|Creighton Williams Abrams Jr.|
|September 15, 1914– September 4, 1974 (aged 59)|
General Creighton W. Abrams
|Place of birth||Springfield, Massachusetts|
|Place of death||Washington, D.C.|
|Resting place||Arlington National Cemetery|
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Service/branch||United States Army|
|Years of service||1936-1974|
|Commands held|| 37th Tank Battalion|
Combat Command B, 4th Armored Division
63rd Tank Battalion
2d Armored Cavalry Regiment
3rd Armored Division
Military Assistance Command, Vietnam
U.S. Army Chief of Staff
|Battles/wars|| World War II|
|Awards|| Distinguished Service Cross (2) |
Defense Distinguished Service Medal (2)
Army Distinguished Service Medal (4)
Silver Star (2)
Legion of Merit (2)
Bronze Star with V device
Creighton Williams Abrams Jr. (September 15, 1914 – September 4, 1974) was a United States Army General who commanded military operations in the Vietnam War from 1968-72 which saw U.S. troop strength in Vietnam fall from a peak of 543,000 to 49,000. He served as Chief of Staff of the United States Army from 1972 until shortly before his death in 1974. In honor of Abrams, the U.S. Army named the XM1 main battle tank after him as the M1 Abrams. The IG Farben building was also named after him from 1975 to 1995.
He became an armor officer early in the development of that branch and served as a tank company commander in the 1st Armored Division in 1940.
World War II
During World War II, he served with the 4th Armored Division, initially as regimental adjutant (June 1941 - June 1942) then as a battalion commander (July 1942 - March 1943), and regiment executive officer (March 1943 - September 1943) with the US 37th Armor Regiment. A reorganization of the division created a new battalion, the 37th Tank Battalion, which he commanded until March 1945 when he was promoted to command Combat Command B of the division. During this time he was promoted to the brevet ranks of major (February 1942) and lieutenant-colonel (September 1943).
During much of this time his unit was at the spearhead of the 4th Armored Division and the Third Army, and he was consequently well known as an aggressive armor commander. By using his qualities as a leader and by consistently exploiting the relatively small advantages of speed and reliability of his vehicles he managed to defeat German forces who had the advantage of superior armor and superior guns. He was twice decorated with the Distinguished Service Cross, second only to the Medal of Honor, for actions on September 20, 1944 and December 26, 1944.
Abrams was known as an aggressive and successful armor commander. General George Patton said of him, "I'm supposed to be the best tank commander in the Army, but I have one peer: Abe Abrams. He's the world champion." His unit was frequently the spearhead of the Third Army during WWII. Abrams was one of the leaders in the relief effort which broke up the German entrenchments surrounding Bastogne and the 101st Airborne Division during the Battle of the Bulge.
He was noted for his concern for soldiers, his emphasis on combat readiness, and his insistence on personal integrity.
Following the war he served on the Army General Staff (1945 - 1946), as head of the department of tactics at the Armored School, Fort Knox (1946 - 1948), and graduated from the Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth (1949). He was briefly promoted to (temporary) colonel in 1945 but reverted to lieutenant-colonel during WWII demobilization.
He commanded the 63d Tank Battalion, part of the 1st Infantry Division, in Europe (1949 - 1951). He was again promoted to colonel and commanded the 2d Armored Cavalry Regiment (1951-1952). These units were important assignments due to the Cold War concern for potential invasion of western Europe by the Soviet Union. He then attended and graduated from the Army War College in 1953.
During his tenure in Germany he was on the cover of Time Magazine on October 13, 1961. He was to grace the covers again on April 19, 1968, and February 15, 1971.
Due to his service in Europe and his War College tour, he joined the Korean War late in the conflict. He successively served as chief of staff of the I, X, and IX Corps in Korea (1953-1954).
Staff Assignments and Division Command
Upon return from Korea he served as Chief of Staff of the Armor Center, Fort Knox (1954-1956). He was promoted to brigadier-general and appointed deputy chief of staff for reserve components at the Pentagon (1956-1959). He was assistant division commander of 3rd Armored Division (1959 - 60) and then commanded the division (1960 - 62) upon his promotion to major-general.
