare Judges 9:27.) And in what may explain the festival’s name, Isaiah reports that grape harvesters kept booths in their vineyards. (Isaiah 1:8.) Coming as it did at the completion of the harvest, Sukkot was regarded as a general thanksgiving for the bounty of nature in the year that had passed.

Sukkot became one of the most important feasts in Judaism, as indicated by its designation as “the Feast of the Lord” (Leviticus 23:39; Judges 21:19) or simply “the Feast.” (1 Kings 8:2, 65; 12:32; 2 Chronicles 5:3; 7:8.) Perhaps because of its wide attendance, Sukkot became the appropriate time for important state ceremonies. Moses instructed the children of Israel to gather for a reading of the Law during Sukkot every seventh year. (Deuteronomy 31:10–11.) King Solomon dedicated the Temple in Jerusalem on Sukkot. (1 Kings 8; 2 Chronicles 7.) And Sukkot was the first sacred occasion observed after the resumption of sacrifices in Jerusalem after the Babylonian captivity. (Ezra 3:2–4.)

In the time of Nehemiah, after the Babylonian captivity, the Israelites celebrated Sukkot by making and dwelling in booths, a practice of which Nehemiah reports: “the Israelites had not done so from the days of Joshua.” (Nehemiah 8:13–17.) In a practice related to that of the Four Species, Nehemiah also reports that the Israelites found in the Law the commandment that they “go out to the mountains and bring leafy branches of olive trees, pine trees, myrtles, palms and [other] leafy trees to make booths.” (Nehemiah 8:14–15.) In Leviticus 23:40, God told Moses to command the people: “On the first day you shall take the product of hadar trees, branches of palm trees, boughs of leafy trees, and willows of the brook,” and “You shall live in booths seven days; all citizens in Israel shall live in booths, in order that future generations may know that I made the Israelite people live in booths when I brought them out of the land of Egypt.” (Leviticus 23:42–43.) The Book of Numbers, however, indicates that while in the wilderness, the Israelites dwelt in tents. (Numbers 11:10; 16:27.) Some secular scholars consider Leviticus 23:39–43 (the commandments regarding booths and the four species) to be an insertion by a late redactor. (E.g., Richard Elliott Friedman. The Bible with Sources Revealed, 228–29. New York: HarperSanFrancisco, 2003.)

Jeroboam son of Nebat, King of the northern Kingdom of Israel, whom 1 Kings 13:33 describes as practicing “his evil way,” celebrated a festival on the fifteenth day of the eighth month, one month after Sukkot, “in imitation of the festival in Judah.” (1 Kings 12:32–33.) “While Jeroboam was standing on the altar to present the offering, the man of God, at the command of the Lord, cried out against the altar” in disapproval. (1 Kings 13:1.)

According to Zechariah, in the messianic era, Sukkot will become a universal festival, and all nations will make pilgrimages annually to Jerusalem to celebrate the feast there. (Zechariah 14:16–19.)

In classical rabbinic interpretation

Leviticus chapter 21

Rabbi Tanhum son of Rabbi Hannilai taught that Leviticus 21 was one of two sections in the Torah (along with Numbers 19, on the Red Cow) that Moses gave us in writing that are both pure, dealing with the law of purity. Rabbi Tanhum taught that they were given on account of the tribe of Levi, of whom it is written (in Malachi 3:3), “he [God’s messenger] shall purify the sons of Levi and purge them.” (Leviticus Rabbah 26:3.)

The Gemara noted the apparently superfluous “say to them” in Leviticus 21:1 and reported an interpretation that the language meant that adult Kohanim must warn their children away from becoming contaminated by contact with a corpse. But then the Gemara stated that the correct interpretation was that the language meant to warn adults to avoid contaminating the children through their own contact. (Babylonian Talmud Yevamot 114a.) And a Midrash explained the apparent redundancy by teaching that the first expression of “speak” was intended to intimate that a priest may defile himself on account of an unattended corpse (met mitzvah), while the second expression “say” was intended to intimate that he may not defile himself on account of any other corpse. (Leviticus Rabbah 26:8.)

The Gemara taught that where Leviticus 21:1–2 prohibited the priest from defiling himself by contact with the dead “except for his flesh, that is near to him” the words “his flesh” meant to include his wife in the exception. (Babylonian Talmud Yevamot 22b.)

