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Skjern-stenen

The Skern Runestone states that a man was hin drottinfasta or "loyal to his drott (lord)."

*Druhtinaz (Old English: dryhten, Old Norse: dróttinn, Old Middle English: drihten, Middle English: driȝten)[1] is a Proto-Germanic term meaning a military leader or warlord and is derived from *druhti "war band" and the "ruler suffix" -īna- (c.f. Wōd-īna-z).[2][3]

Forms

  • Proto-Germanic: druhtīnaz'[4]
  • Old English: dryhten[5][6]
  • Old Norse: dróttinn[7][8]
  • Old English-Middle English: drihten[9][10]
  • Old Saxon: drohtin[11]
  • Old Frisian: drochten[12]
  • Old High German: truhtin[13]
  • Modern German: Trechtein (meaning Lord, Officer); Kriegstrechtein (military officer) [14]
  • Middle English: driȝten, driȝtin, drihtin, drightinn, drightun, driȝtyn, dryȝt(t)yn, driȝtine, drightin(e, dryghtyn(e, drichtine, driht(e, dryght, drichte, dright(e, drytte, dryȝt(e[15][16]

Etymology

The same word existed in Old Saxon: drohtin, druhtin, [Old English: dryhten, Old High German: truhtîn, trohtîn, trehtîn, trehten (Low German Drost, Early Modern Bavarian German: Droste, Drossaard Dutch Trecht "Lord God", New High German (Kriegs-) Trechtein "military officer"). The word comes from Proto-Germanic *druhtīnaz[17] and is derived from *druhti "war band" and the "ruler suffix" -īna- (c.f. Wōd-īna-z).[18][19]

Reflexes of *druhti itself are found in Icelandic: drótt, Old English: dryht, driht, Old High German: truht (surviving into 19th-century Swiss German as Trucht "ruffians, scallywags "). In Gothic appears the verb driugan meaning "to do military service". In Old English dréogan (Modern English drudge/drudgery, and dialectal dree) and in Icelandic drýgia(n) appear, both meaning "to perform". The root is the same as in Slavic drug meaning "companion". Old Norse drôttseti, Old High German truhtsâzzo and trohtsâzzo (Modern German Truchsess) is the term for the office of maior domus.

Anthroponymy

This same word was commonly used as personal name in Galicia, Spain during the Early Middle Ages,[20] in the form Tructino (origin of modern Galician surname Troitiño) together with other related names such as Tructemiro, Tructesindo, Tructesenda f. or Tructu, of probable Suevi origin.

Mythology

In the Heimskringla, Snorri Sturluson wrote that Domar married Drott, the daughter of Danp who was the son of Ríg (Heimdall).

Snorri wrote:

Dygvi's mother was Drótt, a daughter of King Danp, the son of Ríg, who was first called konungr in the Danish tongue. His descendants always afterwards considered the title of konungr the title of highest dignity. Dygvi was the first of his family to be called konungr, for his predecessors had been called dróttinn ['chieftain'], and their wives dróttning, and their court drótt ['war band']. Each of their race was called Yngvi, or Ynguni, and the whole race together Ynglingar. Queen Drótt was a sister of King Dan Mikillati, from whom Denmark took its name.

Current usage

The Scandinavian word for Queen, drottning/dronning is derived from this title. Similarly, in Ukrainian druzhina (дружина) means a spouse (wife).

In Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian "druzhina" (družina) means war band.

But to confuse this topic a bit: in Scandinavian Bronze Ages and Iron Ages a wife of the Kuningaz, or Druhtinaz was called as Kwēniz, (kven, cwen, queen). Kwēnizes were not like monarchic queens of our modern times, but more like matriarchs of the clan and absolute housekeepers of the Viking court when the lord was on his long annual travels. Kwēnizes were once the most independent, powerful and famous females at northern Europe representing the ancient way from Scandinavian Iron Ages of husband and wife living together as equals, just having their own fields of tasks, duties and rights. Check out old Kvenland topic too for more information.

The Finnish word ruhtinas, denoting a high lord or Sovereign Prince, is an early loanword from Germanic. Finnish is not an Indo-European language and therefore unrelated to Germanic.

References

  1. http://oed.com/view/Entry/57726?redirectedFrom=drihten# Retrieved 06FEB2011
  2. Barnhart, Robert K., ed., Barnhart Dictionary of Etymology, H.W. Wilson Co., 1988.
  3. Buck, Carl Darling, A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages, University of Chicago, 1949, reprinted 1988.
  4. Orel, Vladimir. A Handbook of Germanic Etymology. Brill Academic Publishers. 2003. ISBN 978-9004128750. p. 77.
  5. http://oed.com/view/Entry/57726?redirectedFrom=drihten# Retrieved 06FEB2011
  6. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=drihten&searchmode=none Retrieved 06FEB2011
  7. http://oed.com/view/Entry/57726?redirectedFrom=drihten# Retrieved 06FEB2011
  8. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=drihten&searchmode=none Retrieved 06FEB2011
  9. http://oed.com/view/Entry/57726?redirectedFrom=drihten# Retrieved 06FEB2011
  10. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=drihten&searchmode=none Retrieved 06FEB2011
  11. http://oed.com/view/Entry/57726?redirectedFrom=drihten# Retrieved 06FEB2011
  12. http://oed.com/view/Entry/57726?redirectedFrom=drihten# Retrieved 06FEB2011
  13. http://oed.com/view/Entry/57726?redirectedFrom=drihten# Retrieved 06FEB2011
  14. http://germazope.uni-trier.de/Projects/WBB/woerterbuecher/bmz/wbgui
  15. http://oed.com/view/Entry/57726?redirectedFrom=drihten# Retrieved 06FEB2011
  16. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=drihten&searchmode=none Retrieved 06FEB2011
  17. Orel, Vladimir. A Handbook of Germanic Etymology. Brill Academic Publishers. 2003. ISBN 978-9004128750. p. 77.
  18. Barnhart, Robert K., ed., Barnhart Dictionary of Etymology, H.W. Wilson Co., 1988.
  19. Buck, Carl Darling, A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages, University of Chicago, 1949, reprinted 1988.
  20. Boullón Agrelo,Ana Isabel. Antroponimia medieval galega (ss. VIII-XII). Max Niemeyer Verlag. Tübingen. 1999. ISBN 978-3-484-55512-9. p. 436.

Bibliography

  • Johann Andreas Schmeller, Bayerisches Wörterbuch 7th ed. by D. V. G. Frommann, Munich 1872-77, 2007 reprint: ISBN 9783486585209, p. 646.[1]

External links

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