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In music, a chorale prelude is a short liturgical composition for organ using a chorale tune as its basis. It was a predominant style of the German Baroque era and reached its culmination in the works of J.S. Bach, who wrote 46 (with a 47th unfinished) examples of the form in his Orgelbüchlein.[1]

Function

The liturgical function of a chorale prelude in the Baroque period is debated. One possibility is that they were used to introduce the hymn about to be sung by the congregation, usually in a Protestant, and originally in a Lutheran, church.

Style

Although it was typically a polyphonic setting, the melody would be plainly audible. There was sometimes an obbligato line above or below the melody. As an independent genre, the chorale prelude began with the works of Dieterich Buxtehude, 48 of which are listed as extant in New Grove II. Numerous examples also exist from the 19th and 20th centuries, including some by Johannes Brahms and Max Reger. Works in the form continue to be composed in the present day.

Form

Most of the chorale prelude form is a theme and variation with a "long A" where the voices retrograde, invert, imitate while following the original basso continuo.

Baroque period

Dieterich Buxtehude

The only known painting of Buxtehude (detail, Johannes Voorhout, 1674)

Probably, the earliest record of a melody used in chorale prelude by Johann Sebastian Bach is his arrangement of Gelobet seist du, Jesu Christ (BWV 604). this melody appears in a manuscript c1370, in the city of Celle. Later, it appears with an original text by Martin Luther, printed in the 'Geystliche Gesangk Buchleyn (edited by Johann Walter), in Wittenberg, 1524. In 1715, the hymn's book of Gotha, Gerrmany, had already printed thee melody of Gelobet seist du, Jesu Christ. Soon after, in 1717, Bach was requested by the Duke of Saxe Gotha to present a musical passion.[2]
However, in a singular style, chorale prelude appeared first in the works of Dieterich Buxtehude (1637-1707), and includes 48 extensive compositions.[3]

Besides Bach, Pachelbel's music is of special importance, with many of his chorale preludes elaborated upon the Protestant melodies of Northern Germany.[4]

Romantic period and twentieth century

There are several examples of XIX and XX Century chorale preludes, for instance, the eleven works by Johannes Brahms a year before he died and published in 1902.[5], also Max Reger's and Samuel Barber's.[6] Works such as these continue to be produced nowadays such as Helmut Walcha's four volumes[7] and the seven volumes of Flor Peeters.[8]

Johannes Brahms

Op. 122, eleven Chorale Preludes for Organ (1896)

  • No. 1 Mein Jesu, der du mich
  • No. 2 Herzliebster Jesu, was hast du verbrochen
  • No. 3 O Welt, ich muss dich lassen
  • No. 4 Herzlich tut mich erfreuen
  • No. 5 Schmücke dich, o Liebe Seele
  • No. 6 O wie selig seid ihr doch, ihr Frommen
  • No. 7 O Gott, du frommer Gott
  • No. 8 Es ist ein Ros' entsprungen
  • No. 9 Herzlich tut mich verlangen
  • No. 10 Herzlich tut mich verlangen (second version)
  • No. 11 O Welt, ich muss dich lassen (second version)

Max Reger

Chorale Prelude for Organ, op. 79b (1900-1904)

  • No. 1 'Ach Gott, verlaß mich nicht
  • No. 2 'Ein Feste Burg ist unser Gott
  • No. 3 'Herr, nun selbst den Wagen halt'
  • No. 4 'Morgenglanz der Ewigkeit
  • No. 5 'Mit Fried und Freud fahr ich dahin'
  • No. 6 'We weiss, wie nahe mir mein Ende'
  • No. 7 'Auferstehn, ja auferstehn wirst Du'
  • No. 8 'Christ ist erstanden von dem Tod'
  • No. 9 'Christus, Der ist mein Leben'
  • No. 10 'Mit Fried und Freud fahr ich dahin'
  • No. 11 'Nun danket alle Gott'
  • No. 12 'Herr, nun selbst den Wagen halt
  • No. 13 'Warum solit ich mich gramen'

In addition to Max Reger's Opus 79b, he also wrote 30 small chorale preludes, op. 135a (1914)

References

  1. Grout, Donald J. & Claude V. Palisca, A History of the Western Music 7º Edição, Norton, Londres, 2006.
  2. [NBA, vols. III/2.1 & 2.2, Bärenreiter, 1954 to present; and the BWV "Bach Werke Verzeichnis", Breitkopf & Härtel, 1998.]
  3. [Sadie, Stanley and John Tyrell---editors. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press, 2001.]
  4. [Melville, Ruth. The Chorale Preludes of Johann Pachelbel. "Bulletin of the American Musicological Society, Nº3, pp.11-12. Apr., 1939.]
  5. [Bond, Ann. Brahms Chorale Preludes, op.122, "The Musical Times", Vol. 112, Nbr. 1543, pp. 898-900. September 1971.]
  6. [Barber, Samuel. Dei Natali (Chorale Preludes for Christmas), 1960.
  7. Chorale Prelude by Helmut Walcha - recordings, Cat. Opal-Libraries.org. Frankfurt, 1980
  8. "Peeters: menu Organmusic". http://users.telenet.be/pima/indexE.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-05. 

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