The Mishnah interpreted Leviticus 21:7) to teach that both acting and retired High Priests had to marry a virgin and were forbidden to marry a widow. And the Mishnah interpreted Leviticus 21:1–6) to teach that both could not defile themselves for the dead bodies of their relatives, could not let their hair grow wild in mourning, and could not rend their clothes as other Jews did in mourning. (Mishnah Horayot 3:4; Babylonian Talmud Horayot 11b.) The Mishnah taught that while an ordinary priest in mourning rent his garments from above, a High Priest rent his garments from below. And the Mishnah taught that on the day of a close relative’s death, the High Priest could still offer sacrifices but could not eat of the sacrificial meat, while under those circumstances an ordinary priest could neither offer sacrifices nor eat sacrificial meat. (Mishnah Horayot 3:5; Babylonian Talmud Horayot 12b.)

Rabbi Hiyya bar Abba cited Leviticus 21:8 to support the proposition that a Kohen should be called up first to read the law, for the verse taught to give Kohanim precedence in every matter of sanctity. And a Baraita was taught in the school of Rabbi Ishmael that Leviticus 21:8 meant that Jews should give Kohanim precedence in every matter of sanctity, including speaking first at every assembly, saying grace first, and choosing his portion first when an item was to be divided. (Babylonian Talmud Gittin 59b.) The Mishnah recognized the status of the Kohanim over Levites, Levites over Israelites, and Israelites over those born from forbidden relationships, but only when they were equal in all other respects. The Mishnah taught that a learned child of forbidden parents took precedence over an ignorant High Priest. (Mishnah Horayot 3:8; Babylonian Talmud Horayot 13a.)

The Gemara interpreted the law of the Kohen’s adulterous daughter in Leviticus 21:9 in Babylonian Talmud Sanhedrin 50a–52a.

Interpreting the words “the priest that is highest among his brethren” in Leviticus 21:10, a Midrash taught that the High Priest was superior in five things: wisdom, strength, beauty, wealth, and age. (Leviticus Rabbah 26:9.)

Rabbi said that a priest with a blemish within the meaning of Leviticus 21:20 who officiated at services in the Sanctuary was liable to death at the hands of Heaven, but the Sages maintained that he was merely prohibited. (Babylonian Talmud Sanhedrin 83a.)

Kohanim hands blessing photo

position of the Kohen's hands during the priestly blessing

The Mishnah taught that a priest whose hands were deformed should not lift up his hands to say the priestly blessing, and Rabbi Judah said that a priest whose hands were discolored should not lift up his hands, because it would cause the congregation to look at him during this blessing when they should not. (Mishnah Megillah 4:7; Babylonian Talmud Megillah 24b.) A Baraita stated that deformities on the face, hands, or feet were disqualifying for saying the priestly blessing. Rabbi Joshua ben Levi said that a Kohen with spotted hands should not say the blessing. A Baraita taught that one whose hands were curved inwards or bent sideways should not say the blessing. And Rav Huna said that a man whose eyes ran should not say the blessing. But the Gemara noted that such a Kohen in Rav Huna’s neighborhood used to say the priestly blessing and apparently even Rav Huna did not object, because the townspeople had become accustomed to the Kohen. And the Gemara cited a Baraita that taught that a man whose eyes ran should not lift up his hands, but he was permitted to do so if the townspeople were accustomed to him. Rabbi Johanan said that a man blind in one eye should not lift up his hands. But the Gemara noted that there was one in Rabbi Johanan’s neighborhood who used to lift up his hands, as the townspeople were accustomed to him. And the Gemara cited a Baraita that taught that a man blind in one eye should not lift up his hands, but if the townspeople were accustomed to him, he was permitted. Rabbi Judah said that a man whose hands were discolored should not lift up his hands, but the Gemara cited a Baraita that taught that if most of the men of the town follow the same hand-discoloring occupation, it was permitted. (Babylonian Talmud Megillah 24b.)

Rav Ashi deduced from Leviticus 21:20 that arrogance constitutes a blemish. (Babylonian Talmud Megillah 29a.)

Leviticus chapter 22

The Mishnah reported that when a priest performed the service while unclean in violation of Leviticus 22:3, his brother priests did not charge him before the bet din, but the young priests took him out of the Temple court and split his skull with clubs. (Mishnah Sanhedrin 9:6; Babylonian Talmud Sanhedrin 81b.)

A Baraita interpreted the words “there shall be no blemish therein” in Leviticus 22:21 to forbid causing a blemish in a sacrificial animal even indirectly. (Babylonian Talmud Bekhorot 33b–34a.)