Creighton Williams Abrams Jr. was promoted to General in 1964 and appointed Vice Chief of Staff of the Army, but not before being seriously considered as a candidate for Chief of Staff. Due to concerns about the conduct of the Vietnam War, he was appointed as deputy to General William Westmoreland, head of the Military Assistance Command in Vietnam, in May of 1967. Abrams would succeed Westmoreland as commander on June 10, 1968, although his tenure of command was not marked by the public optimism of his predecessors, who were prone to press conferences and public statements. While Westmoreland had for years run the war using search-and-destroy tactics, these gave way to the clear-and-hold strategies that Abrams was so keen to implement. Under his authority, American forces were broken up into small units that would live with and train the South Vietnamese civilians to defend their villages from guerrilla or conventional Northern incursions with heavy weapons. Abrams also devoted vastly more time than his predecessor had to expanding, training, and equipping the ARVN.
This strategy was surprisingly successful, as evidenced by the ability of ARVN forces to repel a full-scale NVA Easter Offensive in 1972 with US aerial support. Following the election of President Richard Nixon, Abrams began implementing the Nixon Doctrine referred to as Vietnamization. The doctrine aimed to decrease U.S. involvement in Vietnam. With this new goal, Abrams had decreased American troop strength from a peak of 543,000 in early 1969 to 49,000 in June of 1972. That same year, Abrams stepped down from the Military Assistance Command. However, while Abrams was changing the way the war was fought, the prolonged efforts and expense of the war had by then exhausted much of the American public and political support. Abrams disdained most of the politicians with whom he was forced to deal, in particular Robert McNamara and McGeorge Bundy, and had an even lower opinion of defense contractors whom he accused of war profiteering.
Abrams was also in charge of the Cambodian Incursion in 1970. Troop levels in Vietnam eventually reached 25,000 in January 1973, at the time of the four power Paris peace accord. Although it occurred before he assumed total command, he bore the brunt of fallout from the My Lai massacre in March 1968.
Chief of Staff
General Abrams was appointed Chief of Staff of the United States Army in June of 1972, after serving in the Military Assistance Command. However, he was not confirmed by the United States Senate until October of 1972 due to political repercussions involving insubordination by one of his subordinate commanders. It has also been reported that Congress had delayed the confirmation to question the administration's war in Cambodia.
During this time, Abrams began the transition to the all-volunteer Army. The General would serve in this position until his death, due to complications from surgery in September of 1974. General Abrams suffered from lung cancer.
Creighton Williams Abrams Jr. was born in Springfield, Massachusetts, on September 15, 1914. Abrams father was a railway mechanic and farmer. Abrams converted to Roman Catholicism while serving in Vietnam, formerly being a Methodist.
Abrams married Julia Bertha Abrams (1915 - 2003) in 1936. Mrs. Abrams founded the Army group of "Arlington Ladies" and devoted a great deal of her time to humanitarian causes. Mr. & Mrs. Abrams had three sons and three daughters. Their sons all became Army General Officers, and all of their daughters married Army Officers.
Survivors include three sons, retired Army Brigadier Gen. Creighton Williams Abrams III of Springfield, retired Army General John Nelson Abrams of Annandale, and Brigadier General Robert Bruce Abrams of Texas; three daughters, Noel Bradley of Buffalo, Jeanne Daly of Annandale, and Elizabeth Doyle of Nashville; 19 grandchildren and six great-grandchildren.
General Creighton Williams Abrams Jr.is buried with his wife, Julia Bertha Abrams, in Section 21 of Arlington National Cemetery.
- Sorley, Lewis. Thunderbolt: General Creighton Abrams and the army of his time. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992. ISBN 0-671-70115-0
- Sorely, Lewis. "A better war. The unexamined victories and final tragedy of America's last years in Vietnam". Orlando: Harcourt, 1999. ISBN 978-0-15-100266-5
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Creighton Abrams|
- Arlington Cemetery website
- Interview with Lewis Sorley on Vietnam Chronicles: The Abrams Tapes 1968-1972 at the Pritzker Military Library
- Source of quotes
|Commander, Military Assistance Command, Vietnam|
| Succeeded by|
Frederick C. Weyand
Bruce Palmer, Jr.
|Chief of Staff of the United States Army|
| Succeeded by|
Frederick C. Weyand