A chuppah (Hebrew: חוּפָּה) (also spelled hupah, chupah, or chuppa - plural: chuppot or chuppahs, Hebrew: חוּפּוֹת) is a canopy traditionally used in Jewish weddings. It consists of a cloth or sheet, sometimes a tallit, stretched or supported over four poles, or sometimes carried by attendants to the ceremony. A chuppah symbolizes the home the couple will build together. Chuppah literally means a canopy or a covering.
While a Jewish marriage is still considered valid in the absence of a chuppah, a chuppah is still considered a basic requirement for a Jewish wedding.
A traditional chuppah, especially within Orthodox Judaism, recommends that there be open sky exactly above the chuppah. If the wedding ceremony is held indoors in a hall, sometimes a special opening is built to be opened during the ceremony. Many Hasidim prefer to conduct the entire ceremony outdoors.
The word chuppah originally appears in the Hebrew Bible (Joel 2:16; Psalms 19:5). The chuppah represents a Jewish home symbolized by the cloth canopy and the four poles. Just as a chuppah is open on all four sides, so was the tent of Abraham open for hospitality. Thus, the chuppah represents hospitality to one's guests. This "home" initially lacks furniture as a reminder that the basis of a Jewish home is the people within it, not the possessions.
Historically, in Talmudic times, Jewish weddings comprised two separate parts, the betrothal ceremony and the actual wedding ceremony. These two ceremonies usually took place about a year apart. The bride lived with her parents until the actual marriage ceremony, which would take place in a room or tent that the groom had set up for her. Later in history, the two ceremonies were combined and the marriage ceremony started to be performed publicly. At this new ceremony, the chuppah, or the portable marriage canopy, was included as a symbol of the chamber within which marriages originally took place.
In a spiritual sense, the covering of the chuppah represents the presence of God over the covenant of marriage. As the kipa served as a reminder of the Creator above all, (also a symbol of separation from God), so the chuppah was erected to signify that the ceremony and institution of marriage has divine origins.
The "chuppah" may also represent the home of Abraham and serve as a reminder that he was a foreigner in a strange land, looking for the place God had promised to him.
Before going under the chuppah the groom covers the bride's face with a veil, known as the badeken (in Yiddish). The origin of this tradition is in the dispute of what exactly is the chuppah. There are opinions that the chuppah means covering the bride's face, and that by this covering the couple is to be married. Thus, some insist that the marriage witnesses also see this act of covering, as it is a formal part of the wedding.
The groom enters the chuppah first to represent his ownership of the home on behalf of the couple. When the bride then enters the chuppah it is as though the groom is providing her with shelter or clothing, and he thus publicly demonstrates his new responsibilities toward her.
A chuppah can be made of any material. Silk or quilted chuppot are increasingly common, and can often be customized or personalized to suit the couple's unique interests and occupations.
- Niddah at marriage (concerns the subject of Chupat Niddah)
- Jewish view of marriage for further detail on Jewish wedding ceremonies
- ↑ The Chupah -- Marriage Canopy on Chabad.org
- ↑ Levush, 54:1; Aruch HaShulchan, 55:18.
- ↑ My Very Own Chuppah http://www.jewishjournal.com/home/preview.php?id=8108