Ben Zoma interpreted the words “neither shall you do this in your land” in Leviticus 22:24 to forbid castrating even a dog (an animal that one could never offer as a sacrifice). (Babylonian Talmud Chagigah 14b.)

The Gemara interpreted what constitutes profanation of God’s Name within the meaning of Leviticus 22:32. Rab said that it would profane God’s Name if a Torah scholar took meat from a butcher without paying promptly. Abaye said that this would profane God’s Name only in a place where vendors did not have a custom of going out to collect payment from their customers. Rabbi Johanan said that it would profane God’s Name if a Torah scholar walked six feet without either contemplating Torah or wearing tefillin. Isaac of the School of Rabbi Jannai said that it would profane God’s Name if one’s bad reputation caused colleagues to become ashamed. Rav Nahman bar Isaac said that an example of this would be where people called on God to forgive so-and-so. Abaye interpreted the words “and you shall love the Lord your God” in Deuteronomy 6:5 to teach that one should strive through one’s actions to cause others to love the Name of Heaven. So that if people see that those who study Torah and Mishnah are honest in business and speak pleasantly, then they will accord honor to the Name of God. But if people see that those who study Torah and Mishnah are dishonest in business and discourteous, then they will associate their shortcomings with their being Torah scholars. (Babylonian Talmud Yoma 86a.)

Schnorr von Carolsfeld Bibel in Bildern 1860 059

The Punishment of Korah’s Congregation (engraving by Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld)

Rav Adda bar Abahah taught that a person praying alone does not say the Sanctification (Kedushah) prayer (which includes the words from Isaiah 6:3: קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת; מְלֹא כָל-הָאָרֶץ, כְּבוֹדוֹ, Kadosh, Kadosh, Kadosh, Adonai Tz'vaot melo kol haaretz kevodo, “Holy, Holy, Holy, the Lord of Hosts, the entire world is filled with God’s Glory”), because Leviticus 22:32 says: “I will be hallowed among the children of Israel,” and thus sanctification requires ten people (a minyan). Rabinai the brother of Rabbi Hiyya bar Abba taught that we derive this by drawing an analogy between the two occurrences of the word “among” (תּוֹךְ, toch) in Leviticus 22:32 (“I will be hallowed among the children of Israel”) and in Numbers 16:21, in which God tells Moses and Aaron: “Separate yourselves from among this congregation,” referring to Korah and his followers. Just as Numbers 16:21, which refers to a congregation, implies a number of at least ten, so Leviticus 22:32 implies at least ten. (Babylonian Talmud Berakhot 21b.)

Leviticus chapter 23

Tractate Beitzah in the Mishnah, Tosefta, Jerusalem Talmud, and Babylonian Talmud interpreted the laws common to all of the Festivals in Exodus 12:3–27, 43–49; 13:6–10; 23:16; 34:18–23; Leviticus 16; 23:4–43; Numbers 9:1–14; 28:16–30:1; and Deuteronomy 16:1–17; 31:10–13. (Mishnah Beitzah 1:1–5:7; Tosefta Yom Tov (Beitzah) 1:1–4:11; Jerusalem Talmud Beitzah 1a–; Babylonian Talmud Beitzah 2a–40b.)

Tractate Pesachim in the Mishnah, Tosefta, Jerusalem Talmud, and Babylonian Talmud interpreted the laws of the Passover in Exodus 12:3–27, 43–49; 13:6–10; 34:18; Leviticus 23:4–8; Numbers 9:1–14; 28:16–25; and Deuteronomy 16:1–8. (Mishnah Pesachim 1:1–10:9; Tosefta Pisha (Pesachim) 1:1–10:13; Jerusalem Talmud Pesachim 1a–; Babylonian Talmud Pesachim 2a–121b.)

Tractate Peah in the Mishnah, Tosefta, and Jerusalem Talmud interpreted the laws of the harvest of the corner of the field and gleanings to be given to the poor in Leviticus 19:9–10 and 23:22, and Deuteronomy 24:19–21. (Mishnah Peah 1:1–8:9; Tosefta Peah 1:1–4:21; Jerusalem Talmud Peah 1a–73b.)

Rabbi Eliezer taught that one who cultivates land in which one can plant a quarter kav of seed is obligated to give a corner to the poor. Rabbi Joshua said land that yields two seah of grain. Rabbi Tarfon said land of at least six handbreadths by six handbreadths. Rabbi Judah ben Betera said land that requires two strokes of a sickle to harvest, and the law is as he spoke. Rabbi Akiba said that one who cultivates land of any size is obligated to give a corner to the poor and the first fruits. (Mishnah Peah 3:6.)

