Fandom

Religion Wiki

Charya tantra yana

34,278pages on
this wiki
Add New Page
Talk0 Share

Ad blocker interference detected!


Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.

Example.of.complex.text.rendering.svg
This article contains Indic text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks or boxes, misplaced vowels or missing conjuncts instead of Indic text.


Part of a series on

Buddhism


Dharma Wheel
Portal of Buddhism
Outline of Buddhism

History of Buddhism

Timeline - Buddhist councils

Major figures

Gautama Buddha
Disciples · Later Buddhists

Dharma or concepts

Four Noble Truths
Noble Eightfold Path
Three marks of existence
Dependent origination
Saṃsāra · Nirvāṇa
Skandha · Cosmology
Karma · Rebirth

Practices and attainment

Buddhahood · Bodhisattva
4 stages of enlightenment
Wisdom · Meditation
Smarana · Precepts · Pāramitās
Three Jewels · Monastics
Laity

Countries and regions

Schools

Theravāda · Mahāyāna
Vajrayāna

Texts

Chinese canon · Pali canon
Tibetan canon

Related topics

Comparative studies
Cultural elements

Charya tantra or Ubhaya tantra is a yana (literally "vehicle") of Esoteric Buddhism and as such is both a class of tantric literature and of praxis. The yana of Charya or ‘conduct’ tantra is given this name because it as a class demonstrates a balanced emphasis on the outer ritual actions and ablutions of body and speech and the inner cultivation of intentionality and mindfulness. Hence, outer and inner, conduct. The Charya tanta is enumerated as one of the three Outer Tantras in both the four yana tantric scheme of the Sarma, or 'New Translation Schools' and the six yana gradation of the 'Mantrayana Nyingma', the Ancient Translation School of Secret Mantra (where it is the fifth vehicle overall).

Nomenclature, orthography and etymology

  • Tibetan: སྤྱོད་པWylie: spyod pa
  • Caryā (Sanskrit), चर्या (Devanagari)

Guarisco & McLeod et al. (2005: p.41) render this class into English as "Conduct".[1]

Ubhaya

  • Upayogatantra or Ubhayatantra (Sanskrit; Wylie: spyod pa'i rgyud kyi theg pa, Tibetan: སྤྱོད་པའི་རྒྱུད་ཀྱི་ཐེག་པ). In the lexical compound Ubhaya-tantra, 'ubhaya' (Sanskrit, Devanagari: उभय) is a pronominal adjective that qualifies 'tantra' (English: loom, weaving) and holds the semantic field of 'two' or 'dual'.[2]

One interpretation of 'Ubhaya' as the ‘tantra of both’ is demonstrated in that its literature and exponents hold the view of Yogatantra, whilst its conduct and activity is therein, as a general rule, is aligned with that of Kriyatantra and in function, forms a bridge between the two other Outer Tantras.

Charya

Upa-yoga

Literature

The Upa-yoga scriptures first appeared in 'Mount Jakang Chen' Tibetan: རི་བྱ་རྐང་ཅནWylie: ri bya rkang can (alternate names: Riwo Jakang, Mount Jizu) and the charnel ground of Cool Grove Tibetan: བསིལ་བའི་ཚལWylie: bsil ba'i tshal.[3] Cool Grove is also known as 'Śītavana' (Sanskrit).[4]

Tantras in this class

  • 'Awakening of Great Vairocana' [Wylie: rnam(-par) snang(-mdzad) mngon(-par) byang(-chub pa); Sanskrit: Mahãvairocanãbhisaṃbodhitantra T.494[5]]
  • 'Empowerment of Vajrapãṇi' (Wylie: phyag na rdo rje dbang bskur; Sanskrit: Vajrapãṇyabhiṣekamahãtantra, T.496[6])

Textual dissemination

Davidson relates the movement of the Mahãvairocanãbhisaṃbodhi-tantra by the Ch'an monk Wu-hsing (2002: p.118):

"The Ch'an monk Wu-hsing remarked around 680 C.E. that the popularity of the esoteric path was a new and exceptional event in India, observable even while he was in residence. He reputedly brought back with him the earliest version of the Mahãvairocanãbhisaṃbodhi-tantra, although he did not translate it."[7]

Exegesis

The Carya class of tantras holds the smallest number of texts of all the traditional classifications of tantric literatures. An important tantra in this class is the Mahavairocana Sutra. The presence of Buddha Vairocana is often evident in tantras of this class where he is often depicted in the centre of a mandala with four other Buddhas of his retinue placed to the four quarters, the cardinal directions. Importantly, during the Carya tantra class and literary period, there developed the salient innovation wherein the sadhaka is to cultivate identification with the deity in meditative absorption.

