Charisma (Greek "kharisma," meaning "gift," "of/from/favored by God/the divine") is a trait found in persons whose personalities are characterized by a personal charm and magnetism (attractiveness), along with innate and powerfully sophisticated abilities of interpersonal communication and persuasion. One who is charismatic is said to be capable of using their personal being, rather than just speech or logic alone, to interface with other human beings in a personal and direct manner, and effectively communicate an argument or concept to them.
The term charisma, derived from Ancient Greek, was introduced in scholarly usage by German sociologist Max Weber.  He defined charismatic authority to be one of three forms of authority, the other two being traditional (feudal) authority and legal or rational authority. According to Weber, charisma is defined thus:
...a certain quality of an individual personality, by virtue of which one is "set apart" from ordinary people and treated as endowed with supernatural, superhuman, or at least specifically exceptional powers or qualities. These as such are not accessible to the ordinary person, but are regarded as divine in origin or as exemplary, and on the basis of them the individual concerned is treated as a leader.
Pierre Bourdieu did not have a very different position from that of Weber's, but he stressed that a leader has charisma only if other people accept that one has it. Bourdieu argued that charisma usually depends on an "inaugural act" such as a decisive battle or moving speech after which the charismatic person will be regarded as such.
Psychology and sociology
The study, recognition, and development of charisma in individuals is of particular interest to sociologists/psychologists, popular (usually national) politicians, public speakers, actors, movie-stars/movie-producers, casting directors, pop-music stars, trainers/coaches targeting the upper-echelons of the business community (CEOs), and academics or others involved in leadership studies or leadership development, among others. Media Scientists are studying the question of how you can stage charisma in radio and television.
The dark side of charisma
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In some cases highly-extroverted and brutally controlling charismatic leaders have used their personal charisma in extremely destructive and damaging ways throughout human history, for example, Adolf Hitler and Jim Jones. Yugoslav communist leader Josip Broz Tito was said to be a "Charismarch" – "ruler staying in power by charisma".
- Superficial charm
- List of charismatic leaders as defined by Max Weber's classification of authority
- Dungeons & Dragons gameplay
- ↑ * Dr David Boje, Charisma lecture notes, Leadership & Society course at New Mexico State University College of Business Administration & Economics, Retrieved 28 July 2005.
- ↑ The Psychology of Charisma — from Psychology Today magazine
- ↑ Inszeniertes Charisma. Medien und Persönlichkeit, ed. by Jürg Häusermann. Tübingen: Niemeyer, 2001. ISBN 3-484-34050-9
- The X-Factors of Success from Psychology Today
- Max Weber and Charisma
- Charismatic Authority from about.com
- Why Charisma Matters from Tony Alessandra Ph.D.
- Charisma from vocalist.org
- Charisma by Thomas Robbin in the Encyclopedia of Religion and Society, edited by William H. Swatos: ISBN 0-7619-8956-0
- Toward a Theory of the Routinization of Charisma — April 1972
- The science of savoir faire
- Charismatic Cults on BBC Four in Thinking Allowed 26 January 2005 Wednesday 16.00-16.30 presented Laurie Taylor, press on "Listen Again"
- Article: "Moses, Charisma, and Covenant"
- The Character of Charisma
- "The Charisma Mandate" from The New York Times (February 17, 2008)
- Charm school: Scholars unpack the secrets of charisma, and suggest the elusive quality can be taught by Mark Oppenheimer from The Boston Globe, July 20, 2008ar:كاريزما
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