The Mishnah taught that the poor could enter a field to collect three times a day — in the morning, at midday, and in the afternoon. Rabban Gamliel taught that they said this only so that landowners should not reduce the number of times that the poor could enter. Rabbi Akiba taught that they said this only so that landowners should not increase the number of times that the poor had to enter. The landowners of Beit Namer used to harvest along a rope and allowed the poor to collect a corner from every row. (Mishnah Peah 4:5.)

Tractate Rosh Hashanah in the Mishnah, Tosefta, Jerusalem Talmud, and Babylonian Talmud interpreted the laws of Rosh Hashanah in Leviticus 23:23–25 and Numbers 29:1–6. (Mishnah Rosh Hashanah 1:1–4:9; Tosefta Rosh Hashanah 1:1–2:18; Jerusalem Talmud Rosh Hashanah 1a–; Babylonian Talmud Rosh Hashanah 2a–35a.)

A Baraita taught that on Rosh Hashanah God remembered each of Sarah, Rachel, and Hannah and decreed that they would bear children. Rabbi Eliezer found support for the Baraita from the parallel use of the word “remember” in Genesis 30:22, which says about Rachel, “And God remembered Rachel,” and in Leviticus 23:24, which calls Rosh Hashanah “a remembrance of the blast of the trumpet.” (Babylonian Talmud Rosh Hashanah 11a.)

Tractate Yoma in the Mishnah, Tosefta, Jerusalem Talmud, and Babylonian Talmud interpreted the laws of Yom Kippur in Leviticus 16 and 23:26–32 and Numbers 29:7–11. (Mishnah Yoma 1:1–8:9; Tosefta Kippurim (Yoma) 1:1–4:17; Jerusalem Talmud Yoma 1a–; Babylonian Talmud Yoma 2a–88a.)

Tractate Sukkah in the Mishnah, Tosefta, Jerusalem Talmud, and Babylonian Talmud interpreted the laws of Sukkot in Exodus 23:16; 34:22; Leviticus 23:33–43; Numbers 29:12–34; and Deuteronomy 16:13–17; 31:10–13. (Mishnah Sukkah 1:1–5:8; Tosefta Sukkah 1:1–4:28; Jerusalem Talmud Sukkah 1a–33b; Babylonian Talmud Sukkah 2a–56b.)

Leviticus chapter 24

The Gemara taught that the words “eye for eye” in Leviticus 24:20 meant pecuniary compensation. Rabbi Simon ben Yohai asked those who would take the words literally how they would enforce equal justice where a blind man put out the eye of another man, or an amputee cut off the hand of another, or where a lame person broke the leg of another. The school of Rabbi Ishmael cited the words “so shall it be given to him” in Leviticus 24:20, and deduced that the word “give” could apply only to pecuniary compensation. The school of Rabbi Hiyya cited the words “hand for hand” in the parallel discussion in Deuteronomy 19:21 to mean that an article was given from hand to hand, namely money. Abaye reported that a sage of the school of Hezekiah taught that Exodus 21:23–24 said “eye for eye” and “life for life,” but not “life and eye for eye,” and it could sometimes happen that eye and life would be taken for an eye, as when the offender died while being blinded. Rav Papa said in the name of Raba that Exodus 21:19 referred explicitly to healing, and the verse would not make sense if one assumed that retaliation was meant. And Rav Ashi taught that the principle of pecuniary compensation could be derived from the analogous use of the term “for” in Exodus 21:24 in the expression “eye for eye” and in Exodus 21:36 in the expression “he shall surely pay ox for ox.” As the latter case plainly indicated pecuniary compensation, so must the former. (Babylonian Talmud Bava Kamma 84a.)


According to the Sefer ha-Chinuch, there are 24 positive and 39 negative commandments in the parshah:

The rabbi with a talit

lulav and etrog


Ezekiel (painting by Michelangelo)

(Sefer HaHinnuch: The Book of [Mitzvah] Education. Translated by Charles Wengrov, 3:163–363. Jerusalem: Feldheim Pub., 1984. ISBN 0-87306-297-3.)


The haftarah for the parshah is Ezekiel 44:15–31.

