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The oldest foundation here, in the 9th century, was a Benedictine monastery, Chimay Abbey or St. Monegonde's Abbey (Abbaye de Ste. Monégonde de Chimay). This later became a collegiate foundation dedicated to Saints Peter and Paul. The monastery is long gone, but the church still stands in the centre of Chimay as the town's parish church.
In 1919 a Trappist convent, Chimay Abbey or Our Lady of Peace Abbey (Abbaye de Notre-Dame de la Paix de Chimay) was established here, the successor to the Cistercian community of Gomerfontaine, founded in 1207, suppressed in 1792 and re-established in 1802 at Saint-Paul-aux-Bois. The community became Trappist in 1878.
It was exiled to Fourbechies in 1904, before coming to Chimay after World War I under the protection of the Trappist monastery, Scourmont Abbey, established at Scourmont in Chimay in 1850. Scourmont has become famous as one of the six Trappist breweries of Belgium, its products being marketed as Chimay beer.
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