This class of literature was important to Kūkai (774–835) and the development of Shingon Buddhism. Kūkai traveled to China in 804 as part of the same expedition as Saichō. In the T'ang capital of Xian, Kūkai studied esoteric Buddhism and Sanskrit and received initiation from Huikuo. Kukai received a lineage of the Mahavairocana Sutra (Dainichikyo 大日経). On returning to Japan, Kūkai establish the esoteric school of Shingon (真言).

Guarisco & McLeod et al. (2005: p.41) set Jamgon Kongtrul's (1813-1899) codification of this class in English as follows:

"Conduct tantra, where conduct encompasses both outer ritual activity and inner contemplation, involves training in a vast range of deeds while entering the inner reality that presents itself in visual and audible divine representations. The notion here is that of being close to the state of a perfect divine being, a state not yet fully realized. This limited view is overcome by visualizing oneself as the deity, understanding that form to be the appearance aspect of emptiness."[8]

Jinpa (2004) renders a section of 'A Garland of Views' (Tibetan: མན་ངག་ལྟ་བའི་ཕྲེང་བWylie: man ngag lta ba'i phreng ba) that focuses Ubhaya tantra through the lens of the Two truths doctrine, a text attributed to Padmasambhava in the Mantrayana tradition, thus:

"The view of those who have entered the vehicle of Ubhaya-tantra is as follows. Whilst there are no origination and cessation on the ultimate level, on the conventional level one visualizes [oneself] in the form of a deity. This is cultivated on the basis of both the practice of meditative absorption endowed with four aspects as well as the [necessary] ritual articles and conditions."[9]

Praxis

In sadhana, the sadhaka visualizes themselves or ritually rarefies their mindstream into the 'commitment being' (Sanskrit: samayasattva) and visualizes the 'gnosis being' (Sanskrit: jñānasattva), who is envisioned in the relationship of a spiritual friend, to their font and facing them which subsumes a certain style of form meditations or meditations with a support: eg.: bija, mudra, mandala and/or rupa of the deity, the 'gnosis being', the yidam.

See also

Notes

  1. Guarisco, Elio (trans.); McLeod, Ingrid (trans., editor); Jamgon Kongtrul Lodro Taye, Kon-Sprul Blo-Gros-Mtha-Yas (compiler) (2005). The Treasury of Knowledge: Book Six, Part Four: Systems of Buddhist Tantra. Ithaca, New York, USA: Snow Lion Publications. ISBN 1-55939-210-X, p.41
  2. Chari, S. M. Srinivasa (1997). Philosophy and theistic mysticism of the Alvars. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 8120813421, p.230
  3. Tsogyal, Yeshe (composed); Nyang Ral Nyima Oser (revealed); Erik Pema Kunsang (translated); Marcia Binder Schmidt (edited) (1999). The Lotus-Born: The Life Story of Padmasambhava (Paperback). With forward by HH Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche. Shambhala: South Asia Editions, p.292
  4. Rigpa Shedra (July 2009). 'Shitavana'. Source: [1] (accessed: October 3, 2009)
  5. Key: "T" = A Complete Catalogue of the Tibetan Buddhist Canons (1934). Ed. H. Ui et al. Sendai: Tõhaku University.
  6. Key: "T" = A Complete Catalogue of the Tibetan Buddhist Canons (1934). Ed. H. Ui et al. Sendai: Tõhaku University.
  7. Davidson, Ronald M. (2002). Indian esoteric Buddhism: a social history of the Tantric movement. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231126190 (paper).
  8. Guarisco, Elio (trans.); McLeod, Ingrid (trans., editor); Jamgon Kongtrul Lodro Taye, Kon-Sprul Blo-Gros-Mtha-Yas (compiler) (2005). The Treasury of Knowledge: Book Six, Part Four: Systems of Buddhist Tantra. Ithaca, New York, USA: Snow Lion Publications. ISBN 1-55939-210-X, p.41
  9. Source: [2] (accessed: Sunday September 27, 2009)

References

Guarisco, Elio (trans.); McLeod, Ingrid (trans., editor); Jamgon Kongtrul Lodro Taye, Kon-Sprul Blo-Gros-Mtha-Yas (compiler) (2005). The Treasury of Knowledge: Book Six, Part Four: Systems of Buddhist Tantra. Ithaca, New York, USA: Snow Lion Publications. ISBN 1-55939-210-X

External links

Also on Fandom

Random Wiki