Haggadah 14th cent

A page from a 14th century German Haggadah

In the liturgy

The Passover Haggadah, in the concluding nirtzah section of the Seder, ties together a reference to Abraham’s hospitality to his visitors in Genesis 18:7 with the reading for the second day of Passover that includes in Leviticus 22:27 a discussion of a bullock offering. The Haggadah reports that Abraham ran to the cattle to commemorate the ox in the reading for Passover, deducing the season from the report in Genesis 19:3 that Lot fed his visitors matzah. (Joseph Tabory. JPS Commentary on the Haggadah: Historical Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 126. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 2008. ISBN 978-0-8276-0858-0.)

Further reading

The parshah has parallels or is discussed in these sources:





Early nonrabbinic

Classical rabbinic

  • Mishnah: Peah 1:1–8:9; Demai 1:1–7:8; Sheviit 2:1; Terumot 3:9, 6:6–7:4; Challah 1:1; Bikkurim 1:8; Pesachim 1:1–10:9; Yoma 1:1–8:9; Sukkah 1:1–5:8; Beitzah 1:1–5:7; Rosh Hashanah 1:1–4:9; Megillah 3:5–6; Yevamot 2:4, 6:2–5, 7:1–8:2, 8:6, 9:2, 9:4–6, 10:3; Kiddushin 1:7, 1:9; Sanhedrin 2:1, 4:1, 6:1, 7:4–5, 9:1, 6; Makkot 3:8–9; Zevachim 9:5, 14:2; Menachot 2:2–3, 3:6, 4:2–3, 5:1, 5:3, 5:6–7, 6:2, 6:5–7, 8:1, 9:4, 10:1–11:2, 11:4–5, 11:9; Chullin 4:5, 5:5; Bekhorot 6:1–7:7; Keritot 1:1; Meilah 2:6; Parah 2:1. Land of Israel, circa 200 C.E. Reprinted in, e.g., The Mishnah: A New Translation. Translated by Jacob Neusner, 14–36, 41, 70, 100, 108, 148, 168, 229–51, 265–307, 321, 340, 352–54, 358, 360, 489, 585, 589, 593, 602, 604, 618, 720, 730, 735–36, 739–45, 748, 752, 755, 757, 774–75, 777, 800, 802, 836, 854, 1014. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988. ISBN 0-300-05022-4.
  • Tosefta: Peah 1:1–4:21; Demai 1:28; Challah 2:7; Bikkurim 2:4; Shabbat 15:7, 17; Pisha (Pesachim) 1:1–10:13; Kippurim (Yoma) 1:1–4:17; Sukkah 1:1–4:28; Yom Tov (Beitzah) 1:1–4:11; Rosh Hashanah 1:1–2:18; Megillah 3:5–6, 8; Yevamot 10:3, 5; Sanhedrin 4:1, 12:1; Makkot 5:4; Shevuot 1:6, 3:8; Eduyot 3:4; Shechitat Chullin 4:5; Menachot 7:7, 20, 10:26, 11:15; Bekhorot 2:3–4, 7–10, 17–19, 3:2, 6, 20, 24–25; 4:1–5:9; Temurah 1:10–11. Land of Israel, circa 300 C.E. Reprinted in, e.g., The Tosefta: Translated from the Hebrew, with a New Introduction. Translated by Jacob Neusner, 1:47–76, 83, 339, 349, 414, 419, 471–522, 541–618, 645, 718; 2:1156, 1185, 1215, 1221, 1233, 1259, 1388, 1435, 1438, 1455, 1459. 1483, 1485, 1521. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson Pub., 2002. ISBN 1-56563-642-2.
  • Sifra 211:1–244:1. Land of Israel, 4th Century C.E. Reprinted in, e.g., Sifra: An Analytical Translation. Translated by Jacob Neusner, 3:161–290. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1988. ISBN 1-55540-207-0.
  • Jerusalem Talmud: Berakhot 4b, 57b, 75b; Peah 1a–73b; Sheviit 5b, 27b–28a, 83a; Maaser Sheni 13a; Challah 2a, 6a, 8a, 11a; Orlah 2b–3a, 19a, 34a, 41b; Bikkurim 6a, 11a–12b; Pesachim 1a–; Yoma 1a–; Sukkah 1a–33b; Beitzah 1a–; Rosh Hashanah 1a–. Land of Israel, circa 400 C.E. Reprinted in, e.g., Talmud Yerushalmi. Edited by Chaim Malinowitz, Yisroel Simcha Schorr, and Mordechai Marcus, vols. 1–3, 6a–b, 10–12, 22. Brooklyn: Mesorah Pubs., 2005–2009.
  • Leviticus Rabbah 7:2; 10:3; 24:6; 26:1–32:8. Land of Israel, 5th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Leviticus. Translated by H. Freedman and Maurice Simon, 4:92, 124, 309, 325–417. London: Soncino Press, 1939. ISBN 0-900689-38-2.
First page of the first tractate of the Talmud (Daf Beis of Maseches Brachos)


  • Babylonian Talmud: Shabbat 65a; Eruvin 105a; Pesachim 72b, 75a; Rosh Hashanah 16b; Yoma 13b, 18a, 73a; Megillah 29a; Chagigah 13a, 14b; Mo’ed Katan 14b, 20a–b, 28b; Yevamot 5a, 6a, 15b, 20a–b, 22b, 24a, 37a, 44a, 52a, 55a–b, 56b, 58b–60a, 61a–b, 66a, 69a, 77b, 84a–85b, 86b, 87b, 88b, 89b, 90b–91a, 92a–b, 94a, 99b, 100b, 108a, 114a–b, 120a; Ketubot 14b, 26a, 29b–30a, 36b, 51b, 53a, 70a, 72b, 81a, 89b, 97b–98a, 100b–101b; Nedarim 10b, 62a; Nazir 38a, 40b–41a, 42b–44a, 47b–49a, 52b, 58a–b; Sotah 3a, 6a, 23b, 26b, 29a, 44a; Gittin 24b, 59b–60a, 82b; Kiddushin 10a, 13b, 18b, 35b–36a, 64a, 68a, 72b, 74b, 77a–78a; Bava Kamma 84a, 109b–110a, 114b; Bava Metzia 10b, 18a, 30a; Bava Batra 32a, 160b; Sanhedrin 4a, 5b, 18a–19a, 28b, 46a, 47a, 50a–52a, 53b, 66b, 69b, 76a, 83a–84a; Makkot 2a, 13a, 15a, 16a, 20a, 21a–b; Horayot 9a, 11b, 12b; Zevachim 13a, 15a–16a, 17a, 100a, 101b; Menachot 6a, 109a; Chullin 24a–b, 72a, 134b; Bekhorot 29a, 43a–45a, 56b; Temurah 5b, 29b; Keritot 7a; Niddah 8b, 69b. Babylonia, 6th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., Talmud Bavli. Edited by Yisroel Simcha Schorr, Chaim Malinowitz, and Mordechai Marcus, 72 vols. Brooklyn: Mesorah Pubs., 2006.




  • Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan, 3:40, 42. England, 1651. Reprint edited by C. B. Macpherson, 503–04, 572. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Classics, 1982. ISBN 0140431950.
  • Louis Ginzberg. Legends of the Jews, 3:238–42. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1911.
  • Thomas Mann. Joseph and His Brothers. Translated by John E. Woods, 131–32. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2005. ISBN 1-4000-4001-9. Originally published as Joseph und seine Brüder. Stockholm: Bermann-Fischer Verlag, 1943.
  • Morris Adler. The World of the Talmud, 30. B’nai B’rith Hillel Foundations, 1958. Reprinted Kessinger Publishing, 2007. ISBN 0548080003.
  • Jacob Milgrom. “Lex Talionis and the Rabbis: The Talmud reflects an uneasy rabbinic conscience toward the ancient law of talion, ‘eye for eye, tooth for tooth.’” Bible Review. 12 (2) (Apr. 1996).
  • Marc Gellman. “Three Green Things and a Yellow.” In God’s Mailbox: More Stories About Stories in the Bible, 85–89. New York: Morrow Junior Books, 1996. ISBN 0-688-13169-7.
  • Jacob Milgrom. Leviticus 17–22, 3A:1791–1892. New York: Anchor Bible, 2000. ISBN 0-385-41255-X.
  • Jacob Milgrom. Leviticus 23–27, 3B:1947–2145. New York: Anchor Bible, 2000. ISBN 0-385-50035-1.
  • Joseph Telushkin. The Ten Commandments of Character: Essential Advice for Living an Honorable, Ethical, Honest Life, 275–78. New York: Bell Tower, 2003. ISBN 1-4000-4509-6.
  • Judith Z. Abrams. “Misconceptions About Disabilities in the Hebrew Bible.” In Jewish Perspectives on Theology and the Human Experience of Disability. Edited by Judith Z. Abrams & William C. Gaventa, 73–84. Binghamton, N.Y.: Haworth Pastoral Press, 2006. ISBN 0-7890-3444-1.
  • Saul M. Olyan. Disability in the Hebrew Bible: Interpreting Mental and Physical Differences. Cambridge Univ. Press, 2008. ISBN 0521888077.

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